International Journal of Entrepreneurship (Print ISSN: 1099-9264; Online ISSN: 1939-4675)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 1S

Critical Success Factors (CSFS) in Higher Education Standards Implementation

Ahmad Areiqat, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Ahmad Alheet, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Ahmad Al Adwan, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Ahmad Zamil, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University

Keywords

Critical Success Factors, Quality Standards for Higher Education, Administrators and Academics at Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

Abstract

This research aims to identify the critical success factors used by Al-Ahliyya Amman University in applying the quality standards of higher education, to achieve these goals, the researcher used the descriptive and analytical approach of the views of a sample of administrators and academics at the researched university, as the researcher distributed (127) questionnaires to an intentional sample from University employees, (114) questionnaires were retrieved and used. The data were analyzed and the research questions and hypotheses were tested through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). This Study has Found many Results, the most Important is: The success of applying the quality standards of higher education at the university based on the availability of the possibility of preparing to spread the culture of quality by placing it as an integral part of the university’s culture, and the vision factor towards changes and the requirements for renewal in the programs and study plans has an influential relationship in the application of the quality standards of higher education. The Study Concludes with the Following Recommendations, Primarily: The intensification of on-the-job training processes to enhance the readiness of workers and the acquisition of key skills for teaching and learning, and the university should establish an appropriate infrastructure that is compatible with the quality requirements of buildings, vital facilities and technology, especially since the university buildings and facilities are old (since 1990) and in need to rebuild, renew and improve.

Introduction

The third millennium, especially in these times, represents a challenge to educational systems. This challenge is represented in improving the quality of higher education provided by educational institutions in Jordan. The scientific, technological, health, economic and social challenges are increasing, and the need to use the best in order to achieve the desired goals, which made the choice of comprehensive quality in education is the best option to provide high-quality university education by focusing on the quality of educational outcomes as they are capable of innovation and creativity, improving performance rates and increasing effectiveness (Muhammad, 2015).

Probably these data require the education and upbringing leaderships to work hard to keep pace with scientific and technological developments and to face issues and problems. As a result of the development of the era, new concepts emerged, including comprehensive quality and quality standards in higher education. The application of educational quality standards in many educational institutions in developed and developing countries has contributed greatly to the success of these institutions in achieving their goals, and the ability to meet the desire of students, parents, society, and faculty members, in addition to improving and diversifying teaching methods and evaluation methods, and designing educational curricula that are compatible with the processes of self-education and e-learning, although both of them make education more flexible and less expensive, with the opportunity to learn for those who cannot be full-time basis in addition to taking advantage of multimedia (Al-Khalifa, 2016).

In a reading of the future of e-learning in Jordan and the Arab world, (Al-Sharif, 2015) sees that it expects more general acceptance of e-learning as one of the education systems that complement and support the educational process. It is also expected that Arab governments, especially in Jordan, lay the foundations for adopting this system of education systems, which will give him the necessary acceptance among students and among Jordanian families that spend a lot of effort and money to educate their children, but they want this education to be distinguished and recognized. To achieve this, officials in the educational system must use the scientific methodology and search for the critical success factors that achieve this educational dilemma, which are the factors that are determined by the higher management of each educational institution on which the success or failure of the institution depends in its performance of its work (Al-Suwaidi, 2009).

These factors differ from one institution to another, according to its size, activity, and method of performing its work.

It is very necessary for departments and officials to identify the critical success factors for each educational institution, in order to avoid the risks of what may fail the work, and in order to exploit the opportunities that may work on the success of the work, and then determine the performance indicators that clarify the extent of the impact of the critical factors and determine the most Significance and influence (Alrasheedi, 2015).

Research Problem

The quality standards of higher education have become one of the things that most concern governments and educational institutions at the local, regional and international levels, especially in light of the outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic in Jordan and the countries around the world, forcing the majority of these countries to close schools and universities, which affected millions of students. Jordan is one of the first countries in the region to respond to the crisis by imposition of curfews and closing all educational institutions across the kingdom.

To sustain learning during the pandemic, the Ministries of Education and Higher Education have resorted to remote education tools, as officials have been quick to take advantage of the materials available in the private sector to develop many gates of education and TV channels dedicated to providing lectures on the Internet.

Therefore, this research paper sought to pay attention to what are known as Critical Success Factors (CSFs), which refer in their simplest terms to the main aspects that ensure the educational institution moves in the right direction to achieve the goals and desired value, and the standards for higher education quality, which were developed to explain the constituents of the educational institution’s survival and their adaptation to environmental changes to ensure their survival and continuity.

From this Standpoint, the Research Problem Revolves Around Answering the Following Questions:

The Main Question

What are the critical success factors for applying the quality standards of higher education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

From the main question above, we divide the following questions:

1)  What are the interviewees' perceptions of the level of availability of critical success factors at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

2) What are the interviewees' perceptions of the level of implementation of quality higher education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

The Significance of the Study

The importance of the research lies in seeking to confirm that the critical requirements for success (flexibility and ability to innovate in programs and objectives, evaluation and continuous improvement, adaptation to the adoption of quality standards of education, preparation to promote of quality culture) for the application of quality standards for higher education have evolved, and perhaps these requirements and practices expand and decrease according to certain visions defined by the higher interest of educational institutions, as part of their efforts to adapt for survival and continuity.

