International Journal of Entrepreneurship (Print ISSN: 1099-9264; Online ISSN: 1939-4675)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 2

Contextualization of the Use of Zakat in Reducing Stunting: Evidence from Indonesia

Ahmad Dakhoir, State Islamic Institute (IAIN) of Palangka Raya

Ibnu Elmi AS. Pelu, State Islamic Institute (IAIN) of Palangka Raya

Dian Ferricha, State Islamic Institute (IAIN) of Tulungagung

Abstract

This paper reveals the prevention of malnutrition and the reduction of stunting through the use of nutrition-based zakat by BAZNAS and Rumah Zakat in Indonesia. The philanthropy displayed by the two zakat institutions is different from the distribution of zakat in general. The research method applied is qualitative research. While the approach uses a conceptual approach and a textual-contextual approach. Data obtained from literature review and research results sourced from Google Scholar, Science Direct, Tandfonline, Sagepub and other reputable article sources. Based on conceptual and context analysis, this paper concludes that decreasing malnutrition such as malnutrition, malnutrition, wasting and stunting, as well as increased malnutrition such as obesity is a form of unequal, unfair and unintegrated distribution of food. The abundant potential of zakat on food, and the contextual use of zakat carried out by BAZNAS and Rumah Zakat on many problematic nutrition targets, have had a micro positive impact on improving nutrition and alleviating stunting, both at the preventive and post-stunting stages. The nutrition-based zakat distribution model is the beginning of the birth of the nutritional zakat concept in the field of zakat.

Keywords: Zakat Utilization, Malnutrition, Stunting, Nutritional Zakat

INTRODUCTION

The importance of nutrition-based zakat interventions, taking part in dealing with malnutrition, and preventing the risk of stunting that hit several developing countries, including Indonesia. Zakat fitrah, which usually uses staple foods such as rice, and zakat maal, which is in the form of money, has shifted to follow the trend of nutrition problems and the prevention of stunting risks. According to nutritionists, stunting or shortness is a condition of failure to thrive in children under five due to chronic malnutrition, especially in the first 1,000 days of life. A more comprehensive description of stunting as characterized by the WHO, namely “... growth and development disorders experienced by children due to malnutrition, recurrent infections, and inadequate psychosocial stimulation (Scheffler, 2019).” Stunting occurs due to several factors, such as parenting style, balanced nutritional intake, education and socio-economic status. Various research results have concluded that stunting is a form of socio-economic inequality in society. This conclusion was also conveyed (Onis and Branca, 2016), that childhood stunting is the best indicator for assessing the overall well-being of children and an accurate reflection of socio-economic inequality. Rizal and van Doorslaer (2019) stated, recent trends in the evolution of the prevalence of childhood stunting and chronic stunting are largely due to socio-economic inequalities. Socio-economic status has contributed greatly to the increase in stunting children under five. This factor is the target for the use of nutrition-based zakat.

In 2019, toddlers in Indonesia who are stunted show a figure of 27.67 percent. Based on this percentage, three out of 10 children under five in Indonesia, or around 7 million children, are stunted. The large number of stunting rates is what causes nutrition problems not only to become a national issue, but has become a global issue, especially in 117 countries including Indonesia (Anggraini, 2020). Increasing awareness of the magnitude of stunting in the international community prioritizes global health that stunting can be reduced until 2025 (Onis and Branca, 2016).

Zakat as a form of philanthropy in Islam also addresses this issue through zakat and other altruistic instruments. The implementation of zakat on improving nutritional quality and preventing the risk of stunting is a priority for the government and various zakat institutions. Until 2020, many zakat institutions and ministries in Indonesia have implemented nutrition-based zakat utilization. These institutions include the National Zakat Agency (BAZNAS), the Ministry of Finance, and the Zakat House. These institutions contribute a lot to implementing nutrition-based zakat utilization programs. Starting from educational programs in the form of curricula to prevent stunting, counseling, allocating a special national budget for stunting, modifying nutritional packages, developing a Nutrition Garden and building a Healthy Home for stunting.

