International Journal of Entrepreneurship (Print ISSN: 1099-9264; Online ISSN: 1939-4675)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 1S

Do Job Performance Mediates between E-Learning Training Program and Organizational Performance: A Case of Dubai Police Force

Ahmed Abdulla Yousef Ahmed Alzaabi, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Ahmad Bashawir Bin Haji Abdul Ghani, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Keywords

Performance, Motivation, Job Performance, E-learning Training Programs

Abstract

With the passage of time world is moving towards E-Systems, either its banking, teaching, or training. The prior literature was a bit ambiguous about the effectiveness of e-learning and training programs. In the last two decades Dubai Police Force has conducted several trainings of their employees; however, no empirical evidence was available for the effectiveness of those trainings. The current study is an attempt to identify the effectiveness of e-trainings that were provided to Dubai Police Force. For the said purpose data was collected from the employees of Dubai Police force using a predetermined and well-established scale. The responses were then analyzed using Smart PLS-3. The findings revealed that e-learning training has a significant positive impact over organizational performance of Dubai Police force as well as job performance. Furthermore, job performance mediates the relationship e-learning training and organizational performance of Dubai Police force. In future the researchers are guided to add more variables as mediators or some other variable as a moderator to further explain organizational performance through human resource.

Introduction

The focus of this study is to examine the impact of E-learning training program on organizational performance with the mediating role of job performance of the Dubai police force. About last two decades organizations realized the importance of human resource to achieve competitive advantage. For organizations to attain competitive advantage, training programs are vital to be used. As employees become more productive and efficient after acquiring the new knowledge and information (Colbert et al., 2018).

In order to achieve organizational objectives, training plays an imperative role while keeping in view the interests of the firms and workforce of the organizations (Phillips & Stone, 2002). Training invasions planned to advance logical connotation are established in accordance with multiple perceptions and different ways in several disciplines such as, cognitive psychology (Au et al., 2015; Buschkuehl & Jaeggi, 2010; Jaeggi et al., 2011) behavioral psychology (Remingt-on et al., 2007), medical and health sciences (Åberg et al., 2009; Davis et al., 2007) and psychopharmacology (Rae et al., 2003).

For successful application of E-learning training programs, technological platforms as well as software and hardware setups are imperative basic requirements (Marshall, 2012; McGill, Klobas & Renzi, 2014). Considering the continuous advancement in Internet-based atmosphere, multiple studies confirmed that the contents delivered to employees via e-training programs are more effective than those of traditional training programs (Abdous & Yoshimura, 2010). Now a days E-learning Training Program is gaining notoriety in law enforcement organizations (Lin, Huang & Zhang, 2019) and is considered imperative for the grooming and education (Desai, Roberts & Ciavarelli, 2006).

Online learning or E-learning, instruct the trainees in various ways through web based podiums (Lin et al., 2019). In order to facilitate the workforce learning and knowledge in variety of ways, E-learning training programs are extensively applied along with technological advancements (Cheng et al., 2014). Despite of the fact that organizations always prefer E-learning over the conventional learning, still very limited research is available to find out the ways to make it more effective for employees and organizations as a whole (Bedwell & Salas, 2010; Belkhamza & Abdullah, 2019; Salas et al., 2012) as, E-learning training programs are very expensive and required a lot of effort to be organized (Kraiger, 2003). However, due to swift global technological developments, different organizations are encountered with multiple issues and challenges, and there are multiple factors which are involved with effects of e-trainings on individual as well as organizational outcomes which needs to be address in an efficient and effective manner (Northup, 2018).

“Organizational Performance” gained more notoriety and momentum in the 1980s when its transformation took place ‘from a construct to a concept’ (Henry, 2011). Now a days in the field of management research, ‘organizational performance’ is a most discussed and studied topic (Abdulhabib & Al-Dhaafri, 2019). Commonly, the term performance referred as the determinant of realization of goals at individual and organizational level that reflects the actual effectiveness of the organizations (Abdulhabib & Al-Dhaafri, 2019). Therefore, it can be said that high level of organizational performance is vital for any kind of organizations varying from private to public (Maltz, Shenhar & Reilly, 2003). Performance of the law enforcement agencies is very crucial for the security of any country; therefore effect of e-training on the overall organizational performance of the Dubai police force is very important to study. Scholars have recommended to include multiple criteria related to researches about performance of organizations (Jain & Moreno, 2015). Therefore, in current study organizational performance will be measured on the bases of E-training provided by the organizations to their employees along with individuals’ performance.