Therefore, this research paper sought to pay attention to what are known as Critical Success Factors (CSFs), which refer in their simplest terms to the main aspects that ensure the educational institution moves in the right direction to achieve the goals and the desired value, and the standards of higher education quality that go to explain the elements of the educational institution’s survival and its adaptation to environmental changes. Therefore, it is hoped that this research will contribute, according to its theoretical and field contents, to diagnosing the critical factors of success required to ensure the optimal application of higher education quality standards in order to reach positive results for both variables and its reflection on the success and survival of Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

Objectives of the Study

This research paper aims to identify the critical success factors in the application of higher education quality standards at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, and to achieve this, many of the sub-goals have been formulated as follows:

• Building and crafting theoretical framework that includes the implications of the critical success factors in applying the quality standards of higher education.

• Identify the level of availability of critical success factors in applying quality education standards and the indicators they contain.

• Explain the nature of influential relationships between research variables.

• Submitting proposals and recommendations that could contribute to the service of Al-Ahliyya Amman University in particular, and other educational institutions and universities in general in light of the conclusions reached by the research.

Theoretical Framework

First: Critical Success Factors

The use of this concept is due to the American researcher (John Rockart, 1979) in 1979, and it is a diagnostic method for defining the most critical factors in achieving the goals of the organization, which are the most important goals and circumstances that require special attention by the management due to their importance, which can be internal or external , positive or negative, and serve as stimulant that helps avoid surprises and threats (Nadim & Al-Hinai, 2016).

The importance of critical success elements when identified by institutions shows that they have a golden opportunity to gain a competitive advantage. It is also the tool that highlights and specifies the conditions that must be adopted in order to achieve success, as well as to achieve the desired goals and ambitions. In order to determine the critical success factors, the following conditions should be observed (Islam et al., 2015):

• Importance: The naming of these factors as critical factors, that is, they are proportional to the degree of importance of these factors, so the factor should be very important in order to be included in the circle of critical factors.

• Number: This condition is related to the importance condition because it is assumed that the number of critical factors is the least possible within the defined boundaries called "the critical success factors circle" without prejudice to the importance condition.

• Realism: It refers to the possibility of applying these factors in the field easily and with no obstructions.

• Inclusiveness: the ability to apply and measure critical success factors at all levels of the institution.

• A Hierarchy of Critical Success Factors: in line with the hierarchy of administrative levels and the institution, as well as objectives and decisions, most researchers and writers emphasized the need for them to take a hierarchical form.

• Thus, CSFs can be defined on the basis of different perspectives, including (Yew et al., 2015):

• "The element that directly contributes to the success of an institution and without it, that institution can fail."

• "It is a group of organizational activities that, if properly used, will lead to the achievement of the strategic success of the institution".

• "Elements and components that need to be done well to achieve the desired success."

In the context of talking about critical factors (Pasco, 2010) indicates that 20% of critical factors can define and reflect 80% of an institution’s performance.

Perhaps the definition of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) requires consideration of the following aspects (Swain et al., 2015):

• The factors are of different importance.

• CSFs are related to time and change over time, so they should be reassessed over time to keep pace with continuous changes.

• Often each of the factors includes more than one indicator or criterion when considering characteristics within the CSFs.

Perhaps understanding and diagnosing how critical success factors affect the administration’s ability to ensure that it achieves the desired goals and the success of the institution, as well as the possibility of contributing to predicting the future state of the institution, diagnosing challenges and prioritizing management’s interest in factors that contribute to achieving the goals (Nilsen, 2015).

Second: Quality Standards in Higher Education

Quality content is one of the important aspects in the field of education in general and higher education in particular as it has a direct impact on improving the educational process (Swain et al., 2015) and with the emergence of quality control tools (Quality Assurance) and thus the application of quality in education has become among the urgent demands to achieve interaction with the variables of an era characterized by accelerating knowledge and culture and increasing competition between individuals, groups and organizations (Al-Sharif, 2015) and with the increasing intensity of competition in the higher education sector in light of the developments that made higher education within international business.

In light of environmental changes, higher education institutions have found Total Quality Management (TQM) an ideal tool for achieving organizational goals. However, how to implement effectively is still a subject of discussion (Nadim & Al-Hinai, 2016). The definition of quality in education follows general concepts of quality. Defining the term in many aspects, including: discrimination in education, added value in education, and avoiding errors in the educational process.

And meeting or exceeding the expectations of internal and external clients (Swain et al., 2015), there are those who view the quality of education as an indicator of the institution’s ability to provide higher education to society and it is a tool for the economic development of the country (Islam et al., 2015), or A continuous administrative strategy for development adopt by the educational institution based on a set of principles with the aim of providing outputs of the highest quality in order to satisfy the student as required in the labor market and satisfy all parts of society benefiting from the student (Al-Sharif, 2015). It is a management strategy with interrelated elements. Includes core values, techniques and tools (Zakuan et al., 2012).

Perhaps Convergence of views regarding the term educational quality is based on three main concepts to clarify the implications of quality education in educational institutions (Islam et al., 2015).

Approach I: The framework of the three elements of the educational system, including (quality of inputs, quality of operations, and quality of outputs), as follows:

- Input quality includes factors related to students, faculty, administrative staff, physical facilities, and infrastructure.

- Processing includes teaching and learning processes and administrative activities.

- Output quality includes test results, job opportunities, earnings, and stakeholder satisfaction

Approach II: It refers to the link between the quality of education, the tasks and activities of higher education such as (curricula, teaching methods, teaching staff, faculty qualifications, government, services, student characteristics, organization, administration, interactive networks).

Approach III: It focuses on the opinions of stakeholders and the approach adopted by setting the largest number of criteria when judging the quality of education.

