Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies (Print ISSN: 1078-4950; Online ISSN: 1532-5822)

Case Reports: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 2S

Development Orientation and Major Solutions for Vietnam Education Policy on Training Human resources in the Next Years

Nghiem Xuan Dung, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences

Nguyen Khac Binh, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences

Citation Information: Dung, N.X. (2021). Development orientation and major solutions for Vietnam education policy on training human resources in the next years. Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies, 27(7), 1-10.


Over the past years, Education and Training (ET) sector has observed the constant implementation of Resolution No. 29-NQ/TW on fundamental and comprehensive reform of education and training (ET). Under the direction of the Central Committee of the Vietnamese Communist Party and the State, coupling with joint effort made by the Central functional departments, ministries, branches, provinces and cities in association with the sense of responsibility of the teaching staffs and the ceaselessly support of a large number of people from all walks of life, ET sector has gained prominent achievements in various aspects. Nevertheless, there remain several shortcomings in some areas of the sector. Within the scope of this article, by highlighting the achievements after 05 years of comprehensive reform of education, the author summarizes the initial attainments and evaluates that success to pinpoint some drawbacks in executing the sectoral tasks as well as stating the missions for the future. It is of hopefulness that these contents would partly make contribution to the entire people's participation in the comprehensive reform of education and training, which dedicates to an increasingly prosperous nation.


Education, Major Solutions, Development Orientation, Training Human Resources, Vietnam.

General Direction

On the basis of the results achieved in the school year 2017-2018 on the implementation of 09 key task groups and 05 basic solutions of the sector, overcoming shortcomings, in the school year 2019-2020, the education sector continues to focus on implementing Resolution No. 29-NQ/TW of the Party Central Committee, Resolution No. 44/NQ-CP of the Government on radical and comprehensive reform of education and training, Resolution No. 88/2014/QH13 of the National Assembly XIII, Resolution No. 51/2017/QH13 of the National Assembly XIV and Directive No. 16/CT-TTg dated 18 June 2018 of the Prime Minister on promoting programs and textbooks renovation on general education, Resolutions of the Party, the National Assembly, the Government and the Prime Minister's direction; increasing the local awareness of implementation of Directive for school year 2018-2019 of the education sector.

Stabilizing industry innovations; at the same time, implementing a number of key tasks to improve the quality of education, order and discipline, and resolve pressing issues in public opinion.

Pre-school education needs to implement mechanisms and policies for development of schools and classes in industrial parks and export processing zones; promote measures to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of state management of preschool education, reduce child violence and address the shortage of teachers.

General education continues to prepare conditions for the implementation of new curricula and textbooks, especially for grade 1; improve the quality of examination work, examination and assessment, especially the national high school exams; strengthening moral education, lifestyles and life skills for students; renovation of management mechanism in general schools.

Higher education continues to promote university self-control, improve the quality of education in line with the context of the Industrial Revolution 4.0, meeting the needs of society for the graduates to have jobs suitable to the training majors.

Key Tasks

Review, Plan and Develop the Network of Educational and Training Establishments throughout the Country

Organizing the review and planning of the network of general education establishments in the spirit of the Resolution No. 19-NQ/TW of the Party Central Committee on further renovating the organizational system and managing, improving the quality and efficiency of public service delivery agencies.

Developing and promulgating criteria and standards for schools and classrooms for localities to apply in the planning process; Developing mechanisms for coordinating the implementation of the planning between the Ministry of Education and Training and the provincial/municipal People's Committees as well as local departments and branches; the mechanism of inspection, supervision, reporting and evaluation of the implementation of education and training development planning.

Continuing to complete the master plan for the network of higher education and teacher training institutions; implementing according to the planning roadmap after the Prime Minister signs for promulgation.

Developing a scheme on reorganization of pedagogical schools in order to raise the training, retraining and fostering teachers and educational administrators.

Studying, proposing and submitting to the Government for promulgation policies on development of preschools in industrial parks and export processing zones and guide localities in organizing the implementation thereof. The localities shall prioritize the scrutiny of planning and investment of resources and reserve adequate land fund for the construction of pre-schools and kindergartens in industrial parks, export processing zones and population quarters.