The distribution of zakat which focuses on managing malnutrition and alleviating stunting feels more contextual and touches mustahiq zakat directly. The use of nutrition-based zakat in Indonesia is interesting to study comprehensively, especially in terms of epistemology and the contextualization concept of the use of zakat in alleviating stunting. The main study in this paper does not only end in theoretical aspects, but also analyzes more deeply the axiological aspects of the use of zakat and its impact in reducing stunting in Indonesia.

RESEARCH METHOD

This paper is a qualitative research. The approach used is a conceptual approach and a textual-contextual approach (Solahudin, 2016). The conceptual approach is useful for analyzing and designing an idea of the potential for abundant zakat on food when met with a large number of malnutrition targets. Meanwhile, the contextual approach in this paper aims to analyze the innovation and elasticity of the use of zakat in preventing the risk of stunting. The main data in this paper comes from reports on the use of zakat in alleviating stunting, which come from the context of situations that occur in the use of zakat, reliable news, official reports on the use of zakat by the National Zakat Agency (BAZNAS), Ministry of Finance, Rumah Zakat, as well as research results related to the theme. As for data collection techniques, namely by using literature review and search for related articles on Google Scholar, Science Direct, Sandf online, Sagepub and other reputable article / news sources. However, the author also uses other techniques to obtain facts about what happened. The data analysis technique uses inductive analysis techniques, namely the study of several cases and facts in the field, then concluding them into concepts or theories.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The Potential for Zakat on Food and Malnutrition

One of the basic human needs that must be fulfilled is food. Nutritious food is a source of energy that is needed by humans physically. Without this intake, the human body cannot live a healthy life, fail to thrive, and can even cause death. Plants such as rice, potatoes, maize, etc. and food estate projects as the main source of food should continue to be developed. This is because these plants are a source of zakat for food which is beneficial for human life. Agricultural and plantation growth was significantly superior to non-farm growth in reducing stunting. Mary et al.,(2019) stated that the impact of developing food astate contributes 10% in contributing to GDP per capita, and can reduce child stunting by 9.6%. A more comprehensive view as stated by de Onis and Branca, that:

“Growth failure often begins in the womb and continues for at least the first 2 years of postnatal life. Linear growth failure serves as a marker of various pathological disorders associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Minus nutritional intake can lead to loss of potential for physical growth, decreased neurological and cognitive development, and an increased risk of chronic disease in adulthood. Such severe physical and neurocognitive damage that is irreparable is a major threat to human development (Onis and Branca, 2016).”

Apart from the existence of food, an even distribution system of food is absolutely necessary. The problem of stunting reduction in Indonesia is sometimes more often faced at an unfair distribution stage. In Indonesia, many regions have become national rice barns, but these areas have the most cases of chronic malnutrition in children (Purwestri, 2018). A paradoxical fact is seen in Demak Regency, Central Java Province, which is one of the national rice stock areas which is ranked sixth nationally in rice productivity. But at the same time, Demak is the seventh national in the case of chronic malnutrition of children under five. This fact is a paradox between food shortages and abundant rice resources, because nearly a third (31.9%) of 335 children is stunted. Therefore, the importance of food and a fair distribution for human life, Islam places food as a treasure that must be sought and must also be fulfilled if it reaches the standard (nishab). The food zakat must be given to mustahiq who need food.

In addition to equitable distribution, stunting management requires all parties to be actively and integrated involved. Weak coordination will only increase the budget, and involve a lot of people, but it will not be effective. Like Pakistan, a country with a lot of stunting children, since the stunting management program was implemented, the reduction rate has only decreased by 0.5%. The rate of stunting reduction is very low. This is due to ineffective or inappropriate intervention programs as most only address one problem at a time and do not use a multi-sector approach to address the various determinants of stunting (Ali, 2021). Geographically, Indonesia has a large area, and is multicultural. The variety of staple foods of each region varies, such as carbohydrates (rice, potatoes, corn, cassava, noodles to sago), protein (meat, chicken, fish, and eggs), vegetables and fruits, and fat. The raw materials that are the source of the staple food of the Indonesian people are very abundant and spread from Sabang to Merauke.