Among the more comprehensive approaches to classifying quality characteristics in higher education is what is known as the process model, which is often symbolized by (IPO) to express the contents of the model, it is input, process and output (Swain et al., 2015). Among the most important roles of implementing quality in higher education institutions is the contribution of their philosophy to increasing the satisfaction of the relevant authorities (Nadim & Al-Hinai, 2016), and in a related context (Kohoutek et al., 2009) indicates the possibility of benefiting from successful experiences in the field of higher education quality by benchmarking the best practices for applying the quality of higher education to achieve the general objective of the comparison, which can be summarized as follows:

• Developing a better understanding of the foundations that lead to success.

• Focus on continuous improvement efforts.

• Managing the overall change process in order to bridge the gap between the institution 's current practices and the best practices (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Illustrates Benchmarking In Higher Education

Thus, benchmarking can be viewed as a way to enhance quality in higher education, and quality may be viewed on this basis through five methods that are the most prevalent.

Third: Standards Education Higher and Critical Success Factors

The educational systems face great challenges that, in its entirety, represent improving the quality of education provided by universities and its research centers, and because development and innovation in management thought, methodology and behavior is the essential requirement in the civilized and educational construction of nations. There is no doubt that quality and its assurance standards in universities and their educational systems and academic programs will overshadow building their knowledge capabilities and core competencies to push the wheel of development and catch up with development, progress and advancement.

Perhaps the applications of quality assurance systems in higher education institutions are possible and have many positive aspects, but the gap that the institutions suffers from is in knowing how to successfully implement quality management and its standards in higher education institutions, and therefore information related to the critical success factors may contribute to removing and overcoming barriers to implementation (Hinai-AL & N, 2016).

Several parties may participate in the diagnosis of critical success factors as factors that include the levels of the institution and its activities in all, and perhaps this is consistent with the reality of higher education institutions, at the time in which the members of the faculty can identify the factors related to the curriculum and design the educational process, They rely on factors that are carefully diagnosed and addressed by other administrative bodies (NZCER, 2004). Success factors are often studied in the framework of quality assurance to describe the aspects that must be met in order to reach the best quality (Ylimaki, 2006).

In the field of higher education quality assurance, critical success factors are studied according to three main approaches (Zakuan et al., 2012):

1) Focusing on Customers: As the idea of student service is strengthened by training and developing employees, in order to enhance the student selection process and achieve self-management.

2) Focusing on Employees & Stakeholders: To assess the contribution of all working team members to the effectiveness and enhancement of the organization’s operations, and this includes setting policies and priorities within the organizational structure and stating procedures, responsibilities and work teams.

3) Focusing on Ensuring that Standard: Are applied within a specific context and measurable standards within the educational process and evaluating the duties of faculty members within a specific time frame.

Probably the basic assumption of critical success factors is to focus on key factors from three to six factors that are of high importance to the institution, and the institution must respond to these factors in order to achieve success by using these factors in diagnosing its information needs, so that the institution has identified the critical information set. Which affect the achievement of current and future goals (Al-Suwaidi, 2009).

Thus, the importance of critical success factors in the field of educational institution management may appear by focusing these factors on essential aspects, the most important of which are (Pasco, 2010):

1. Strategic Planning: By studying colleges for its main functions on a regular basis and working to achieve between goals on the one hand and its performance of critical success factors on the other hand.

2. Measurement: The ability to measure factors critical to assessing and evaluating the college's position.

3. Accountability: By providing expected and acceptable results of the effectiveness of the educational process for the college that can be demonstrated to stakeholders.

Despite the wide circulation of the term Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in many areas and aspects and the term Assurance Education Quality and its standards as terms that simulate the trends of higher education institutions in dealing with the requirements of the competition environment on the one hand and the applications of comprehensive quality standards on the other hand. However, the combination of these terms in the framework of an integrated perspective of the work of higher education institutions has not attracted the interest of researchers and theorists, at a time when this perspective can provide many opportunities to achieve added value through the mechanisms of critical success factors and accelerate the cycle of innovation and creativity through quality assurance tools and its techniques.

In this sense, the contribution of this paper came in an attempt to diagnose the critical success factors in the application of higher education quality standards at the theoretical and practical levels simultaneously.

Relevant theoretical and empirical studies occupy an important place in scientific research because it represents an accumulation of knowledge available for researchers to start from and frame the variables of their study, in order to enhance the documentation of the cognitive aspects and crystallize the dimensions of their studies, from here the researcher resorted to seeing some studies related to the subject of her study based on what was available to her, according to its timeline.

It should be noted here that the researcher is unable to obtain any Arab or foreign study related to the subject of her study despite the diligent research that she has conducted in this field-to the extent of her knowledge-and by reviewing previous studies on the topic of Critical Success Factors, it is clear that this term has been studied in various sectors.

Which may start with diagnosing critical success factors in the procurement process, such as a study (Nilsen, 2015), and passing through (Ylimaki, 2006) & (Wanderi, 2014) in the construction companies sector to diagnosing critical success factors for the diffusion of distance education technologies and critical success factors in education. In the case of mobile phones as in the study (Grrenberg, 2009) and the study (Alrasheedi et al., 2015).

Between this sector and that sector, a broad interest and holistic perspective can be indicated to study the issue in various sectors, and perhaps such studies and many other contributions of researchers and interested people cannot be mentioned, all of which contributed to framing the contents of the critical success factors and clarifying the various aspects associated with the term (CSFs), however, it did not simulate the implications of the critical success factors in the application of education quality standards in general and higher education quality standards in particular.

While there have been contributions by researchers through studies conducted within sectors in close fields that may help in diagnosing critical factors according to the study approach based on analysis in deriving, extracting and concluding the main and critical factors for success and the basic practices for framing and building the educational institution's work system in the field of applying quality standards higher education.