Raise the Quality of the Teachers and Education Administrators at all Levels

Reviewing, adjusting or promulgating norms on the number of employees at educational and training establishments according to the policy on streamlining of the Resolution No. 18-TW/NQ and Resolution No. 19-NQ/TW dated 25 October 2017 of the Central Government and implementing the new general education program (Ministry of education and training, 2017).

Localities review and rearrange the teachers, and have appropriate plans to overcome the shortage of teachers, especially in the “hot” growth areas in terms of student size.

Training teachers and administrators in implementing new general education programs and textbooks, giving priority to the contingent of grade 1 teachers; deploying the system of training and fostering of teachers via internet on a national scale. Training and developing the teachers working as consultancy and vocational guidance instructors in junior and senior high schools.

Guiding the localities and training establishments to appoint, examine, promote and grade salary according to the criteria of professional titles in accordance with regulations; to seriously evaluate teachers and educational administrators according to the promulgated standards; to perform well the work of honoring and commendation as well as regimes and policies to create motivation and conditions for the contingent of teachers with professional interests.

Implementing the standards and assess the contingent of teachers and principals of the educational establishments according to the standards, thus identifying the capacity and demand for fostering of teachers and educational administrators meeting the requirements of the standard for the head of general education establishments and professional standards of teachers promulgated by the Ministry of Education and Training.

Enhancing the fostering and raising of sense of responsibility and ethics of the teachers and educational administrators; to rectify and strictly handle units and individuals who violate the moral ethics of teachers.

Implementing the scheme on raising the quality of lecturers and educational administrators after the Prime Minister's approval.

Renovate Preschool Education Programs; Promote Vocational Education and Orientation of Education in General Education

Guiding pre-school education establishments in implementing preschool education programs after their correction; localities shall support the preschool education establishments to improve conditions for the implementation of the Program; implementing programs to support and educate young parents with knowledge and skills in caring for and educating their children; to build and deploy models of family-school-community coordination in child care and education; continue to provide professional support to teachers in private independent classes.

Evaluating, promulgating and guiding the provincial/ municipal Education and Training Departments and general education establishments in implementing the new general education program; to formulate and promulgate documents guiding the compilation of textbooks under the new general education curriculum and organize the training and fostering for participants in compiling and evaluating new textbooks; to direct the organization of the compilation of a set of textbooks of all subjects in grades 1 through 12, with priority given to class 1. At the same time, encouraging organizations and individuals to compile textbooks under the general education curriculum according to the new curriculum (National Institute for Vocational Education and Training (NIVET), 2020).

Evaluating textbooks (including textbooks guided by the Ministry of Education and Training and other textbooks prepared by other organizations and individuals) in accordance with Circular No. 33/2017/TT-BGDT; approving and authorizing the use of textbooks based on the evaluation results of the National Council for evaluating text books; instructing general education establishments to select textbooks for use; guiding localities to organize the compilation of contents on the historical, cultural and socio-economic characteristics of localities.

Localities shall work out plans and organize the training of the contingent of teachers and administrators of educational institutions in order to deploy the implementation of new general education educational programs and textbooks.

Deploying the implementation plan of the Prime Minister's Decision No. 522/QD-TTg dated 14 May 2018 on the Scheme on vocational education and orienting the distribution of pupils in general education.

Improving the effectiveness of education on political thought, morals, lifestyles and life skills for students; enhancing school security, safety, building a school culture and a healthy school environment, promoting democracy and enhancing school discipline.

Improve the Quality of Teaching Foreign Languages, Especially English at all Levels and Levels of Training

Continue to improve, promulgate and implement foreign language programs, textbooks and materials. For general education, priority is given to completing the curriculum and pilot materials for children who are familiar with English and the programs and textbooks of foreign languages in the new general education program. For post-secondary education, continue to complete, build language programs according to the standards and training sector. In addition, encourage the teaching of foreign languages integrated in other subjects and teach other subjects and majors in foreign languages at educational institutions with needs and conditions for implementation.