Profession of police force is regarded as one of the most stressful and critical profession all over the world (Bishopp, Worrall & Piquero, 2016; Gupta & Nandini, 2015; Kuo, 2015; McCreary, Fong & Groll, 2017; Ramey & Shrider, 2014). The officers working in Law enforcem-ent agencies accomplish multiple tasks on routine bases and hence to minimize the risks involved in their field and to facilitate officers to handle these instant situations, multiple kinds of E-learning training programs have been applied (Giovengo, 2016). The training programs applied in Dubai Police force is an example of such E-learning training programs. Since last 10 decades, several technological developments can be witnessed in the profession of law enforcement (Northup, 2018) which appeared so rapidly and effected the employees as well as organizational performance at large scale. To cope with continuously changing technological advancements, millions of dollars are spent by law enforcement agencies in officers’ training (Byrne & Marx, 2011) yet the impact has least been analyzed (Maurya & Agarwal, 2018).

As employees are the prime asset of the organizations and play a key role in all organizations matters to attain the maximum success and competitive edge over the organizations, therefore, they must be given the desired attention (Aik & Tway, 2006). Job performance is defined by (Rotundo & Sackett, 2002), as the controlled behaviors and actions of the individuals that ultimately contribute towards achievement of organizational goals (Bertolino, Truxillo & Fraccaroli, 2013). Trudel (2009), conceptualized the job performance as the long-term value generated by employees through their work. Similarly, Mensah (2015) defined job performance as the resourcefully taken positive and valuable actions by the individual that are in favor of their organizations. At large, in organizational context the employees job performance has attained a very crucial position because it is considered a prerequisite for the performance, success and survival of any organization to achieve competitive edge and positive recognition among the others (Aqqad et al., 2019).

That is why, it is the prime responsibility of any organization to pay a special attention on employees’ training in order to enhance their individual performance at maximum which further results into organizational performance as a whole (Aqqad et al., 2019). And this is only possible if leaders and subordinates perceive that training ultimately result in to enhanced organizational performance. As if leaders and subordinates perceive that training provided to them by the organizations will result into their knowledge and skills enhancement than they will work more hard to perform at their best level as a result organizational performance increases automatically (Aqqad et al., 2019).

As suggested by Abdulhabib & Al-Dhaafri (2019) that training and re-training of workers tend to increase the skills and knowledge. If police in Dubai has adequate and sufficient training system, the service render to the society would be high (Adesola, 2017) which served as a gap to fill in this study. According to (Abdulhabib & Al-Dhaafri, 2019), the problems facing by Dubai police revealed that IT management and strategy management have been the factors affecting employees productivity therefore effective e-learning training programs can facilitate the workforce to employee their services in best possible way to serve the society as a whole.

According to Belkhamza & Abdullah (2019) keeping in view the learning effectiveness, the effect of E-learning training practices on employees’ job performance can be analyzed on the basis of two theories i.e., ‘the institutional learning theory’ (Ghoshal & Bartlett, 1994) and ‘the self-determination theory’ (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Extensive study of literature reveals that under this theoretical context few dimensions need more exploration and testing. These include trainee’s characteristics including job performance and also the effect of E-leaning training program on organizational performance as a result of continuous learning practices. To best of researcher knowledge hardly any study has been conducted on Dubai Police Force that may measure the mediating role of job performance between E-learning training program and organizational performance. Therefore, the focus of current study is on the underlying mechanism of absorptive capacity between E-learning training system and organizational performance. This study will provide a direction for the development of a new approach of E- leaning based training and its effect on organizational productivity through the capacity building of the workforce. In addition, this research would be very important for the scholars and researchers to enhance their practical as well as theoretical knowledge to the ways of conducting research.

Literature Review

Literature review starts with conceptualizations of the constructs, based on the available literature, followed by empirical and theoretical review. The main purpose is to collect and compare the literature available with our proposed directions and actual practices of E-learning training programs and its effects on work force as well as on organizational productivity as a whole.

