Research Article: 2021 Vol: 13 Issue: 4
Avipsa Mukhopadhyay, Xavier Institute of Management & Entrepreneurship, Bangalore, Recognised Research Centre of University of Mysore
Bhanu Singla, Xavier Institute of Management & Entrepreneurship, Bangalore, Recognised Research Centre of University of Mysore
Dr. N. Meena Rani, Xavier Institute of Management & Entrepreneurship, Bangalore, Recognised Research Centre of University of Mysore
In the present research, job satisfaction due to change in profession and the factors leading to change in profession have been studied. The Regression output with Adjusted R Square value of .407 explains the satisfactory level of association between independent variable (change in profession) and dependent variables (job satisfaction). Internal factors (Interest, passion and career growth) were found to have moderately significant effect on change in profession; while external factors (family business, superannuation) have significant impact on the dependent variable. The positive beta coefficient (0.256) of internal factors indicate that job satisfaction will be more if the internal factors are strong; whereas the negative beta coefficient (-0.236) shows lower job satisfaction if the external causes are strong. Individual factors such as age and marital status show moderate impact; however, factors such as salary and years of professional experience have significant impact on job satisfaction.
Job Change; Profession Change; Job Satisfaction; External Factors And Internal Factors.
An individual usually holds many jobs in his professional life. It is pretty easier to change jobs in the same field of work that defines one’s profession. However, switching profession is much more cumbersome and may require the person to start from the very beginning in the new profession. In broad terms, a profession is a pursuit of a lifelong ambition or the general course of progression towards long-term goals. On the other hand, job is more of a kind of occupation. It is an activity through which an individual can earn money. It is more of a kind of regular activity in exchange of payment. Risk taking is also higher in case of profession.
It may not imply stability of work. However, risks are often internal and planned. In contrast, a job is safe, as stability of work and income is there. Here, the risks are completely external. Job satisfaction is a major component in an individual’s professional life. Job satisfaction depends on a couple of factors like personality traits, age, gender and social status. (Lounsbury, et al. 1970).
For example, job satisfaction of IT professionals is related to employee turnover (Bartol & Martin, 1982; Bartol, 1983) which is a very common problem in the IT field. Similarly, change in profession may also lead to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Change in profession has several dimensions, that is, influencing factors. They are, namely, passion, interest, family support and financial needs. These are the factors influencing change in profession and through which we are visualizing change in profession. Career satisfaction has been observed to be related to turnover intension and leaving an occupation (Cramer, 1993; Rambur et al., 2005).
In addition, job as well as career satisfaction are related to global life satisfaction (London et al., 1977; Burke, 2001; Lounsbury et al., 2004c). In recent years, there has been a growing interest in finding out a relationship between personality traits like neuroticism, optimism, extraversion and others to the career satisfaction or job satisfaction of the individual. However, other than personality traits there are several other factors which affect job satisfaction career satisfaction. Adjustment to a particular profession plays a major role in bringing satisfaction to a person. If the person is well adjusted in his career, he is likely to have a high level of satisfaction and vice-versa.
In the present study, job satisfaction due to change in profession was observed and the factors leading to change in profession. For the study, a sample of 50 professors were drawn by Simple Random Sampling Method from various engineering and MBA colleges across Bangalore, who have changed their profession to teaching after working in some other professional field in the past. Data collection was done through questionnaire method. Statements were provided to the respondents which they were expected to rate on a scale of 1- 5, ‘1’ being ‘Strongly Agree’ and ‘5’ being ‘Strongly Disagree’. There have been studies which explains the relationship between organization change and its effect on Job Satisfaction among the staffs (Parlalis, 2011). There have also been extensive researches which explains the interdependency of Job change and satisfaction. An in-depth analysis of this has been done in the literature review section. However, the role of change in profession on the job satisfaction of an individual have not yet been adequately proved separately.
Nationally, Bengaluru is considered as one of the high-tech cities where there is a cluster of engineering and management colleges. Students from different parts of the country travels to Bengaluru for higher studies and in search of jobs. It is also one of city where there is an abundance of IT and manufacturing companies. (Nadvi, 1995). It is in this context that Bengaluru has been chosen as the area where the study can be conducted as there are an adequate number of individuals who may change their profession from corporate to teaching. Firstly, the paper determines the dimensions which are a causal factor in the shift of profession and secondly, it ascertains the relationship between change in profession and the job satisfaction of those working individuals. The paper has been divided into 6 sections. Section 2 presents a review of literature on the principal constructs taken into consideration in our study. Section 3 proposes a Conceptual Framework connecting all the key constructs in our study. Section 4 deals with Research objectives, scope, methodology adopted in our study. Section 5 is the discussion on the results obtained. Section 6 presents the conclusion arrived at from the study.