Develop and standardize the contingent of foreign language teachers, especially the teachers of general education to meet the requirement of implementing the 10-year foreign language program. Train foreign language teachers in a combination of online and direct methods; Renovation of foreign language teacher training programs to meet the requirements of the teacher's professional standards and the framework of foreign language teachers. Fostering foreign language competence and pedagogical capacity for teachers teaching other subjects in foreign languages (Asian Development Bank, 2020).

Formulate and implement plans on fostering and developing foreign language skills for the contingent of cadres, civil servants and employees; especially for the staff of strategic level.

Continue to renew the forms and methods of examinations, tests and assessments of foreign language skills of pupils and students according to the standards set forth right in the process and according to the results of each stage of education and training. Continue to develop the test format according to the 6-level foreign language capability framework for Vietnam, prioritizing computer-aided exam and online exam format; Step by step to develop a foreign language exam bank. Direct, guide, organize examinations and grant foreign language certificates to ensure objectivity and accuracy.

Strengthen the conditions for teaching and learning foreign languages in the direction of applying IT, building a system of support for teaching and learning foreign languages online and on computers for grades and essential equipment for the implementation of teaching and learning foreign languages to meet general training objectives.

Strengthen communication on teaching and learning foreign languages to provide timely information to the whole society, especially teachers, lecturers, students, administrators and educators. Develope guidelines for building and developing learning environment and using foreign languages, launching teacher movement to learn English with students. Strengthen teaching and learning foreign languages on the mass media.

Strengthen the urge, guidance, inspection and supervision of teaching and learning foreign languages at all levels and training levels, ensuring full implementation, effective follow the schedule set objectives.

Promote the Application of Information Technology in Teaching, Learning and Educational Management

Complete the database of the whole education sector, supplementing the component databases of pre-school and general education; develop a database on higher education; integrate the existing sectorial management information systems into the sectorial database and move towards a uniform sectorial use of a sectorial database for education management information systems by 2020 (The Word Bank, 2020).

Synchronization of management software in education and training departments, in schools, data linkage with sectorial database software; Enhance the use of electronic files (grades, school records, contact books); Deploy online enrollment solution with first class level.

Develop and put into operation and exploit effectively the whole sector data warehouse, the online question bank used to renovate content, teaching methods, assessment and evaluation in the school and contribute to Vietnamese numerical knowledge of digital quality materials on a regular basis.

Continue to mobilize teachers to participate in the e-learning course and contribute to the online e-learning lecture; strongly deploy e-learning (blended learning) solutions in higher education; Deploy e-learning models and intelligent classrooms in places where conditions permit, in order to raise the quality of teaching.

Continue improving the application of information technology to officials, teachers, lecturers, pupils and students; Deploy solutions to improve the quality of information technology training in tertiary education and development of information technology human resources to meet labor market requirements in the context of international integration and the Industrial Revolution 4.0.

Promote the Self-control and Self-responsibility of Educational and Training Establishments

Submit to the Government a decree on management in pre-school and general education establishments. Coordinate with the Ministry of Home Affairs in guiding localities in decentralizing state management in the field of education and training.

Complete and submit to the Government for promulgation a decree prescribing the mechanism of self-control for public higher education institutions and documents guiding the specific regulation on self-control for public higher education institutions. Formulate and promulgate the system of technical-economic norms, criteria and quality standards for pre-school and general education establishments.

Direct the National Economics University, Hanoi University of Technology, Economics University of Ho Chi Minh City to complete the pilot scheme for the implementation of a mechanism without a line agency, on which the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) elaborates and submits to the Government for promulgation a Resolutions on the policy of implementing the pilot mechanism without leading agencies for universities (Ministry of education and training, 2020).

International Integration in Education and Training

Promulgate the Circular guiding the implementation of Decree No. 86/2018/ND-CP on foreign cooperation and investment in the field of education and directing the organization of implementation; to efficiently implement signed international treaties and agreements.