Organizational Performance

During 1950s organizational performance was conceptualized as the level to accomplish the all desired objective of the organization (Guevara, Hsu & Forrest, 2011). Later on, till 1970s organizational performance was considered as the capability of any organization to access and utilize its limited resources by exploiting the organizational environment. (Griffin, Harris & Topaloglu, 2003), referred the organizational performance as the capability of the firms to satisfy the expectations of the stakeholders. Therefore, it is all about value creation, as the existence of the organization is ensured by the value created based on an evaluation process after the use of organizational resource and resultant outcomes i.e., results are favorable if the actual outcomes are equal to or greater than the expected outcomes (Carton, 2004).

According to Vassilakis & Besseris (2009) the achievement of the organizational objectives of the firms is regarded as organizational performance. (Ramezan, Sanjaghi & baly, 2013) defined, organizational performance as “the ability to acquire and process properly human, financial, and physical resources to achieve the goals of the organization” (p.191). With the passage of time E-learning training programs became the standard procedure for enhancing knowledge and capabilities (Desai et al., 2006; Leal, 2009; Lin et al., 2019; Schmeeckle, 2003). In order to facilitate the workforce learning and knowledge in variety of ways, E-learning training programs are extensively applied along with technological advancements (Cheng et al., 2014). Based on these conflicting interests among stakeholders of government organizations two fundamental questions were raised by (Zammuto, 1984) i.e., i) Who is the most import part of these organizations and must be satisfied? ii). while considering these preferences of stakeholders, how and on what bases organizational performance judgment is established? Later on, (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1981) developed CVF (Competing Value Framework) in order to address those questions and for measurement of organizational performance (Muterera et al., 2018).

Based on the multiple contexts, performance has been defined in multiple ways as, in process view point; it refers to the change of inputs into outputs to accomplish certain specific goals (Guevara et al., 2011). In an economic view point, performance is regarded as, an association among effective cost, expected and achieved positive and beneficial outcomes (Abu-Jarad, Yusof & Nikbin, 2010). At organizational level performance represents the productivity, efficiency, rate of absenteeism, adaptability and turn-over rate (Obeidat, 2016). For any organization, in order to survive and achieve competitive advantage over the other organizations, organizational performance is thought to be an imperative indicator (Obeidat, 2016).

In order to avoid ambiguity, risk and uncertainty it is important for organization to keep track of their performance on regular basis (Martz, 2013). Based on the purpose of the evaluations, the organizational performance evaluations differ in measurements and techniques, as, in 1940s organizational performance was measured on the bases of finances in terms of profitability (Martz, 2013) which was later criticized and priorities changed with the passage of time and afterwards measures were linked with achievement of competitive advantage, social responsibilities and adaptive abilities etc. Organizational performance is considered to be high while harmony exists in all parts and components of the organization to achieve desired goals (Masa’deh et al., 2018). Finally, in all these conceptualization, organizational performance is linked with individual capabilities and perceptions related to work along with many organizational factors which directly or indirectly effect organizational performance in variety of ways.

E-learning Training Programs

According to Armstrong, et al., (2007) training systematically modify the attitudes and behaviors of the individuals by instructing, educating and developing skills through a continuous learning process (Amd & Roche, 2018). Training is a systematic process of guiding workforce to gain or enhance skills, knowledge, techniques, experience to reshape their attitudes and behaviors in order to achieve border organizational objectives (Moradi, Mohamed & Yahya, 2018). The rapid technological advancements resulted into creation of a knowledge gap which in turn aroused the need for training programs to enhance the abilities of manpower to cope up with those rapid changes (Colbert et al., 2018), thus, resulting into requirement of more training activities. Now a days, based on the need of continuous advancements and to enhance skill, knowledge, and productivity of the individuals, E-learning training program is functional in multiple organizations around the globe (Belkhamza & Abdullah, 2019).