Staple food as a source of food zakat has great potential to improve the nutrition of the poor, the poor, pregnant women and toddlers from the threat of nutritional problems including stunting. This great potential can be seen from the quantity of Muslims in Indonesia who have economic capacity. The latest data on the potential for zakat in Indonesia has touched the figure of 330 trillion every year. Especially for zakat fitrah, it amounts to 350,000 tons every year (el-Rahman, 2020). The overall potential of zakat and the abundant potential of zakat fitrah is a national food barn which is very useful in maintaining the quality of nutrition for the Indonesian nation, especially the 7 million stunting children under five. The figure of 350,000 tons of staple food if divided among 7 million stunting children under five, then each stunting toddler gets 50 kg of staple food every year. In the Indonesian context, 350,000 tonnes of staple food are usually in the form of rice and cash equivalent to the price of zakat on rice. Theoretically, babies aged 0 years to toddlers need macro and micronutrient intake. Macro-nutritional adequacy rates vary depending on the age of the baby. Infants aged 0-6 months usually need 550 kcal of energy, 12 g of protein, 34 g of fat, and 58 g of carbohydrates (Ayuningtyas, 2018). If zakat fitrah comes from pure rice, then zakat fitrah is beneficial for carbohydrate intake. For 6 months, infants aged 0-6 months need 10,440 g of carbohydrates or the equivalent of 10.4 kg. Whereas babies not only need carbohydrates, but they also need energy, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals that are not found in carbohydrates. Likewise babies at the age of 7-11 months. Infants aged 7-12 months need 725 kcal of energy, 18 g of protein, 36 g of fat, 82 g of carbohydrates, 10 g of fiber, and 800 ml of water. The need for carbohydrates for 6 months in infants aged 7-12 months, which requires 14,760 g of carbohydrates or the equivalent of 14.7 kg. Based on the standard carbohydrate intake for infants aged 0-6 months and carbohydrates for infants aged 7-12 months, the total carbohydrate needs for infants aged 1 year is 25.1 kg. If each baby gets 50 kg of food sourced from carbohydrates every year, it means that the baby still has 24.9 kg of carbohydrates left over. If the remaining carbohydrates are converted into money, the price is Rp. 17,000 / kg then the remaining Rp. 425,000 which can be allocated for the purchase of protein (fish, meat, chicken, eggs), vegetables, fruits and fats. In addition to energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates, infants aged 0-12 months also need a micronutrient sufficiency in the form of a multivitamin (375 mcg of vitamin A, 5 mcg of vitamin D, 4 mg of vitamin E, and 5 mcg of vitamin K ), and minerals (Calcium 200 mg, Phosphorus 100 mg, Magnesium 30 mg, Sodium 120 mg, and Potassium 500 mg) (Ayuningtyas, 2018). All these micronutrients are usually found in powdered milk and baby food additives. Based on these nutrition data, the cost of purchasing macro nutrition (other than carbohydrates) and micro nutrition for babies aged 0-12 months has exceeded the zakat right for each baby for 1 year. Money of Rp. 425,000 turned out to be insufficient to pay for macro nutrition (other than carbohydrates) and micronutrients for babies. However, babies still have super perfect nutritional intake that should not be ignored, namely breast milk which is very good, which is given from the age of 0-6 months. If this breast milk can be given properly, it can reduce the cost of purchasing macro and micronutrients for 1 year. Even if the money is Rp. 425,000 are able to focus on the age of the first 1,000 days, so that money can be sufficient for a balanced nutritional intake every year.

Based on the macro and micro nutritional adequacy figures, zakat which is dominated by staple foods only means that zakat has not met the target. Likewise, zakat fitrah has not been varied in terms of preventing malnutrition and preventing the risk of stunting. Therefore, the specifications of zakat assets in preventing stunting must be more varied, according to the nutritional needs of pregnant women and toddlers. Although the technical use of zakat assets requires innovation in zakat packages, the potential for zakat each year is sufficient for the nutritional needs of pregnant women and toddlers. Fulfillment of nutrition through food zakat through nutrition intervention programs for pregnant women and continuing after birth can encourage the quality of baby growth (Ngandu, 2019). The fulfillment of nutrition derived from zakat is very useful in reducing malnutrition, can prevent the risk of stunting, and can even alleviate post-stunting toddlers.