Direct higher education institutions to actively expand international cooperation in scientific research, technology transfer, joint training, credit recognition, program linkage, equivalent degrees to accredited foreign universities.

Strengthening the Facilities to Ensure the Quality of Education and Training Activities

To organize the review and assessment of the existing physical foundations and teaching equipment of pre-school and general education establishments; on that basis, the localities shall develop, repair and renovate, with the priority objectives of construction items: classrooms, libraries, toilets, clean water works, canteens, rooms for boarding students, semi-boarding students and paying special attention to difficult areas, ethnic minority areas, border and island areas and supplementary teaching equipment.

To guide the effective implementation of the scheme on assurance of material foundations for pre-school education and general education programs after the Prime Minister's approval. To review, adjust, supplement and promulgate regulations on technical standards for school facilities, classrooms and teaching equipment in line with the new general education program and the actual conditions of the local. Guide the local implementation.

Develop Human Resources, Especially High Quality Human Resources

Develope modern university training programs to meet the demands of the labor market and international integration; innovative approach to training approaches to the industrial revolution 4.0.

Implement the scheme of the Prime Minister on support for start-up students; compile a set of materials to provide knowledge and skills for students; formulate a contingent of cadres who provide consultancy and support for students starting their careers in universities, institutes, colleges and intermediate schools nationwide.

Promote the development of a number of higher education institutions, regional and international training disciplines and high-quality teacher training establishments. Study and promulgate effective mechanisms and policies to attract good students to study pedagogy.

Basic Solutions

Institutional improvement on education and training

Submit to the National Assembly for approval the revised Education Law and the Law amending and supplementing a number of articles of the Law on Higher Education; issue documents guiding the Law.

Review the promulgated mechanisms and policies; studying, amending, supplementing and perfecting policies and legislation on education and training, particularly the policies towards people in difficult, deep-lying, remote and ethnic minority areas, mountainous areas to ensure compliance with practical requirements.

Continue implementing the administrative reform according to the Prime Minister's Decision No. 225/QD-TTg dated 04 February 2016 on the State administrative reform plan for the period 2016-2020; Decision No. 2163/QDBGDDT dated 28 June 2016 on State administrative reform plan of the period 2016-2020 of MOET (National Institute for Vocational Education and Training, 2016; Asian Development Bank, 2020).

Continue to renovate management; promote the implementation of self-control in education and training institutions.

Intensify the inspection work, meeting the requirements of educational management reform. Concentrate on well implementing the Resolution No. 63/2018/QH14 of 15 June 2008 of the XIV National Assembly, focusing on reorganizing training cooperation, violation of the law on diplomas and certificates, the confirmation of eligibility for high school graduation examinations, the granting of foreign language certificates under the new framework, the recognition of training establishments up to national standards; strictly violating the moral acts of teachers and educational administrators, teachers, parents, pupils and students. Strongly implement the Inspectorate Strengthening Project to meet the requirements of fundamental and comprehensive renewal of education and training until 2020. Strengthen the coordination of provincial and ministerial inspectorate in education inspection. Serious and open handling of violations to impact the whole system (Ministry of Education and Training, 2017).

Improve the Leadership Capacity of Educational Administrators at all Levels

Promulgate standards and criteria for managers at all levels and implement training programs and plans up to the level prescribed for managerial positions. Continue renovating the management mode and raising the managerial capacity in education and training establishments.

Carry out the assessment and classification of managers according to the standards; organize the appointment of educational administrators at all levels based on managerial and leadership capabilities and ensure the satisfaction of the prescribed criteria; to further strengthen discipline and discipline for educational administrators.

Intensify the inspection, examination and strict handling of law violations in education and training activities.

Strengthen Investment Resources for Education and Training

Closely coordinate with the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Planning and Investment in elaborating the principle of distribution and order of priority for allocation of funds and relevant documents to guide the implementation of the program on education for the mountainous, ethnic minorities and disadvantaged areas in the period of 2016-2020 in accordance with Decision No. 775/QÐ-TTg dated 27 June 2018 of the Prime Minister (Ministry of education and training, 2019).