Among these studies are what was conducted in the technical education sector, such as a study (Swain et al., 2015), a study (Al-Kaseh et al., 2015), a study (Sujit et al., 2016), a study (Quadri et al., 2020) and a study (Duc et al. al., 2019) and the study of critical success factors to measure the effectiveness of the educational institution and student learning as a study (Pasco, 2010), as well as studying the topic in the field of services provided by information and communication technologies in the context of critical success factors in e-learning as a study (Patrick, 2012; Parsazadeh et al., 2013; Yew & Jambulingam, 2015).

While a few studies have discussed critical success factors in the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in general in the sector of educational institutions, which are the closest to the current study, such as the study (Al-Ajis & Nchwan, 2015; Al-Osaimi, 2007; Zakuan et al., 2012; Islam et al., 2015; Muhammad, 2015; Nadim & Al-Hinai, 2016).

Or studies that have been interested in adopting several TQM technologies, such as the technology of quality rings in the study (Wah & El-Baz, 2012) or the applications of (Six Sigma) in a study (Al-Sharif, 2015).

With the tangible scarcity of studies that focused on linking critical success factors with the implications of assurance higher education quality, the researcher resorted to searching for critical success factors within the framework of studies that discussed best practices to ensure the quality of higher education, and then followed the content analysis approach to reach the conclusion of the largest number of success factors Critical issues in the field of higher education quality and trying to benefit from it in designing the scale of the current study (the questionnaire), and previous studies have been employed in this field such as (Kohoutek et al., 2009; ENQA, 2009; Santos, 2019) and the study (Al-Khalifa, 2016).

Table 1 shows the results of previous studies related to diagnosing critical success factors within fields and sectors related to the current field of study and its community.

Table 1
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN APPLYING HIGHER EDUCATION QUALITY STANDARDS
N The name of the researcher and the year Critical success factors
1 Parsazadeh et al., 2013: 13 1. The availability of motives, awareness and basic technologies 2. Training and learning. 3. The quality of the system, information and services.
2 Wanderi, 2014: ii 1.     Senior management commitment 2. Staff training 3. Organizational culture 4. Communications
3 Mohammad, 2015: 19 1. The availability of transparent and clear standards 2. Availability of criteria for accepting the teaching
staff and students 3. Attention to academic programs and teaching methods.
4 Islam et al., 2015: 96 1. Obtaining the appropriate number of students (Foundation Finance Department). 2. Senior management commitment and support. 3. Attracting and maintaining competent cadres. 4. Providing a suitable working life environment. 5. Encouraging the participation of academics.
5 Yew & Jambulingam, 2015: 18-21 1.     Infrastructure. 2. Characteristics of the faculty. 3. Organizational culture. 4. Managing change.
6 CIHE (1), 2016: 2 1. Self-regulation. 2. Adhere to and comply with the instructions. 3. Periodic evaluation
7 Greatbatch & Holland, 2016: 5 1. External review processes (evaluation of teaching and learning processes). 2-Encouraging and improving change processes.
8 Nadim & Al-Hinai, 2016: 150 1.     Leadership. 2. Vision. 3. Measurement and evaluation. 4. Operations management and improvement. 5. Designing programs. 6. Quality Improvement System. 7. Employee participation. 8. Rewards and appreciation. 9. Learning and training. 10. Focus on the student. 11. Focus on stakeholders.
9 Padro, 2016: 3 1.     Availability of feedback to faculty members. 2. Diagnosing gaps in the approved strategy. 3. Provide the necessary resources to implement the change. 4. Measurement and assessment.
10 Al-Khalifa, 2016: 9 Identify organizations with best practices, diagnose best practices, submit reports, and publish characteristics that can be transferred to developing action plans. Measurement as a methodology for the continuing education process based on various applications and experiences.
11 Al Kaseh et al., 2015: 4 Table 1 1. Educational Technology. 2. Computing Experience. 3. Attitudes. 4. Social Influence. 5. Curriculum Development. 6. Language. 7. Teaching. 8. Learning Styles. 9. Demography of the Student.
12 Sujit et al., 2016: 2412 fig. 1 1. Resources Factors. 2. Institutional Factors. 3. Ethical Factors. 4. Evaluation Factors. 5. Social Interaction Factors. 6. Management Factors. 7. Pedagogical Factors. 8. Technological Factors.
13 Quadri et al., 2020: 10 table 1 1. Attitudes Towards E. Learning. 2. Students' Motivation. 3. Good Internet Speed. 4. General Internet Self Efficiency. 5. Instructors' Attitudes Towards E. Learning. 6. Instructors' ICT Skills. 7. Appropriate Course Design. 8. Infrastructure Reediness. 9. Ethical and Legal Issues.
14 Al-Rasheedi & Luiz, 2015: 5 1. Availability. 2. Accessibility. 3. Affordability. 4. Connectivity. 5. Internet Access. 6. Faculty Commitment. 7. Te4chnical Competence of Instructors. 8. Administrative Support. 9. Technical Competence of Student. 10. Institutional Support.
15 Duc Huu et al., 2019: 1-2 1. Infrastructure and Technology. 2. Pedagogical Aspect. 3. Management and Execution. 4. Organization Support. 5. Evaluation or Assessment. 6. Setting. 7. Learner Characteristics.
16 Dos Santos et al., 2019: 568-569 1. Planning. 2. Marketing and Recruitment. 3. Financial Management. 4. Quality Assurance. 5. Student Retention. 6. n Courses Design and Pedagogy. 7. Faculty Development.