Profession and Job
‘Profession’ can be rightly described as an occupation for which a person has acquired educational training over the years and later on, for which, he is paid. However, there is a subtle distinction between occupation and profession. There has to be certain milestones for which an occupation can be referred to as a profession.
Primarily, the occupation has to be a full time one, the skills acquired has to be through a training school and the need for a national association of professional ethics. A profession is basically a cluster of jobs. For example, profession of a doctor, a lawyer, a professor or an accountant. Mihail Manoilescu cites examples of professions like engineers, economists, teachers, judges and clerks (Rostow, 1968).
The term professional refers to a person who sustains his living by performing an activity which requires a certain level of education, skill and training. For a person to be called as professional, there has to be a required standard of competency, knowledge or education that must be demonstrated by the individual along with adhering to codes o ethical conduct before entering into that particular profession. As an example, the profession of the doctors can be cited. A doctor, before entering into his profession, takes an oath to save lives of his patients with whatever knowledge he has, not just for the sake of the monetary value he is getting in return, but also for the sake of humankind, for the purpose of greater good.
According to the opinion of Gheorghe Zane, freedom of trade and the extension of its area represented the point of rise of diverse professions (Suta, 1998). The end of the second decade of 19th century witnessed a new stage of evolution of several professions in a competitive-based market economy (Sombart, 1926). A job, on the other hand, is also an occupation for which an individual is paid. To be more specific, a ‘job’ refers to a specific duty, role or function that a person has to execute for which he is paid. It is a particular remunerative position for a person. Jobs can be that of a Project Manager, Cashier, Accountant, Administrative assistant, Receptionist, Business Analyst and the like.
Job and Profession, though sounds similar, have subtle differences between them. A profession has many jobs. Job is only a particular task in a profession. Jobs are activities performed in exchange of monetary values, where as a profession is a vow made on entering an order. Profession requires specific vocational training. Though job also requires training to certain extent, they are short-term and the main focus is on the monetary value. Both jobs and professions are a source of exchange of monetary values, but profession encompasses a greater picture than mere jobs. As an instance, being a lawyer is someone’s profession. Before entering into this profession, a person takes a vow that he would always be at the service of his clients whenever required. On the other hand, the duties and services executed by the person in his office is a part of his job.
The profession of Law has many jobs. In this profession, a person can be a Barrister, a Coroner, a Court Clerk, a Judge, a Legal Executive and a Legal Secretary. A ‘job’ can also be defined as a position a company gives to a person based on the qualifications he has. It is a way to use the experiences one has gathered in his life. Thus, job is a narrower concept than profession. However, profession on the other hand, being a broader concept, is a platform on which jobs are created. To enter a profession, one also requires certain academic qualifications. Only when one clears the fulfillment criteria, one can enter into his profession and is free to do any job. Profession can be a paid or an unpaid occupation. This is based on a prolonged period of training in a particular field. It is usually regulated by the governing body of some sort. Thus, there are exams conducted from time to time for the candidates opting for a particular profession. Professions include many jobs that are performed by different people having different qualifications.
Individuals will benefit by the inclusion of revised role requirements and policies that are designed to support employee-driven needs and "employability" skills that are more consistent with a careerist orientation. The organization will also benefit by having a more highly skilled workforce in key areas of competitive advantage including networking, innovation and opportunity identification. (Laud, et al. 2019).
A profession change, is thus, not as easy as a change in job. It is because, in change in jobs, a person does not need to acquire new skills.
He can shift from one job to the other with the existing skills they have. However, on the other hand, change in profession requires acquiring entirely new set of skills which may be completely different from the previous profession.