Contextualization of Nutrition-Based Zakat Utilization

The main purpose of the zakat obligation is to improve the welfare of the people (Rais, 2009). Various efforts to utilize zakat have been implemented to achieve this goal. One of the uses of zakat in Indonesia is improving the quality of nutrition while still in the womb and after birth. The distribution of zakat on children’s growth and development is motivated by the emergence of the phenomenon of stunting and other nutritional problems. The use of zakat to prevent the risk of stunting and nutritional problems is a response and progressive thinking in the field of zakat.

So far, much of zakat has been directed only at meeting certain food needs. The distribution of consumptive zakat in the form of rice and money has sometimes not been used to meet the adequacy of macro and micro nutrition for children under five. In fact, problems with nutrition, wasting, obesity and stunting are very dangerous for toddlers, even 14% as a cause of death (Danaei, 2016).

Handling nutritional problems through zakat must start from the development of an epistemology for the use of zakat that is in accordance with the current context and a more responsive zakat service (Aqbar, 2019). If in the past, muzakki used more money and rice as zakat assets, then at this time zakat assets can adjust the context of mustahiq needs such as pregnant women, stunting babies and toddlers. Amil is also required to be more innovative in managing, and producing zakat packages according to the needs of mustahiq zakat (Abdillah, 2014). The management of zakat is the main concern, that zakat must be in accordance with the purpose of zakat (maqashid al-zakat). Zakat should not be used to meet secondary and tertiary needs, but must be useful for maintaining and maintaining an ideal soul and body (hifdz al-nafs), maintaining clothes (hifdz al-’ird) and a place to live (hifdz al-nafs). maintaining the development of the toddler’s intellect (hifdz al-’aql) and maintaining the family economy and the economic rights of children under five (hifdz al-mal). Direct distribution of zakat in the form of rice and money is not enough, but it is necessary to use zakat that can touch the whole chain of nutritional problems for children under five. The contextualization of the use of zakat in an integrated manner, starting from the process of collecting more varied zakat assets such as basic food needs, the opening of the Independent Nutrition Gardens (Triyono, 2017), the construction of a healthy stunting home (Zaenal, 2018), powdered milk and baby food packages and other creative packages. In the process of distributing zakat assets, namely through product development based on standard macro and micro nutritional adequacy figures.

Stunting in Numbers

Toddlers who experience nutritional problems are usually more due to conditions of socioeconomic status (SES), poor families, education of their parents, many children, being sick for a long time, attention to health and inappropriate health services, etc. On the economic side, the Indonesian Central Statistics Agency stated that the percentage of poor people in March 2020 was 9.78 percent. This number increased 0.56 percentage points against September 2019 and increased 0.37 percentage points against March 2019. The total number of poor people in March 2020 amounted to 26.42 million people, an increase of 1.63 million people compared to September 2019 and increased by 1, 28 million people as of March 2019. In March 2020, the average number of poor households in Indonesia was 4.66 household members. Thus, the average poverty line per poor household is Rp. 2,118,678, - / poor household / month (BPS, 2020). As for the number of toddlers who experience nutritional problems by 2020 as much as 17.7%. Meanwhile, the number of toddlers experiencing underwight or malnutrition was 16.29%. Meanwhile, the number of children under five who lost was 7.44%, and the number of children under five with stunting was 27.67%, or around 7 million under five in 2019. This figure has decreased from the previous year. Based on the results of the National Health Research (Riskesdas) in 2018, it shows that children under five in Indonesia who are stunted are 30.8% (Anggraini, 2020). The high rate of stunting has positioned Indonesia in fifth place among countries with the highest burden of stunting among children under five (Titaley, 2019). The stunting rate in Indonesia actually exceeds the WHO tolerance limit for malnutrition, which is 10% and stunting 20%. Meanwhile, the stunting rate in Indonesia is still above 30%. Therefore, in 2020 the government will prioritize the handling of severe malnutrition and stunting in 260 districts / cities nationally.