It is evident from the foregoing and the contents of Table 1 above that the concept of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) has been adapted to a variety of environments, particularly in areas that need a clear approach to managing change within the framework of an approach that seeks to identify a few factors as essential and critical.

In order to achieve the goals of the educational institution, and perhaps the continuous development of technologies and standards related to the teaching and learning process, an urgent necessity has been summarized in the knowledge of best practices in this field, and since higher education is closely related to meeting the needs and requirements of society, it may be necessary to identify a basic set of critical factors to meet These needs are in accordance with the quality content and standards for higher education in Jordan.

Research Methodology

Research Community and Sample

Al-Ahliyya Amman University (AAU) represents the study community and its field, and it is the first private non-profit university in Jordan, founded by Dr. Ahmad Al-Hourani in 1990, and it is under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education and its certificates are recognized. The topic of the current study (Critical Success Factors in the Application of Quality Standards for Higher Education) was chosen in line with the basic values that it believes in and the university seeks to achieve.

As Al-Ahliyya Amman University seeks to achieve its mission and goals through a set of the following basic values: (social and moral commitment, environment and scientific application, creativity and mastery, quality by adhering to high-level scientific and educational standards, community service, global and humanitarian vision, academic freedom, Example and joint cooperation, partnership and communication with community institutions, accountability and institutional).

As for the study sample, it included administrative leaders (the university president and his assistants, faculty deans, department heads, rapporteurs, and officials of quality assurance units) at the university, as well as full-time faculty members at the university.

The research process is an easy intentional sample, in which the process of selecting its social units on the basis of ease and convenience in providing the purpose of the survey, those who possess a significant amount of knowledge related to the contents and standards of quality of higher education accredited by the university, and comprehensive knowledge regarding the availability of factors critical to its success, and future vision with the results that can be achieved.

127 questionnaires were distributed in the researched university, of which 120 were retrieved, and after reviewing the questionnaires, 06 questionnaires that were not fulfilled were excluded, thus the number of accepted and valid questionnaires for analysis and study became 114 questionnaires with a response rate 89.77%.

Table 2 presents a description of the characteristics of the members of the research sample represented by (gender, age, academic qualification, number of courses in the field of administration, and the field of work).

Table 2
Demographic And Functional Characteristics Of The Study Population
Character Frequency Percentage
Gender
Male 93 81.58%
Female 21 18.42%
Total 114 100%
Age
30 Years and less 0 0%
31-40 58 51.00%
41-50 30 26.30%
51-60 16 14.00%
61 and more 10 8.70%
Total 114 100%
Education level
Bachelor 16 14.00%
Master 59 51.70%
Doctoral 39 34.30%
Total 114 100%
Training courses
Null 8 7.00%
03-Jan 64 56.10%
4.6 36 31.60%
7 and mor 6 5.30%
Total 114 100%
Field of work
Administrative leaders 46 40.30%
Faculty members 68 59.70%
Total 114 100%

Presentation and Discussion of Results

The First Question: What are the interviewees' perceptions of the availability of success factors from Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

Table 3
The Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation, Estimates of The Study Sample, and The T- Test for The Adaptation Factor for Adopting Education Quality Standards
N Paragraphs of independent variables Critical success factors Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation The relative weight of the sample estimates t test value Sig. Rank
Adaptation to the adoption of educational quality standards
1 The flexibility and adaptability capabilities of the university employees are developed through the strengthening of cooperative relationships between employees and managers. 3.71 1.03 74.20% 44.16 0 4
2 The university contributes to supporting work- life balance among its employees by providing support to them to manage their activities inside and outside work. 3.66 1.129 73.20% 43.28 0 5
3 The university administration focuses on developing human resource development practices that enhance the flexibility and adaptability capabilities of its workers. 4.09 0.936 81.80% 56.31 0 1
4 The university administration encourages its workers to rely on their direct manager to quickly adapt to a new work environment. 3.92 0.874 78.40% 54.27 0 2
5 University employees are committed to the teaching programs it provides to benefit from old experiences that help to adapt to work. 3.83 0.991 76.60% 48.49 0 3
Total 3.84 1.042 76.80% 49.4 0

Table 3 shows that the value of T test (t=49.40) and the value of the calculated test significance sig=0.000, which is a significant value indicating that there is a clear response to the field of adaptation to the adoption of quality standards of education at the university and the relative weight of this field is equal to 76.8% This result indicates that the focus of the Critical Success Factors was a high degree in Al-Ahliyya Amman University, and that the highest paragraph was No. 3 and obtained approval with a high degree with a relative weight 81.8% and a significance level less than 0.05 which stipulated (the university administration focuses on developing human resource development practices that enhance the flexibility and adaptability capabilities of its workers) Therefore, this paragraph is considered a statistical function, as are the rest of the paragraphs in this field.

Table 4
The Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation, And Estimates Of The Study Sample Individuals And The T-Test Of The Preparation Factor For The Dissemination Of Quality Culture
N Paragraph Critical success factors Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation The relative weight of the sample estimates t test value Sig. Rank
Preparing for the dissemination of quality culture
1 The university contributes to spreading the a comprehensive culture quality in order to create an educated and conscious environment that supports and maintains continuous development. 3.88 1.031 77.60% 15.43 0 5
2 Committees are formed at the university to develop plans, improve and develop institutional standards in it. 3.96 1.026 79.20% 17.12 0 3
3 Total quality brochures are designed and distributed to all faculty and administrative staff in order to ensure an enhanced understanding of what quality education is. 4.19 0.947 83.80% 18.44 0 1
4 The application of quality management in the field of education has become an urgent necessity to face the changes and challenges sweeping society. 3.92 1.013 78.40% 16.81 0 4
5 The university seeks to spread the culture of quality, being the key and the primary entrance to improving the quality of the educational process in it.. 4.11 0.913 82.20% 17.39 0 2
Total 1004 0.899 80.20% 16.9 0