Change in Profession and change in Job
As mentioned previously, a profession requires a particular set of skills to be acquired. A career is defined as a sequence of a person’s work experience over his/her working life (Arthur et. al, 1989). A career follows a path. A career also requires typical set of skills to be acquired by the person. Thus, change in profession is far too difficult. Change in a career requires the person to go through the period of vocational training once again and acquire the new set of skills demanded by that particular profession. As an instance, a doctor after completing his M.B.B.S if decides to change his career and get into corporate with an M.B.A degree, that is where he is changing his profession. The profession of a doctor and a company manager requires completely different set of knowledge and skills. It also requires the person to complete two years of a PGDM course before getting into corporate. As both the profession requires different set of skills, the person changing profession also needs to go through standard vocational training to get prepared before entering into the profession. The knowledge and skills required for these two professions have nothing in common between them. Thus, change in profession is not easy as change in a job. Given organizational restructuring and the alterations in the psychological employment contract, researchers have begun to examine careers across multiple firms and boundaries (Arthur & Rousseau, 2016; Osterman, 2018).
Change in job, on the other hand, is much narrower and simpler. Change in job, does not require a person to acquire completely new set of skills. As pointed out earlier, a profession encompasses several jobs. For example, if a person is in the profession of Law, he can change is job from a barrister to a court clerk to a judge. Changing or shifting jobs does not require completely new set of skills.
The job of a barrister, a court clerk or a judge may have a hierarchy and may demand greater acquisition of knowledge and skills, but that also bears similarity with each other as all these jobs have to do something with one broad profession that is, Law. A person graduating in the field of law can easily shift his job from one to the other, because he has the basic knowledge in his domain. However, now if he decides to become a doctor, no knowledge of Law comes in handy as the profession of a doctor and a lawyer is totally different. That is when it is said, change in profession is somewhat complex rather than change in job. It is also observed that change in job is more frequent than change in profession. Every career has its wrong turns, and some have more than others. (Setia & Kairan, 2019). Moreover, shifting jobs take much lesser time than change in profession. There is no need for a person to go through another completely new vocational training while he is changing his job. Change in profession, on the other hand, is time consuming as it requires the acquisition of a different novel set of skills required for that particular profession.
Job Satisfaction and Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is a central concept in work and organizational psychology as it is associated with important individual as well as organizational outcomes. Work is the number one activity that occupies most of adults' waking time. (Osbourne & Rosalie, 2015). Continuous adaptation to the work environment is necessary and important to achieve work success which in turn leads to a successful career.
In other words, career adaptability is important to have a successful career. If a person is not satisfied with his career, then he may have a tendency to change his career.
Career adaptability is however, a higher order construct consisting of four psychological resources, concern, control, curiosity and confidence (Savickas & Porfeli, 2012).
Several research studies have shown that career adaptability predicts favorable outcomes like career satisfaction and self-rated career performance, perceived person environment fit and occupational well-being (Koen, et al. 2012; Maggiori, et al. 2013; Zacher, 2014).
Conscientiousness is one of the Big Five personality traits (Norman, 1963) and comprises of other four traits in it namely achievement, order, cautiousness and dependability (Dudley, Orvis, Lebiecki & Cortina, 2006; Saucier & Ostendorf, 1999). Achievement refers to the tendency to strive for success and competency in one’s work, including striving for higher performance standards and working hard to accomplish one’s goals (Hough, 1992).
Order, refers to being well-versed, organized, clear, and methodical. Cautiousness refers to being careful about the potential risk and taking a course of action (Dudley et al, 2006). Dependability refers to being self-disciplined, honest, trustworthy and accountable (Hough, 1992). Schmidt & Hunter (1998) identified ‘mental ability’ as one of the best predictors of overall job performance, with a predictive validity of 0.51. In another meta-analysis study on the predictive validity of general mental ability for job performance, Bertua, et al. (2005) distinguished between several occupational groups like clerical, engineers among the many. The results showed significant validity ranging from 0.32 for clerical to 0,74 for professional occupations (Salgado, et al. 2003). Mental ability has shown to be a strong predictor of Job performance in these group of studies.
Individuals have diverse traits which they bring to the job. Some are functional, some dysfunctional. Some of the essential factors that impact job performance are knowledge, experience, skills, abilities, awareness, values, motives and needs. When an individual grow accustomed to his job, the factors change over time. There are two types of employees in a job setting: high achievers and low achievers. For high achievers the factors change in a positive way. As an instance, if an employee’s knowledge increases, his awareness grows, the values and motivation to improve performance also increases. Underachievers bring similar types of traits to the job; they try to maintain their status quo rather than striving for improvement. Within-individual levels of job performance were generally higher for younger workers than for older workers, and mostly reflected the influence of population-level trends but some evendriven effects as well. (Allessandri &Tuxillo, 2020)
Achievement Motivation theory put forward by Murray (1938), Lowel (1953), Atkinson, Clark and McClelland (1961) explains the relationship between the level of achievement and job satisfaction. According to this theory, a person’s need to achieve something and the reason behind his/her overall motivation to accomplish a certain goal, often comes from internal factors and is related to the need for power and affiliation. For an employee in an organization, if they are internally driven by factors like willingness, determination and punctuality, they are observed to show high job satisfaction which in turn leads to high performance.