Implementation of Nutrition-Based Zakat Distribution to Reduce Stunting

Distribution of productive zakat and family socio-economic empowerment

Nutritional problems in toddlers do not occur suddenly. Stunting is a bad impact of nutritional problems for toddlers that occur in the womb and after birth. When the baby is still in the womb and the first 1,000 days of life, this is a crucial period for toddlers. At that time also, the role of mothers and all family elements is very necessary in supporting the adequacy of nutrition for babies in the womb and after birth. To support nutritional adequacy, the factor of social status and family economic resilience (SES) is absolutely enhanced (Soekatri, 2020). Based on an analysis of economic inequality over time, it shows that wealth with stunting has a significant effect and plays the most important role in reducing stunting. Rizal and van Doorslaer (2019), suggested the need for poverty alleviation programs, health and social programs that favor poor families such as the sustainability of JAMKESMAS and the Family Hope Program. Based on this study, the use of zakat that is distributed from pregnant women to childbirth is the right solution. During the period of pregnant women, zakat is implemented through socio-economic empowerment in the form of entrepreneurial development based on creative economy, home industry, plantations, agriculture and other small and medium enterprises.

Empowerment of the family economy in order to ensure adequate nutrition for pregnant women and babies in the womb has been done by the Ministry and zakat institutions such as BAZNAS and Rumah Zakat. In order to support the adequacy of family nutrition, the Ministry of Finance increased the Transfer Fund and Village Fund from 76.2 trillion in 2020 to Rp. 86.2 trillion in 2021. In 2020, the budget spread across 20 ministries/agencies reached Rp. 27.5 trillion spread over Rp. 1.8 trillion for specific interventions, Rp. 24.9 trillion for nutrition sensitive interventions, and Rp. 800 billion for coordination support (Kumala , 2020). Economic empowerment support is also carried out by BAZNAS. Until March 2020, BAZNAS has played a role in helping overcome nutritional problems for pregnant women and stunting toddlers in Indonesia. BAZNAS distributes Chicken Cart Business Package and Pentol Cart Business Package to increase family income (Khaitami, 2020). The zakat packages based on education and creative economy have brought blessings to poor families to get income that is useful to support the nutrition of toddlers and pregnant women. BAZNAS’s socio-economic action is in accordance with the latest patterns of stunting reduction in the aspects of strengthening education, proper health services, and the family economy. That the key factors in reducing stunting rates in several countries such as Nepal are improving the education of parents, especially pregnant women (Conway, 2020). The percentage of the importance of education for parents or pregnant women is 24.7%. The next factor is attention to the nutritional quality of mothers by 19.3%. The next factor is environmental and natural health in the form of compliance with clean water sanitation and a reduction in open defecation by 12.3%. Support for maternal and newborn health care (11.5%) is also a key factor in reducing stunting, and the last factor is economic improvement (9.0%). Improvements in the nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-sensitive sectors are indeed very important to reduce stunting, but the main factors that are far more urgent are economic improvements for poverty alleviation, providing health services, education and good sanitation.

Nutritional zakat intervention in pregnant women

The use of zakat for pregnant women touches on the material and immaterial aspects. The zakat distribution program is in the form of material in the form of capital to raise the family economy, and nutritious staples as a direct form of fulfilling nutrition for pregnant women. Meanwhile, the use of zakat in the immaterial aspect is in the form of health education for pregnant women, and trainings to change the behavior of pregnant women. The use of subsidies for pregnant women in the immaterial aspect is very important in supporting the success of reducing the rate of stunting when the baby is born. This is because the research results show that there are still many parents, especially pregnant women, who do not yet understand the fulfillment of nutrition during pregnancy and nutrition for toddlers. This statement is expressed by Hall et al. that states, only 66 (2.1%) mothers reported hearing, reading, or knowing anything about stunting. Therefore, health promotion and education efforts that are focused on increasing basic knowledge about stunting, its causes, and its health effects are urgently needed among mothers in Indonesia (Hall, 2018).