Cooperate closely with the Ministry of Planning and Investment in advising the Government and the National Assembly on 2018 funding for government bonds for 2017-2020.

Propose the sources of central budget capital to assist localities in making investment in material foundations and procurement of equipment. Priority will be given to investment in preschool, primary and minimum equipment according to the roadmap for renovating programs and textbooks; prioritize provinces and regions with slow economic development, especially socio-economic difficulties, provinces regularly affected by natural calamities, provinces in the midland and mountainous areas in the north, the Central Highlands and the Mekong River Delta, especially in areas with large ethnic minority population.

Organize the implementation of the scheme on assurance of material foundations for preschool and general education programs after they are approved by the Prime Minister.

Step up the socialization, first of all for higher education, encourage the development of non-public schools in order to meet the social demands for high-quality education in urban centers; for the highly socialized training sector, the state budget only supports policy beneficiaries, ethnic minorities and promotes talents, equal access to state support for learners in public and non-public schools. Renovate procedures for accessing and attracting ODA and preferential loans in line with the new financing trend. Focus on attracting investment and broadening the mode of cooperation with training institutions with science and technology and education establishments through forms of cooperation in joint training, scientific research, technology transfer (Ministry of education and training, 2020).

Review and finalize regulations on existing mechanisms and policies and supplement new regulations to ensure equal treatment and create a fair and transparent competition environment between public and private educational establishments, between the establishment of the local e-commerce and foreign elements to create attractive and promote the mobilization, creating the investment environment. Create favorable environment, opportunities and conditions for the Vietnamese community of scientists, researchers and businessmen and enterprises both inside and outside the country; as well as foreign scientists and researchers as well as foreign businessmen and entrepreneurs working in Vietnam and abroad to contribute their efforts, intellect and money to the development of EET. Create linkages and cooperation between regions and localities in the mobilization in order to save and raise the efficiency of the use of mobilized resources. Enhance the responsibility, initiative, creativity and flexibility of the establishment in the mobilization.

Intensify the Work of Examinations and Accreditation of Education

Strictly manage the licensing, standards, operating conditions and activities for preschool education. Review and finalize the process, procedures and publicity of the recognition of diplomas, titles and titles of university lecturers.

Continue to complete the national high school examination, obtaining the results to consider the recognition of high school graduation and serving as a basis for recruiting university education, enrollment for vocational education, overcoming the state of achievement in education, reducing pressure for students, families and society. Specifically: reviewing, seriously evaluating and timely handling the negative and shortcomings that occur in the national high school examinations in 2018 to draw experience in management, directing examinations; continue to supplement the exam questions bank as a basis to develop exam questions better meet the purpose and requirements of the national high school exams; perfect the software testing in the direction of increasing security, preventing the risk of cheating in the exam; improve the method of organizing examinations in the direction of concentrating on clusters and strengthening the state management function, supervision and inspection role of MOET and responsibilities for examination councils (Ministry of education and training, 2019).

Promote accreditation of educational and training institutions, training programs, and accreditation in accordance with regional and international standards.

Promote Communication on Education and Training

Communication on the results of five years of implementation of the Party's Resolution No. 29-NQ/TW on fundamental and comprehensive renewal of education and training; the amendment of the Law on Education and the Law amending and supplementing a number of articles of the Law on Higher Education.

Communication on the development of new general education programs and textbooks and the preparation of quality assurance conditions for the implementation of new general education textbooks and programs in localities.

Promote communication about good examples in the education sector; teachers, students innovation, creativity and good results in teaching and learning.