Change in Profession
Career change is a very crucial step in one’s life. As told earlier, change in profession is far too difficult.
Change in a career requires the person to go through the period of vocational training once again and acquire the new set of skills demanded by that particular profession. So, there must be some specific reasons for doing so. Sometimes people don’t make proper decisions while choosing an occupation and later regret which cause a need of change in career. There can be various reasons of improper decision like not doing complete self-assessment, not learning about one’s interest & personality type etc. Levine & Levine (1970); Sarason (1970, 1981, 1982), for example, have considered how the development of a profession and definition of problems and solutions within the profession are influenced by the culture.
Career dissatisfaction can also be one of the reasons for career change. Improper decision can lead to career dissatisfaction. To attain a higher level of satisfaction, one may change his career. Maybe an employee’s interest, values and personal goals do not align with the organizational goals, values and culture. Sometimes a lower level employee wants to achieve higher authority but do not get opportunities so, they shift their career to a more satisfactory one. Professionals have many skills, but they do not know how to change the practice of their profession.
Family responsibility and low work-life balance also can lead to shift in career. When family responsibilities and work effort both are equally important, person has to compromise against his/her career and choose a profession which helps him/her make complete work-life balance. Work flexibility is the factor that express these problems. Flexible work hours, work from home and emergency leaves are some the aspects of work flexibility that affect to a great extent and can act as an impulse to career change.
At some point of time, some employees are interested in working a non-profit organization that works for the welfare of the society in other words for some employees, philosophy of life changes. A large body of research based on nonclinical population has supported the postulate that psychological benefits accrue to individuals when they have more rather than less control over their profession (Rappaport, 1981). When a person at younger age chooses a career, there are different reasons to choose that particular career such as financial support to family, need to get settled, have a family etc. But when a person achieves these requirements which are basic to everyone’s life, then it strikes to mind to follow its own interest and passion. It can be anything like artist, dancer, singer, player etc. which do not have a motive for making money behind it. So, this craving to follow passion and interest can lead to career change.
Some people like to face challenges in life, always want their life interesting and likes to explore new things. So, if they feel like the current career has a normal routine which is boring and they want to explore something new and challenging such as learning new skills and gaining novel knowledge.
Change in Job vs Job satisfaction
Profession is an umbrella term which encompasses many jobs. Change in job, as mentioned does not require new skills to be acquired by the individuals. People change their jobs from one to the other to seek better job satisfaction and psychological empowerment. Job satisfaction in itself has positive effects on employee engagement. (Loor, Santos & Palacios, 2021)
Individuals who have high levels of job performance are likely to have high levels of career success and be valued by organizations in a career (Groysberg et al., 2008). Individuals also seem to demonstrate high level of job performance if they have high job satisfaction. Thus, they tend to shift their jobs from one to the other for higher satisfaction in their work life, which in turn increases their job performance. The experience of overeducation has some negative effects, but they are mostly confined to the sphere of work. The education/employment inconsistency reduces job and economic satisfaction but does not affect overall subjective well-being or the image of social stratification. (Voces & Cainzos, 2021).
Career seems to follow a path. The path metaphor of a career indicates that a career is a series of moves (Cappellen and Janssens, 2005). There are four stages to it, namely: trial, stabilization, maintenance and decline (Super, 1980). Change in job seem to happen the most in the trial and the stabilization phase.
Trial stage is a phase of turmoil where the young professional tries to get accustomed with his job. Dissatisfaction with the present job is likely to happen the most in this phase. Identification, affiliation, and exchange commitment served as intervening variables between growth satisfaction. (Fulmore & Anthony, 2021). Seeking for job satisfaction, young professionals have a tendency to shift job from one to the other.
And higher the job satisfaction, higher is the job performance of an employee. In the Stabilization phase, it is often likely that the person suffers from boredom and monotony with his current job. Hence, to seek change, he may shift his job. In both the cases, job satisfaction plays a crucial role which is an indicator of job performance.