Table 4 shows that the value of T test (t=16.99) and the value of the calculated test significance was sig=0.000, which is a significant value indicating that there is a clear response to the field of preparation for the dissemination of quality culture at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, and the overall relative weight of the field was It is equal to (80.2%) and this result came with a high degree, and it is clear that the highest paragraph is Paragraph No. 3, which provided for (Total quality brochures are designed and distributed to all faculty and administrative staff in order to ensure an enhanced understanding of what quality education is) and has obtained approval to a large degree With a relative weight 83.8% and a significance level less than 0.05; Therefore, this paragraph is considered a statistical function, like the rest of the paragraphs in this field.

Table 5
THE ARITHMETIC MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION, AND ESTIMATES OF THE STUDY SAMPLE INDIVIDUALS, AND THE T-TEST FOR THE FLEXIBILITY FACTOR TO CHANGES
N0 Independent variables Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation The relative weight of the sample estimates t test value Sig. Rank
Flexibility to change
1 The administration of Al-Ahliyya Amman University has the ability to adapt to the changes and challenges in the educational environment. 4.01 1.022 80.20% 48.17 0 3
2 University employees have the power to change for greater success. 3.79 0.947 75.80% 44.12 0 5
3 University employees experiment new and innovative methods when they face difficulties in the way they do work. 3.88 0.931 77.60% 47.93 0 4
4 The university administration believes that change is a natural phenomenon that all employees have to adapt to. 4.29 1.013 85.80% 54.26 0 1
5 University workers seekto find new, more effective ways of getting work done and achieving quality. 4.18 1.045 83.60% 51.88 0 2
Total 4.03 1.003 80.60% 49.55 0

Table 5 shows that the value of T Test (t=49.55) and the value of the calculated test significance reached sig=0.000), which is a significant value indicating that there is a clear response to the field of flexibility to changes in Al-Ahliyya Amman University, and the total relative weight of the field is equal to 80.6%. This result indicates that flexibility in the university came to a high degree, and it is clear that the highest paragraph is paragraph No. 4, which states (The university administration believes that change is a natural phenomenon that all workers must adapt to) and obtained approval to a large degree and with relative weight 85.8% and a significance level less than 0.05. Therefore, this paragraph is considered a statistical function, like the rest of the paragraphs in this field.

Table 6

The Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation, Estimates of The Study Sample, and The T- Test of The Evaluation Process and Continuous Improvement Factor

N Independent variables Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation The relative weight of the sample estimates t test value Sig. Rank
A process of continuous evaluation and improvement
1 Continuous evaluation and improvement is a comprehensive process for all departments, sections and activities of Al- Ahliyya Amman University. 4.01 1.022 80.20% 48.17 0 3
2 Continuous improvement is one of the strategies that the university adopts to maintain its competitive capabilities. 3.79 0.947 75.80% 44.12 0 5
3 The university administration is committed to ensuring continuous evaluation and improvement based on the analysis of information and data. 3.88 0.931 77.60% 47.93 0 4
4 Reconsidering the inputs by evaluating the performance of all university employees increases the chances for improvement. 4.29 1.013 85.80% 54.26 0 1
5 Seminars and training are organized for university employees to introduce them to the concept of continuous improvement and comprehensive quality. 4.18 1.045 83.60% 51.88 0 2
Total 4.03 1.003 80.60% 49.55 0

Table 6 shows that the value of T test (t=17.29) and the value of the calculated test significance was sig=0.000, which is a significant value indicating that there is a clear response to the field of evaluation and continuous improvement at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, and the overall relative weight of the field was It is equal to 79.2% and this result indicates that the evaluation at the university came with a high degree, and it is clear that the highest paragraph is Paragraph No. 1, which states (Continuous evaluation and improvement is a comprehensive process for all departments, sections and activities of Al-Ahliyya Amman University.) and obtained approval to a large degree with a relative weight 82.8% and a significance level less than 0.05; Therefore, this paragraph is considered a statistical function, like the rest of the paragraphs in this field.

The Second Question: What are the interviewees' perceptions of the level of implementation of higher education quality at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

Table 7
The Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation and Estimates of The Study Sample Individuals and The T-Test of The Dependent Variable and The Quality of Higher Education
N Paragraphs of the dependent variable (quality of higher education) Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation The relative weight of the sample estimates t test value Sig. Rank
The university presidency's commitment to quality:
1 The university is keen to award the Excellence in Scientific Research to its faculty members. 3.9 0.94 78.00% 58.74 0 4
2 The university sees the employment of its graduates by international business organizations as a valid criterion for judging the quality of its education. 4.07 1.033 81.40% 60.69 0 3
3 The university is interested in the results of the university proficiency exam decided by the Ministry of Higher Education as it reflects the quality of the graduate. 3.86 0.896 77.20% 57.59 0 5
4 The university pays clear attention to and participates in the criteria of the King Abdullah Award for Distinguished Employee. 4.22 1.122 84.40% 66.14 0 1
5 The university has a clear vision and mission that focuses on quality in education. 4.13 1.234 82.60% 63.28 0 2
Total 4.04 1.009 80.80% 59.66 0 -
Academic reputation and publication of scientific research:
6 University faculty have an academic and professional reputation that is consistent with the university's mission and goals. 3.64 0.913 72.80% 15.73 0 5
7 The faculty members of the university contribute to the development of curricula and study plans. 3.78 0.883 75.60% 15.92 0 4
8 The university encourages its faculty members to attend conferences and hold scientific meetings regionally and internationally. 3.94 0.871 78.80% 17.04 0 2
9 The university focuses on the requirements of scientific research and is keen on the participation of faculty members as a basis for evaluation and contract renewal. 4.02 1.047 80.40% 17.22 0 1
10 The university is keen to align graduates with the requirements of the labor market. 3.86 0.799 77.20% 16.18 0 3
Total 3.85 0.796 77.00% 15.74 0 -
The total of the paragraphs of the dependent variable as a whole 3.94 0.868 78.80% 16.73 0 -