In 2019-2020, BAZNAS is a zakat institution that is heavily involved in helping overcome nutritional problems for pregnant women and stunting toddlers in Indonesia. BAZNAS distributes zakat in the form of building 5 BAZNAS Healthy Homes and is targeting to be able to assist 90,336 beneficiaries in these 5 BAZNAS Healthy Homes. The construction and operation of BAZNAS Healthy Homes are scattered in various areas, namely in Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Pangkal Pinang, Makassar and Sidoarjo (Andayani, 2019). Until September 2020, BAZNAS Healthy Home has helped 26,949 beneficiaries for poor families, pregnant women and toddlers who suffer from nutritional problems (Gunawan, 2017). The stunting prevention program carried out by the BAZNAS Healthy Home is packaged in various activities including examinations consisting of measuring nutritional status, providing additional food, counseling, providing additional nutritional recovery food, posyandu facilities, and Nutrition Gardens.

BAZNAS’s creativity does not stop at the construction of a Healthy Home, but continues to innovate to improve the quality of nutrition for pregnant women and alleviate stunting by maximizing the potential of the natural resources of each region. As has been done by the BAZNAS Parigi Moutong Healthy House which makes Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) and blondo biscuits sourced from coconut processing (Widodo, 2015). The program to increase nutrition for pregnant women and children under five is also carried out by the local government of South Kalimantan (Sinambela, 2019). The addition of nutrients by utilizing the natural potential of the area, namely snakehead or Haruan fish (Baehaki, 2019). Snakehead fish has long been known as one of the consumption fish. Snakehead fish essence extract produces collagen and can be marketed as an additional food for patients suffering from burns, kidney failure, and cancer in hospitals. With high nutritional value in snakehead fish, Malaysia has made a breakthrough by producing fragrant collagen soup to various international markets, such as Singapore, Thailand, Japan, and China. Likewise, with freshwater fish such as catfish that are widely scattered throughout the archipelago. Catfish is the most favorite freshwater fish for public consumption. The benefits of catfish for wound treatment have long been known in Indonesia. This is due to the very high albumin content in the fish meat. Albumin is a protein compound that is mostly found in human blood plasma and is produced by the liver (Ikhsan, 2016). Albumin has a very important function to maintain the growth and development of the fetus in the womb through protein intake for pregnant women. Fishery products are very useful as a source of consumption that encourages the improvement of the quality of life of the Indonesian people and resolves the problem of stunting and nutritional intake of pregnant women. The use of natural ingredients through nutrition education is in line with the patterns of family empowerment carried out in several countries that have succeeded in reducing stunting rates and preventing early through improving the health of pregnant women.

Distribution of zakat on food at the age of emergency (first 1,000 days of life)

Fulfillment of nutrition in children under five that should not be ignored is the age of emergency nutrition, namely the first 1,000 days of life. In the span of 3 years, toddlers must get a balanced macro and micro nutrient intake to prevent the risk of wasting and even stunting. Macro nutritional adequacy rate for children under five depends on the age of the baby. Infants aged 0-6 months need a total energy of 99,000 kcal, 2,160 g of protein or 2.16 kg, 6,300 g of fat or 6.3 kg, and require a carbohydrate intake of 10,440 g or the equivalent of 10.4 kg. Whereas infants aged 7-12 months have a total energy of 130,500 kcal, 3,240 g protein or 3.24 kg, 6,480 g fat or 6.48 kg, 1,800 g fiber or 1.8 kg, 144,000 ml of water or 144 liters, and require 14,760 g carbohydrates or 14.76 kg (Ayuningtyas, 2018).

The micronutrient adequacy rate needed by infants aged 0-12 months is in the form of vitamins and minerals. The total vitamins that infants aged 0-6 months need are 375 mcg of vitamin A, 5 mcg of vitamin D, 4 mg of vitamin E, and 5 mcg of vitamin K. While the total minerals required are 200 mg of Calcium, 100 mg of Phosphorus, 30 mg of Magnesium, 120 mg of Sodium, and 500 mg of Potassium (Maryani, 2019).