In the maintenance and the decline phase, the tendency to shift job becomes less. A professional gains enough psychological empowerment over his job with experience and hence, the chances of changing job reduce. Unsatisfied IT employees reveal that work exhaustion is the main reason for their job dissatisfaction. (Moro & Ramos, 2021). Improvement in job security leads to an increase in both consumption and major life decisions, which – in absolute values – is higher compared to the decrease that follows a reduction of job security (Loza & Castigiloni, 2020). Thus, depending on the career stage, a person can change his job for higher satisfaction.
The intensity satisfaction varies in different stages. Each career is unique and places value on human capital that is unique to that specific career (Lellatchitch et al., 2003; Mayrhofer et al., 2004). The different stages in the career also occurs at different times for different professions. However, the reason for change in job remains more or less similar in most career. Human capital is likely to be invested more when a person changes job. And job performance tends to be high if there is a greater investment of human capital. The companies tend to value higher human capital and high job performance of the employees. Rewards and recognitions in turn increases the job satisfaction of the employee. Thus, job satisfaction and job performance tend to work in a cyclic pattern.
H1: Higher interest and passion for a particular profession will lead to greater tendency of shifting profession.
H2: Higher motivation after career change will lead to higher job satisfaction.
H3: Higher family support and mental preparation after profession change will lead to higher job satisfaction.
H4: Higher job satisfaction post profession change will lead to higher job performance.
Gaps in Literature
Previous literatures have proposed relationship between change in job and job satisfaction of an individual. Shifting jobs, however, does not require new set of skills to be acquired by the person. Hence, with existing knowledge he can shift his job from to the other, after undergoing mere training sessions and upgrade his skills according to the demand of the job.
It has also been reviewed that, change in job, if leads to job satisfaction for the person, it will lead to higher performance and vice versa.
However, the field of effect of change in profession on the job satisfaction remains largely unexplored. Change in profession requires totally new set of knowledge and skills to be acquired by a person. So, it takes a lot of time and investment for the person to completely switch profession from one to the other. Several factors mentioned below may have led to the gaps found in the literature.
a) Factors such as family responsibility, financial stability, time, investment, opportunity, passion, job dissatisfaction influences change in profession. Change in profession is time consuming and much complex than mere change in job.
b) The effect of change in profession on job satisfaction is ambiguous. As many environmental and personal factors play a role in this. The effect of each of these factors cannot be isolated or compartmentalized.
There are varied reasons for change in profession as arrived at from the review of literature and gaps sorted in the previous section. Ultimately, these dimensions cause change in profession which may have an effect on the job satisfaction of the person. The Conceptual Framework below connects all the constructs involved in the study to help us arrive at the research question. The objectives of this proposed research study is based on context of this conceptual framework in Figure 1 Table 1.
|Table 1 Constructs- Change in Profession Job Satisfaction and Individual Specific Factors|
|1.||Change in Profession||Family business, Career Dissatisfaction, Passion, Financial needs||Degree to which the factors are causing change in profession|
|2.||Job Satisfaction||Empowerment, Job fulfillment, Work group, Salary, Security, Work facilitation.||Degree to which a person is satisfied post profession change|
|3.||Individual Specific factors||Age, Gender, Educational Qualification, Marital Status.|
Dimensions through which Control variables change in profession is being visualized
1) What are the factors leading to change in profession?
2) How does change in profession affect the job satisfaction of an individual in an organizational setting?
Objective, Scope and Sampling Method
1. To ascertain the factors which lead to change in profession.
2. To ascertain the relationship between change in career and job performance mediated career change factors.
We confine our study to Bengaluru’s Engineering and Management colleges. Bengaluru has been ranked 81st in QS Best Student City Ranking (Quacquarelli Symonds, 2019). Thus, many high-ranking engineering and MBA colleges are located in this city. Bengaluru has been ranked the second as the world’s most dynamic city and several B-schools in Bengaluru are among the top in the world under various categories, according to a survey by the Annual Education World Rankings, 2019. We have included engineering and MBA colleges in our cross-sectional study across grade A and grade B colleges across the city as change in profession can be easily seen in these colleges’ faculties. The focus of the study is on the professors teaching in these colleges who have changed their profession to teaching after having a career in some other profession in the beginning. We are interested in measuring the job performance of these professors who have changed their profession to teaching and are at present working as a faculty or guest lecturer in these colleges.