E-learning is conceptualized as the process of learning by utilizing the private networks or internet through exclusively digital technologies (Laudon & Laudon, 2003) and includes variety of applications and platforms i.e., digital collaboration, computer-based learning and web-based learning (Cheng et al., 2012). Employees’ E-learning training programs are very imperative to be conducted by the organizations considering the fact that employees are the main source of the productivity of the organizations (Sweis, Obeidat & Kanaan, 2019). Without proper training initiatives organizations implement the quality management measures in a productive and successful manner as training sessions facilitate the employees to visualize the bigger aspects of the smaller deeds at working place (Sweis et al., 2019). Agrawal, et al., (2016) stated, that E-learning has largely complemented the traditional classroom learning and provided the technical support to the employees with motivation and enhancement of special skills and expertise.

Thus, for the success of E-learning training practices more emphasizes is given to the acquisition of maximum knowledge and technical skills (Shen, Wang & Shen, 2009). E-learning training programs is gaining popularity based on multiple factors such as continuous learning and several problem-solving techniques (Leal, 2009; Pourghaznein, Sabeghi & Shariatinejad, 2015). E-learning training programs can be Synchronous or asynchronous to facilitate the learners to get benefit at large scale (Hrastinski, Keller & Carlsson, 2010). Whereas, learners can log individual-y to complete the training course according to their pace through Asynchronous E-learning training programs.

Based on its characteristics of memory recall and retention E-learning training program is considered to be more effective and efficient way of learning (Pourghaznein et al., 2015). The learners’ abilities, attitude and motivation have a very strong impact on the success of the E-learning training programs therefore, before starting E-learning training activities learners are motivated in different ways such as trough rewards in the form of relaxation, increments and promotions etc. (Gurrera, 2017). According to (Ilgaz et al., 2014), in E-learning training programs, harmonious application of distinctive visual elements is important to bring the efficient learning outcomes. Dubai Police Force is implanting a successful E-learning training program while keeping in view the all above mentioned prerequisites, that is why the department is achieving milestones continuously.

Job Performance

Job performance has been defined by many scholars differently over the years. The behaviours and actions of the employees and resultant outcomes, to accomplish organizational objectives is termed as job performance of the employees (June, 2020). Job performance is the controlled actions and behaviors of the individuals which contribute towards the goal accomplishment of the organizations and attainment of organizational objectives (Sabra, 2020). Whereas, (Trudel, 2009) defined, Job performance like the value created as a consequence of the behaviours exhibited by individuals over time.

On the other hand, Jex & Britt (2014) defined Job performance as a behaviour of individuals during the work. Mensah (2015) defined job performance as the individual’s capacity to take resourceful actions in accordance with the objectives of the organizations. (Kim, Park & Headrick, 2018) defined job performance as, “A dynamic process in which individuals control and allocate various resources to task activities”. One common thing in all these definitions is the behavioural aspect of individuals as, performance is more concerned with behaviours as compared to outcomes, whereas, outcome orientation approach results into the focus and intentions of employees to reach at results by any mean and even by compromising the quality work over the quantity which ultimately results into organizational disaster (Aqqad et al., 2019). Job performance can either be task performance based on the direct linkage with the outcomes that direct effect the organizational performance and deals with the technical side of the organization (Zivnuska et al., 2019).

Therefore, on the basis of all these conceptualizations it can be said that performance is a measure of one’s abilities to perform multiple tasks in various working conditions and situations, and in turn it is a record of achievement of individuals’ work as a result of performing those assigned tasks efficiently and successfully handling the complex dangerous situations by utilizing time, skill with determination. Whereas, job performance of the police workers is all about the “The quality of police service” (Rosenbaum et al., 2015) (p 339).

Relationship of E-learning Training Program and Job Performance

Manzoor, et al., (2019) defined training as, provision of useful and helpful ideas, knowledge and skills, that how to perform a particular job in an efficient and effective manner. According to Campbell (2017) “training and development implies an individual growth and self-realization in a brand base” (p 335). Most of the organizations know very well that knowledge sharing and continuous learning always results into sustainability and high level of performance (Hur et al., 2013). Adding to that, many organizations have developed and applied multiple training approaches and tools so that their employees can acquire best knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to achieve and maintain a high level of individual as well organizational performance (Sung & Choi, 2014). In short it can be said that the acceptance of E-learning training systems has been extensively known as essential system, for management, skill development, situation handling and for knowledge sharing (Stone et al., 2015).