At the age of 1 year, consumptive zakat interventions are urgently needed in the form of nutritional counseling packages, powdered milk aid packages, baby food and other nutrients. This is what Rumah Zakat has done in recent years. Rumah Zakat has synergized with several Puskesmas and Posyandu in alleviating stunting. One proof of this collaboration is the implementation of the Stunting-Free Village program which was carried out thanks to the collaboration between Rumah Zakat and Puskemas Pajangan and counseling at Posyandu Sekar Arum, Sabrang Kidul hamlet, Triwidadi Village, Pajangan District, Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta (Amanda, 2019). The empowerment program of empowered villages carried out by Rumah Zakat is carried out intensively in all Rumah Zakat fostered villages throughout Yogyakarta and other provinces. Empowerment of empowered villages is carried out by providing counseling at the Puskesmas and Posyandu, then continued by providing nutritious food and drink assistance as additional food besides breastfeeding. Empowerment of Stunting-Free Villages carried out by Rumah Zakat is the right step with the facts in the field, that stunting cases in almost all countries are more prevalent in villages (Akram, 2018). The high number of nutrition problems in rural areas indicates that the poor are trapped in an agrarian transition, when agriculture, plantations and the labor market do not provide sufficient opportunities (McCarthy, 2019). As Balayneh et al., Revealed Food insecurity and shortages can impact wasting and stunting in rural areas. Research carried out in drought prone areas in Sidama, Ethiopia stated that the pre-harvest season (March and June) and the post-harvest season (September and December). Pre-harvest food shortages were higher than post-harvest. Based on this study, people living (including farmers) in agricultural and plantation areas in Indonesia who harvest once a year always experiences food shortages and other basic necessities. This phenomenon underlies the importance of developing a Nutrition Garden for people with stunting in times of food insecurity (Belayneh, 2020).

Rumah Zakat’s early attention to the intake of babies at the age of 0-3 years is the right step to avoid various health problems due to nutritional problems. One of the easiest ways to ensure that your child is getting enough nutrition is by paying attention to height. According to Tirta Prawitasari, the condition of short children is an indicator that shows the process of malnutrition in the long term. Lack of nutrition if it occurs in a short time, for example two weeks, then the first sign that appears is weight loss. Tirta explained, this below normal growth can be seen by looking at the growth curve from birth. As an indicator of malnutrition, stunting is usually followed by other growth disorders, including the brain. Thus, children’s cognitive abilities will be weak (Hoang, 2018). Furthermore, this condition will affect the productivity of children when they grow up. Therefore, prevention efforts should be done since the baby is still in the womb. Even the fulfillment of maximum nutrition can be started when the mother prepares for pregnancy. This nutrient intake is in line with the views of Ohyver (2019) which emphasizes the importance of fulfilling logistics as the most suitable method to improve and measure the nutritional status and stunting of children such as malnutrition, malnutrition, normal nutrition and obesity. Stunting in Indonesia does not only affect toddlers. Based on research by Lestari (2018), in West Sumatra, It turns out that the prevalence of stunting in elementary school children aged 8-13 years is 38.87%. This is in line with the views of Rachmi (2016), that stunting can occur in two age clusters, namely ages 2 years and ages 4-9 years. One of the reasons is the habit of “snacking” at school and outside of school (Purwestri, 2018). This habit can lead to neglected children’s nutritional intake and does not meet nutritional standards in general. This problem is in line with the views of Budiastutik and Nugraheni (2018), which revealed that inclusive breastfeeding, low household economic status, preterm labor, low duration of delivery and maternal education, as well as education of children living in villages, poor sanitation, and culture are consistently determinants of child stunting in Indonesia. The counseling programs and health services and provision of nutrition from village to village are what Rumah Zakat has done which is very beneficial for the growth of Indonesian children.