Sampling and Specifics of Data collection
We have used a Probability Sampling method called Simple Random Sampling to choose the sample for the research. Primary data were collected on a hand-collected sample which included 50 faculties and lecturers of some of the engineering and MBA colleges in the city. Method of data collection was mostly through questionnaires. There were standard set of questions asked to the individuals in the sample and their responses were recorded as a rating from 1 to 5 for each question. All the questions were close ended and each was put in a statement form. The respondents were asked to rate each statement from 1-5 (Likert Scale format, where 1=Strongly Agree, 2=Agree, 3=Neither agree nor disagree, 4=Disagree and 5=Strongly Disagree). Semi-structured questionnaire was used to record the responses of the faculties and lecturers targeted in the sample. The data was collected between March 14 and 21, 2020.
Dimensions, Variables and Measures
Change in profession
Based on the literature review, we identified factors which causes change in job of an individual. There are various factors which lead to job change. Passion, interest, financial stability causes shift in the job. We predict that same factors will cause change in profession also. Hence, we study the factors which leads to change in profession and the extent to which each of them has an effect on career change. Thus, change in profession is our independent variable (I.V.) and the factors namely, financial needs, career dissatisfaction, interest/passion becomes the dimensions through which we are visualizing career change are believed to have an impact on the I.V. The study aims to find out which of the factors lead to career change and how far does it affect the independent variable.
Job performance is a result of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction, in turn, is a result of several factors. One of the factors is profession change. It is predicted that if change in profession causes high job satisfaction, it will lead to high job performance and vice-versa. Job satisfaction of the professionals in the sample is measured using questionnaire method. In this study, job satisfaction becomes the dependent variable (D.V.). Job satisfaction is measured along five dimensions in the present study. They are:
1. Satisfaction with empowerment (involvement in decision making and information from Management)
2. Satisfaction with Job fulfillment (sense of personal accomplishment and good use of skills and abilities)
3. Satisfaction with work group (Quality of work done by group and cooperation among people)
4. Satisfaction with Salary (Financial stability)
5. Satisfaction with Security (Good Job security)
6. Satisfaction with work facilitation (Conditions for employees to be productive)
The mediating variables, like age, gender, educational qualification and marital status is believed to have an influence on job satisfaction of the individual. In the present study, 50 professors who have changed their career from corporate to teaching field, in various engineering and MBA colleges across Bangalore are considered as the sample for study.
The job satisfaction of the professors who have changed their profession from corporate to teaching are recorded using a questionnaire. Quantitative analysis is done further, to measure the job satisfaction of the sample. Respondents are asked to rate each statement in a scale of 1- 5, where 1=Strongly Agree, 2= Agree, 3= Neutral, 4= Disagree, 5=Strongly Disagree. This is to understand the effect of profession change on the satisfaction objectively, whether at all the change in profession has an effect on the career satisfaction of the person. Also, to find out whether career change lead to positive or negative outcome with respect to a person’s career satisfaction.
Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing (NHST) techniques includes Linear Regression based approach. To analyze the raw data collected, factor analysis was done primarily to reduce the dimensions of the independent variable. The purpose of factor analysis is to reduce many individual items into a fewer dimensions. This reduces the number of variables in regression models. Items in the questionnaire related to independent variables which had high loading factor with each other, were clubbed together under one broad dimension. Thus, the number of items in the independent variable were reduced. After the factor analysis, a regression model was created from the given data. The reduced dimensions were used as a part of the independent variable. The effect of the I.V. was observed on the D.V. which is ‘job Satisfaction’ in our study. All the mediating variables like age, gender, educational qualification and marital status were also taken into the model and their effect on the D.V. was observed. The analysis was performed on a data set of 113 responses. We have run factor analysis followed by regression analysis on the data specifying the variables. An in-depth analysis was done post the model creation specifying the level of significance.
All the 20 items in the questionnaire were clustered into certain factors after Factor Analysis was done. Multiple such factors comprised of one dimension. Altogether there were 10 questions related to independent variable, that is, change in profession. These items were reduced into three broad dimensions. These dimensions were namely, ‘Internal Factors’, ‘External Factors’ and ‘Forced Factors’. The internal factors related to profession change corresponds to the particular job the individual is doing now out of interest, passion and career growth opportunities. Internal factors pertain to the individual himself. On the other hand, the external factors pertain to the external environment. They are more futuristic in nature and externally driven by the immediate environment. Forced factors are something which is imposed purposefully on the person, for example, family pressure. Neither the person has interest for the profession, nor does the external environment motivates him to do so. It is completely forced or imposed on the person. Due to such pressures the individual changed his profession. The factors constituting such dimensions became the variables representing the Independent Variable (Change in Profession).