In a study by Nassazi (2013) effects of training on employee’s job performance were examined, data was collected from telecommunication companies in Uganda by utilizing a qualitative research approach and it was found that training has a positive effect on employee performance. E-learning training system strongly impact the positive outcomes on job performance (Lin et al., 2019; Yoo & Huang, 2016). Lin, et al., (2019) conducted a study in engineering department to have insight about the effect E-learning investment in professional grooming of employees. Training program of the employees arranged by employers increases individual as well as organization performance (Raja et al., 2018). Hanif (2013) conducted a study in hotel industry of Lahore, Pakistan to check that to what extent the training programs arranged by the employers actually effect the performance level of employees and found the positive results. As Reynolds (2014) stated that learning is accelerated by training which plays a very imperative role to in enhancement of employee’s performance by working on multiple thing at a time ranging from enhancement of knowledge, skills, goal accomplishment capabilities and being open to innovations and continuous change etc.

E-learning training programs is a continuous and a long-term instruction and learning procedure using an organized and compact process which deliver a met contextual level of knowledge to take an active part in efficient working of the individual (Reuben & Mwangi, 2019). (Reuben & Mwangi, 2019) stated that training is a learning process which enhance the variety of skills in individuals in diversity of ways but the most important effect of the E-learning training program is the enhanced performance of the individuals which is a milestone leading to the prosperity of any organization. Now a day’s variety of training programs are offered by different corporations in order to meet the organizational requirements, same is the case with Dubai police force as they are using multiple training programs among which the most prominent and effective is E-learning training program which help the workforce to work more efficiently and effectively in different instant situations by enhancing their skills, expertise, and knowledge.

Relationship between Job performance and Organizational Performance

Job performance referred to the dedicated hard work, taking initiative, self-disciplined, following rules and motivated acts etc. for supporting the organizational objectives (Zheng et al., 2012). (Khan, Ziauddin & Ramay, 2010) suggested mangers that they should pay special consideration to the predictors of the employees’ commitment with the jobs in order to increase their performance on the job that ultimately result into increased organizational performance. According to (Mohammed et al., 2013), the rational decision making of individuals with good performance directly affect the organizational productivity. A significant positive association of employee’s performance with organizational performance was reported by (Peng et al., 2010). (Irefin & Mechanic, 2014) found that performance of the organizations can be improved by the good performance of the employees by engaging employees into multiple social activities, educating them with the passage of time including many others like welfare of works as well as their families in long run. Thus, based on the literature support regarding positive association between the job performances of the individuals with organizational performance, it is inferred that the overall performance of the Dubai police department is largely affected by police workforce performance.

Mediating Role of Job performance between E-learning Training Program and Organizational Performance

E-learning now a days is consider being the core function to meet the employees’ training need and demands (Chandrasekar & Rani, 2018). The impact of reduced training budgets has actually had a positive impact on demand for E-learning. Based on the advancement of the technology E-learning training programs are gaining notoriety on continuous basis in multiple sectors (Sheel et al., 2012) and so is the case of Dubai police force E-learning training programs.

As stated by Sheel, et al., (2012), nowadays E-learning training programs are utilized to create the career and skill set of an employee who are good in performing different tasks and duties assigned to them. In order to achieve organizational goal in the form, productivity and performance mediating process of individual performance in the form of attainment of skills, dealing with multiple uncertain situation and for taking instant decision is in process as a result of E-learning training system (Chukwu, 2016). These employees are further considered to be the major source of organizational productivity as productivity is strongly influenced by performance of the employees (Chandrasekar & Rani, 2018).

Now a days it is strongly believed that training result into increased job performance of the individuals and increased organizational performance (Chukwu, 2016). In accordance with (Qin & Shanxing, 2010) work performance as well as individual needs at work place are affected by learning activities, therefore, there is need to carefully consider the alignment of organizational and individual learning requirements along with an association of ‘learning through training’ with ‘work performance’ and ‘organizational outcomes’ must be studied with care and consideration.