Nutritional Zakat Formulation

The development of the concept of zakat on nutrition originates from two paradoxical phenomena, namely the abundant potential of zakat on food with a large number of malnutrition targets. The conceptual development of the utilization of zakat based on nutrition is a progressive idea in the field of zakat to bring together these two phenomena in the formulation of zakat in the field of nutrition. The high rate of stunting and malnutrition that afflicts mankind is a waqi’iyah problem and an indicator of low attention to the importance of balanced nutritional intake for the human body. Fulfillment of nutritional adequacy figures at macro and micro levels is inevitable. Malnutrition and stunting have afflicted humankind from an early age, from generation to generation, afflicting rural communities, slum areas, families of many children, low education, quality health services, premature births and socio-economic disparities. Zakat fitrah which is expected to be able to maintain an ideal body and soul is only able to keep people from dying and struggling on the holiday (Anis, 2020). In the midst of conditions of natural poverty and structural poverty, zakat nutrition is here to restore the rights of human mental and physical health (Beik, 2015). Zakat on nutrition maintains that body and soul can live in balance. Not only does it keep the soul alive, the body fails to grow and cannot develop.

The ideological foundation above can be built on the basis of legal arguments that zakat has shifted illat al-hukm (legal argumentation) from the parameters of kilograms, liters, weight, or certain staple foods that are quantitative in nature shifting to the use of nutritional fulfillment according to qualitative nutritional standards through the AKG anthropometry parameters (nutritional adequacy rate) macro-micro. Not on quantity and weight, but on calorie and nutritional quality. Like zakat during the time of the Prophet Muhammad, it is much more contextual with dates and wheat (Qardhawi, 1999). Dates can be consumed directly at any time, and contain complete nutrition that is suitable for all ages and the human body. The second ideological foundation of nutritional zakat must be built on the basis of sociological arguments, that in the past decade, consuming carbohydrates alone did not have a significant impact on nutritional problems, because toddlers do not consume other carbohydrates. As times continue to evolve today, carbohydrates appear everywhere with different packaging, protein appears everywhere with different packaging. Consumption of certain nutritional intake for a long time can cause the nutrition that enters the body to be insufficient proportionally. Nutritional zakat is a complete food combination that can fulfill all nutritional elements needed by pregnant women and toddlers.

As for the standardization of people who are obliged to zakat nutrition, Muslims are able to meet the basic needs of micro-micro-RDA nutrition in a day and night, and reach the nishab for zakat assets (Qardhawi, 1999). On the other hand, people who are unable to meet the micro-micro-RDA nutrition are those who are entitled to receive zakat on nutrition. The nishab in nutritional zakat is the price of nishab for zakat fitrah as a minimalist target, because nutritional zakat has the same food object but uses a varied combination of food and measurable nutrition. The purpose of nutritional zakat also has similarities with zakat fitrah, which is to maintain the soul and improve the quality of the human body.

CONCLUSION

Malnutrition, both decreasing in nature, such as malnutrition, malnutrition, wasting and stunting, as well as those which are increasing, such as obesity, is a manifestation of inequality in the distribution of food, unequal, and not integrated. Zakat value chain, as one of Islamic philanthropy, has theoretically knitted back the boundary gap and injustice in the distribution of quality food and nutrition between the two.

The abundant potential of zakat on food, and the contextual use of zakat carried out by BAZNAS and Rumah Zakat on many problematic nutrition targets, have had a micro positive impact on improving nutrition and alleviating stunting, both at the preventive and post-stunting stages. The role of zakat appears when BAZNAS and Rumah Zakat become the activator for the distribution of zakat based on nutrition. The nutrition-based zakat distribution model is the beginning of the birth of the nutritional zakat concept in the field of zakat science. The use of nutritional zakat has axiological relevance because the main objective of zakat is the welfare of the mustahiq zakat, whose beneficiaries are mostly food insecure and nutritionally poor people. The epistemology of the use of nutritional zakat is in line with the paradigm of zakat fitrah and part of zakat maal because it has the same goal, namely maintaining the quality of mustahiq food.

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