It is evident from Table 7 for the field (Quality of Higher Education) that the value of T Test reached (t=59.66), and the value of the calculated test significance reached sig=0.000), which is a significant value indicating that there is a clear response to the field of commitment of the university presidency in Quality in Al-Ahliyya Amman University, and the relative weight of this field was equal to 80.8%, which indicates that the commitment of the university presidency to quality at the university came with a high degree. It is clear that the highest paragraph is Paragraph No. 4 which states (The university pays clear attention to the criteria of the King Abdullah Award for Distinguished Employee and participates in it) and obtained approval to a large degree with a relative weight of 84.4% and a level of significance less than 0.05. Therefore, these are considered the paragraph is a statistical function like the rest of the paragraphs in this field.

As it can be seen from Table 7 for the field (Academic Reputation and Publication of Scientific Research) that the value of T Test reached (t=15.74), and the value of the calculated test significance reached sig=0.000), which is a significant value indicating that there is a clear response to the dimension of reputation Academic and scientific research publication at Al- Ahliyya Amman University, and the relative weight of the total field was equal to 77.0%, which indicates that the process of academic reputation and the publication of scientific research at the university came to a high degree. It is clear that the highest paragraph is Paragraph No. 9 which states (The university focuses on the requirements of scientific research and is keen on the participation of faculty members in it as a basis for evaluation and renewal of contracts) and obtained approval to a large degree with a relative weight of 80.4% and a level of significance less than 0.05 Therefore, this paragraph is considered a statistical function, like the rest of the paragraphs in this field.

Analysis of Study Questions and Hypothesis Testing

The Main Question: What are the critical success factors for implementing the quality standards of higher education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

From this Question, the following Hypothesis is Formulated

H1 There is no statistically significant role at the level of significance (α ≤ 0.05) for the critical success factors with their elements (combined) in the application of quality standards for higher education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University

To test this hypothesis, multiple linear regression analysis was used

Table 8
The Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation And Estimates of The Study Sample Individuals And The T-Test of The Dependent Variable And The Quality of Higher Results of Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Critical Success Factors In The Quality of Higher Education At Al- Ahliyya Amman University
Dependent variable R R2 F Freedom degree Sig. Independent variables ß t value Sig.
Dimensions of the digital divide
Quality of higher education 0.79 0.627 46.78 3 0 Adaptation to the adoption of educational quality standards 0.69 36.14 0
110 Preparing to disseminate the culture of quality 0.71 38.33 0
113 Flexibility to change 0.62 32.18 0
A process of continuous evaluation and improvement 0.73 39.21 0

The main hypothesis was tested at the level of significance 0.05, and the results were shown in Table 8 according to the following:

• The tabular F value was extracted to compare it with the calculated F, and it became clear that the calculated F value is equal to 46.78 greater than the tabular F value 2.65, which proves the significance of the model used in the regression analysis.

• The significance level of the test was compared with the level of significance adopted in the study to demonstrate the presence of a role of influence on the dependent variable (the quality of higher education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University)

• The above Table 8 shows that the significance level of the (F) test reached (0.000), which is less than the level of significance adopted in the study 0.05. Thus, we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. “There is a statistically significant role at the level of significant α ≤ 0.05 for critical success factors with its elements (adaptation to adopt quality standards of education, preparation for disseminating a culture of quality, flexibility to changes, and the process of evaluation and continuous improvement) in the quality of higher education in its dimensions (commitment of the university presidency to quality, academic reputation and publication of scientific research) at Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

• The value of the correlation coefficient R is inferred to indicate the existence of a correlation between the independent variables and the dependent variable, and through Table 8 above it was found that the correlation value is equal to 0.792, which means that there is a strong positive correlation between the critical success factors and the quality of higher education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

• The results of the regression analysis proved that there is an explanatory capacity for the independent variables (combined) on the dependent variable (the quality of higher education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University), as its value reached 62.7%, and it was inferred from the value of the determination coefficient (R2=0.627).

Table 9
The Harmonic Relationship of The Dimension of Critical Success Factors In Applying Quality Standards for Higher Education
The test Dimension and factors Chi – Square Test
F calculate F table Sig.
Adaptation to adopting educational quality standards 74.82 41.87 0
Preparing to disseminate a culturere of quality 78.93 51.39 0
Flexibility to change 82.47 54.19 0
A process of continuous evaluation and improvement 83.4 60.01 0
Critical success factors for implementing higher education quality standards 96.08 62.73 0

From the data in attached Table 9, the harmonic relationship of the dimension and critical success factors in applying the quality standards of higher education is clear as follows:

1) The value of the Chi-Square test computed for the critical success factors in applying the standards of higher education quality (combined) amounted to 96.08 which is greater than its tabular value 62.73, as well as the decrease of the significance (0.000) from the level of significance 0.05, which confirms the harmonic relationship of the factors Critical success in implementing higher education quality standards. This indicates that these factors are well applied.