The items in the questionnaire having high loading with one another comprised each factor along which the Dependent Variable (Job Satisfaction) was measured. The variables finally arrived at after factor analysis were:
1. Interest, Passion and Career growth opportunities (Items 2, 4, 6 and 7): Internal Causes
2. Family Business, Superannuation (Items 5 and 10): External Factors.
3. Family and other pressures (Item 3): Imposed Factors.
Clearly, from the table given below, items 2, 4, 6 and 7 shows high loading with each other (0.756, 0.693, 0.661 and 0.835). All these factors were taken together to form one dimension, that is, the internal causes for change in profession. On the other hand, items 5 and 10 have high loading with each other (0.749, 0.807). those two were clubbed into one factor, that is the external/futuristic causes for profession change. Post the Principal Component Analysis, A regression model was created. The results obtained are discussed below in Table 2.
|Table 2 Principal Component Analysis|
|Component 1||Component 2|
The regression model applied gave an output of R=0.638 and R-Square value of 0.407. This means, 40.7% of the variability in the dependent variable (Job satisfaction in our study) can be predicted from the variability in the independent variable (Change in profession) using this model in Table 3. With a 90% Confidence interval, the p-values which are less than 0.10 have a significant influence on the job satisfaction of the professionals. From the table below, the pvalue for dimension 1 was found to be 0.14. Though, the value is slightly higher than the p value, it can be said that, the internal factors (Interest, passion and career growth) has a moderately significant effect on change in profession. Though the p value is slightly higher, the effect of the internal factors on change in profession cannot be ruled out completely. Interestingly, the beta coefficient for this dimension has a positive bearing with the dependent variable (0.256) which means job satisfaction will be more if the internal factors are strong for the person to change his profession. On the other hand, the external factors or future related factors like family business and superannuation has a significant p value at the same level of confidence (0.007). This means, the external factors have a p value which is significant enough to have an effect on the dependent variable (Job Satisfaction) at the given level of confidence. However, the beta coefficient for this dimension has a negative bearing with the dependent variable (-0.236) which means job satisfaction will be less if the external causes are strong Table 4.
|Table 3 Model Summary|
|Model 1||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Standard Error of the Estimate|
|Table 4 Coefficients|
|REGR factor of internal causes for analysis 3||2.513||0.14**||.256|
|REGR factor of external causes for analysis 3||-2.734||.007***||-.236|
|No. of years in the previous profession||-2.980||.004***||-.513|
|Number of years in the current profession||-1.078||.481||-.098|
|Number of times profession changed||-.708||.284||-.061|
Among the individual specific factors, individuals earning a salary of above 8 lakhs (0.01), and number of years in the previous profession (0.004) seems to have significant impact on the job satisfaction. Marital status of being married (0.135) also seems to have a moderately significant effect at the given confidence level. Among these three variables, married status and no. of years in the previous profession has a negative beta coefficient value (-0.185 and - 0.513 respectively). This means job satisfaction decreases if a person is married and more number of years spent in the previous profession. This may be due to family pressure of married life and getting used to the previous profession as a greater number of years are spent in that field. Strikingly, individuals earning more than 8 lakhs per year has a positive bearing with the dependent variable (0.466) which means greater the salary, greater is the job satisfaction, which is in line with the previous finding that internal factors (financial and career growth) has a positive relation with job satisfaction.
The paper has ascertained the internal and external factors determining profession change. Further, based on the regression model prepared, it has arrived at a degree to which the external and internal factors causing profession change affect job satisfaction. The paper has analyzed several dimensions of profession change and the effect all of them has on the dependent variable. Our model suggests that all the internal factors causing profession change has a positive relationship with job satisfaction, which means as interest, passion and career growth prospects become stronger, more is the job satisfaction.
On the other hand, the external factors have a negative relationship with the dependent variable, which indicates higher the reason for profession change due to family business and superannuation, etc., less is the job satisfaction of the individuals.
Previous studies have established the relationship between job change and career satisfaction. This paper, in addition, explains the variability of job satisfaction with change in profession. The relationship between these two variables were found to be largely unexplored after literature review. This paper pertains to establish that relationship between them.
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