Doherty & Lay (2019) further explained that e- training sessions strongly affect performance of the employees, ultimately resulting into increased effectiveness, as, employees’ performance is an imperative building block of an organization, whereas, training programs are utilized on larger scales in many organizations all over the globe to enhance skills, knowledge and abilities of the employees. Related to E-learning training programs there are very few studies available representing E-learning training impacts on individual performance and further into organizational performance based on numerous factors and conditions (Belkhamza & Abdullah, 2019). Therefore, it is vital to study that how individual’s performance is emerged and shaped through E-learning training programs and how that individual performance further turned into effective organizational performance.

Based on the fact that meaningful learning training systems are beneficial for the individuals at work place in multiple ways like retention, job performance and satisfaction which create a positive working environment and results into organizational benefits in terms of performance, profitability, stability and efficiency (Liao et al., 2015). Therefore, the importance of the E-learning training program suggests that training results into employee’s performance which further leads to organizational performance thus, individual performance acts an underlying mechanism. On the bases of above discussion and literature study it can be said that Dubai police force performance is enhanced by the E-learning training programs.

Figure 1: Theoretical Framework

Research Methodology

The main aim of this section is to briefly discuss the methods that have been incorporated to conduct the research. The primary purpose of this research is to come up with an extensive framework of E-learning training program by understanding its impact on job performance and ultimately on organizational performance of Dubai Police Force. Therefore, this research focuses on the understanding of the effects of e-training by studying its impact on multiple construct and positive outcomes in context of Dubai police force. Descriptive and explanatory design method will be used in this research. The research design includes survey questionnaires from sample respondents; this design is especially imperative for the study because it will help to explain and describe the genuine issues that exist now and existed in the history to find out the outcomes of the by E-learning training programs. The study mainly focused on Dubai Police force; therefore, Department of Dubai Police constitute the population. A non-probability approach is followed as only those people were contacted who had experienced online training, through emails and telephones. The information was gathered through questionnaires. For measuring the responses Five-point Likert scale ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 5= strongly agree was used. E-Learning has been measured using a six item scale adapted from (Karia et al., 2016), Job performance was measured using four item scale adopted from (June & Mahmood, 2011), and organizational performance has been measured using four items scale adopted from (June & Mahmood, 2011).

Data Analysis and Result

Descriptive statistics for demographic of respondents have been calculated through SPSS 25 and SmartPLS3 was used to check the validity, reliability, and proposed framework of the study. Summaries of the demographic features of the respondents of the study and certain observations about them are provided in descriptive statistics (Figure 2) (Babbie, 2015; Jackson, 2015).

Figure 2: Gender

The male proportion is high in chosen sample because overall proportion of females is high in the Dubai police department as compared to males. (Figure 3)

Figure 3: Age

The age analysis showed that majority of the respondents belong to 31-40 years of age. The education analysis showed that majority has high school qualification.(Figure 4)

Figure 4: Education

Majority of the respondents have gained training and had spent sufficient time in the department. The majority has an experience of more than ten years.(Figure 5)

Figure 5: Experience

Before going for framework testing, it is important to test the validity and reliability of the construct. For ensuring the reliability and validity of the instrument Cronbach’s alpha, composite reliability and Average Variance Extracted have been measured (Chua, 2012; Henseler, Ringle & Sinkovics, 2009; Mansoor, Awan, & Syed, 2020). The findings are mentioned in (Table 1)

Table 1
Factor Loadings, Reliability, and Validity
Constructs/indicators Factor Loadings AVE Cronbach’s a
1 2 3
Organizational Performance 0.626 0.868 0.801
OP1 0.878
OP2 0.754
OP3 0.626
OP4 0.88
Job Performance 0.651 0.794
JOBP1 0.809
JOBP2 0.845
JOBP3 0.772
JOBP4 0.799
E-Learning Training 0.751 0.89
ELTP1 0.872
ELTP2 0.887
ELTP3 0.854
ELTP4 0.863
ELTP5 0.845
ELTP6 0.874
ELTP7 0.872

Further, “(Fornell & Larcker, 1981) method” was used to establish the “discriminant validity”, and results indicated that the shared variance between various contracts was less than the average variance shared in the latent constructs with their respective indicator variable. The results of discriminant analysis are mentioned below: (Table 2)