2) The Chi-Square test value computed for the critical success factors separately in the application of higher education quality standards all had values for each greater than their tabular value, and the sig. was less than the level of significance adopted in the research, which confirms the consensual significance of the critical (sub) success factors in applying the quality standards of higher education in the researched university, and this is an indication that the critical success factors have a high consensual relationship in the application of higher education quality standards.

Accordingly, the nihilistic hypothesis which states that “Al-Ahliyya Amman University does not have critical success factors in implementing higher education quality standards” was rejected, and the alternative hypothesis was accepted, which states “There are critical success factors at Al-Ahliyya Amman University in applying higher education quality standards".

Conclusion And Recommendations

Conclusion

1. The results of the multiple regression analysis reflected a logical classification of the least possible number of critical success factors in the application of higher education quality standards, and these results clarify answers to explain what is required of the main factors to ensure the resulting application of higher education quality standards, and to diagnose the ratio of interpretation of each factor in relation to the rest of the dimension factors in questionnaire form and the results were as follows:

a) The success of applying the quality standards of higher education in the researched university depends on the availability of confusion to disseminate the culture of quality as an integral part of the university’s culture, and this requires preparing a plan based on scientific foundations to create an appropriate environment for a culture of quality in which the focus is on students.

b) It was also revealed through regression analysis a second factor for the success of applying the quality standards of higher education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University within the framework of the founding factor of the quality standards of education to express the implications of flexibility to changes and the requirements for renewal in the programs and study plans at the university.

c) It was also found that the adaptation requirements factor for adopting the quality standards of higher education is one of the factors for the success of applying these standards, as it represents a new stage of adaptation to the best practices that can be followed and applied in the researched university.

d) The analysis indicated that the decisive factor for the successful application of higher education quality standards includes evaluation data and continuous improvement in light of the availability of evaluation of performance and the investment of feedback data in continuous improvement processes in the future.

2. It was found that Al-Ahliyya Amman University has critical success factors to ensure the successful application of higher education quality standards, as well as the availability of awareness for the sample members of the importance of these factors, which embodies the possibility of formulating a systematic roadmap to transfer the contents of critical factors into practical application at the university, and this is confirmed by the values of the test ( Chi-Square Test), which showed the existence of a consensus relationship in the answers of the study sample individuals regarding the study variables and its factors.

3. By describing the critical success factors and its variables, it is clear to us that the responses of the sample members are focused in its positive direction, and this reflects the researched university’s understanding of the concepts adopted by the research, and the ability of this university to diagnose the implications of the factors in the practical side, as well as the variation in the relative importance of the critical success factors from factor to Another, and this result reflects the logic of Al-Ahliyya Amman University in diagnosing priorities and preferences within the pattern of the relationship between all of the CSFs as an interconnected and sequential chain in moving from one step to another and according to importance.

Recommendations

Based on the findings of this research, the researcher decided to present a number of proposals and recommendations that may enhance the work of Al-Ahliyya Amman University, as follows:

1. The need to pay attention to the contents of the quality culture and work to make it part of the university’s culture because of its positive effects on employees ’acceptance of the quality standards and requirements of education, in the context of providing an appropriate environment for adopting a culture of quality in which the focus is on the following aspects:

a) Preparing a comprehensive plan within a specific time frame based on scientific foundations to disseminate the culture of quality.

b) The goals of the plan focus on students and students' families as the main focus of quality work.

c) Availability of a future vision to improve the quality of the information system, services and academic programs.

d) The plan includes a diagnosis of changes in the current strategy on the one hand, and future prediction of factors and forces affecting the educational process on the other hand.

2. The necessity to have the implications of flexibility and renewable capacity in the programs and objectives within the framework of establishing standards for quality education, which require the following areas:

a) Preparing employees so that they are at a high level of career readiness for future development.

b) Searching for high-performing universities that adopt the best education practices, and then diagnosing the best practices and working to adopt them.

c) Establishing an appropriate infrastructure that is compatible with the quality requirements at the level of (buildings, vital facilities and advanced technology) is one of the requirements adopted by high-performance organizations, especially since the researched university buildings and facilities are old and in need of reconstruction and renovation.

d) Work to spread the advantages and characteristics that can be transferred from other universities and apply them within the plans of the educational process at Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

e) Intensifying on-the-job training processes to enhance staff readiness and acquisition of key skills for teaching and learning.

3. The researched university should work on adapting to best practices to adopt education quality standards. The following main steps can be taken:

a) Work to amend the organizational structure in line with the new directions for adopting and applying quality standards of education.

b) The need to move away from centralization and routine in the context of expanding the base of participation in decision-making.

b) The need to move away from centralization and routine in the context of expanding the base of participation in decision-making.

d) Work to employ information and communication technology and adapt to its requirements and provide it in order to achieve the integration of the educational process.

4. The university administration must successfully implement quality standards and work to provide support at various levels, including the following aspects:

a) Availability of supportive leadership at the level of preparing the resources and training necessary to achieve the strategic objectives.

b) The administration shall provide opportunities for advancement and development for qualified cadres in line with its aspirations for improving quality levels.

c) Availability a fair system of all kinds of incentives to promote and encourage affirmative action.

5. The researched university should provide an integrated system to provide information that contributes to the evaluation of business results and then improves them on an ongoing basis, building the system requires creating the following requirements.

a) Forming a specialized department to follow up and conduct analysis operations.

b) Adopting transparent, clear scientific and realistic standards for measurement.

c) Adopting the principle of accountability by investing in the results of the feedback.

d) Diagnose and identify areas for continuous improvement related to quality and educational options.

e) Work on continuous improvement of the contents of the quality of teaching in order to achieve the quality of working life in the university as a whole.

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