Development Orientation

In order to further the progress, the ET sector has identified the fundamental orientation, mainly in the following years, to successfully conduct the Party's resolutions and the State's education policies in the spirit of comprehensive reform of education and training, thereby contribute to training high quality personnel to serve the socio-economic development of the nation. These specific approaches are as follows:

1. Drastically and synchronously implementing solutions to complete the goals of the 5-year plan 2016 - 2020; overcoming and creating a fundamental change in the ET pressing issues being concerned by the society and public, in which, focusing on well performing the hereinafter 5 groups of core tasks: (i) Reviewing, arranging, planning the network of ET institutions; (ii) Improving the quality of teachers and educational administrators; (iii) Intensely renewing the education management mechanism; (iv) Developing human resources, especially high-quality personnel; (v) Promoting education of morality, lifestyle and life skills for pupils and students (National Institute for Vocational Education and Training, 2016; Asian Development Bank, 2020).

2. Regarding Pre-school education: Strengthening the state management on preschool education; reforming the management mechanism, improving the school administration capacity in association with promoting democracy in the operation of preschool educational institutions; addressing the shortage of teachers; boosting necessary conditions to enhance the quality of preschool educational program.

3. Considering General education: Proactively preparing conditions for the application of new programs and textbooks, especially for grade 1; promoting vocational education and segregating orientation in general education; continuing the managerial renewal and further empowering the decentralization of general educational institutions.

4. As for Higher education: Continuing to upgrade the quality of students, especially high-quality personnel; closely linking training with the demand of the labor market and meeting the requirements of socio-economic development in the Industrial Revolution 4.0 context; further delegating the autonomy and accountability to higher education institutions as well as attaching greater importance to output quality management.

5. In respect of Continuing education: Fostering the state management capacity of the system of private continuing education institutions with foreign investment capital; enhancing the operational efficiency of community learning centers, continuing education centers and vocational training centers".

Amidst the complicated global situation of Covid-19 pandemic, the comprehensive reform and implementation of an urgent policy on advanced digital transformation for education is an inevitable trend that develops rapidly, especially in the context of the Industrial Revolution 4.0. In June 2020, Vietnam’s Prime Minister approved the National Digital Transformation Program to 2025, with a vision to 2030, in which education and training is one of the 8 top priorities to be conducted. The execution of the national digital transformation policy must be associated with mastering and operating the system of digital data-digital information-shared digital knowledge in a unified and synchronous manner in service of enhancing the efficiency of management, direction and administration as well as innovating the acts of teaching, learning and scientific research activities. Besides, it is of necessity to formulate and promote the policy enforcement in accordance with the international integration strategy of Vietnam's education and training in the period of 2021-2030, with a vision to 2045; also create favorable conditions for educational institutions to expand international cooperation in exchange of pupils/students, teachers/lecturers, scientific research in the context of digital transformation (The Word Bank, 2020).

Vietnam’s top-leading universities in the QS Asia University Rankings always put their prime importance to the digital transformation as the key to form and conduct the policy of establishing tertiary institutions with smartness, innovations, sustainable development, regularity, elite and modernity. There go some instances of attaining significant effectiveness during digital transformation process such as: HCMC Vietnam National University, Ton Duc Thang University, Posts and Telecommunications Institute of Technology (PTIT) and Duy Tan University. Particularly, the PTIT has successfully established a platform of digital university in which thousands of lecturers, staffs and students can utilize during their operation, from teaching, studying, document researching to parking, searching schedules and food payment only by their smartphone.


  1. Asian Development Bank (2020). Vietnam Vocational Education and Training Report, 01-192.
  2. Ministry of Education and Training (2017). Education Sector Analysis (for General Education in the 2011-2015 period), Final Report, 01-145.
  3. Ministry of Education and Training (2017). Vietnam Vocational Education and Training Report, 01-19.
  4. Ministry of Education and Training (2019). Statistics of Vietnam Education and Training 2018
  5. Ministry of Education and Training (2020). Teach for Vietnam Annual Report 2019-2020, 01-40.
  6. National Institute for Vocational Education and Training (2016). Vietnam Vocational Education and Training Report, 01-120.
  7. National Institute for Vocational Education and Training (NIVET) (2020). Vietnam Vocational Education and Training Report 2018, Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA), 01-102.
  8. The Word Bank (2020). Improving the Performance of Higher Education in Vietnam: Strategic Priorities and Policy Options, Higher Education Sector Report, 01-77.
Get the App