Table 2
Heterotrait-Monotrait Ratio
Constructs 1 2 3
Organizational Performance  -
Jo performance 0.7 -
E-learning Training Programs 0.812 0.791 -

After ensuring that data is reliable and valid for further analysis, Bootstrapping technique has been applied to test the framework, 500 sub-samples was used for testing the relationships. Initially, direct relationships have been analyzed between independent, mediating, and dependent variables. In Table 3, the results for e-learning training program are showing to have a significant positive impact over organizational performance (ß=0.342**, t=4.864); e-learning training has a significant positive impact over job performance (ß=0.475**, t=4.864) and job performance has a significant positive impact over organizational performance (ß =0.134**, t=4.864). After ensuring that all the direct relationships in the framework are significant the mediating effect has been analyzed. An indirect and positive mediating effect of job performance on organizational performance in the presence of e-learning training programs has been observed (B=0.122*, t= 2.322, p<0.020).

Table 3
Path Coefficients
Hypotheses Std. Beta T-Value P-values Findings
H1 ELTP -> OP 0.343 5.67 0 Supported
H4 ELTP -> JOBP 0.475 7.976 0 Supported
H7 JOBP -> OP 0.134 2.253 0.01 Supported
H10 ELTP -> JOBP-> OP 0.122 2.322 0.02 Supported

Discussion, Conclusions, Limitations and Future Directions

The data analysis supported the framework of the study, which shows that there is a significant positive impact of E-learning training programs conducted by the Dubai Police force with organizational performance, and job satisfaction. The results of data analysis highlighted that importance of E-learning training programs cannot be ignored in updating employees with latest technologies which resultant their maximum performance (Lin et al., 2019). Dubai police department is working to the same ideology and is continuously facilitating its workforce to provide them the E-learning training facilities to attain maximum departments’ performance.

Moreover, our findings related to the relationship of E-learning training program and job performance are in accordance with the (Campbell, 2017; Cheng et al., 2012; Cheng et al., 2011; Govaerts et al., 2011; Hur et al., 2013; Manzoor et al., 2019; Stone et al., 2015; Sung & Choi, 2014; Wan et al., 2012; Wang & Ellinger, 2011) etc. who stated that E-learning training systems results in to high job performance and enhanced productivity based on that employees actually accept E-learning training systems as an advanced technological tool which can assist them in multiple ways to perform their duties in more effective way.

Similarly, many other scholars had the same results (Jones & Sallis, 2013; Lee et al., 2011; Lin et al., 2019; Nassazi, 2013; Reuben & Mwangi, 2019; Yoo et al., 2015; Yoo & Huang, 2016). Reynolds (2014) based on the fact that learning is accelerated by training which plays a very imperative role to in enhancement of employee’s performance by working on multiple thing at a time ranging from enhancement of knowledge, skills, goal accomplishment capabilities and being open to innovations and continuous change etc.

In terms of the relationship between job performance and organizational performance current study go with the results of (Ajila & Abiola, 2004; Ali, 2010; Gandi et al., 2011; Hunjra et al., 2010; Zheng et al., 2012) who depicted the job performance as an important antecedent of the overall organizational productivity. As it is the human power who manages all activities at multiple levels to keep organizations productive and competitive.

Likewise many other scholars like (Irefin & Mechanic, 2014; Khan et al., 2010; Mohammed et al., 2013; Peng et al., 2010; Salanova et al., 2011) studied the association of both variables in detail and found a significant positive association between the two and further revealed that performance of the organizations can be improved by the good performance of the employees by engaging employees into multiple social activities, educating them with the passage of time including many others like welfare of workers as well as their families in long run. Similarly, current research findings suggest that the overall performance of the Dubai police department is largely affected by police workforce performance.

Moving forward towards mediatory role of job performance between the relationship of e-learning training program and organizational performance it was revealed that the mediation exist with significant intensity and is also in line with the propositions and findings of several scholars (Belkhamza & Abdullah, 2019; Chandrasekar & Rani, 2018; Chukwu, 2016; Sheel et al., 2012) in different fields based on the different scenarios they considered in multiple study settings.

The findings add multiple practical and theoretical contributions. The study is also helpful for any agency, institution, or organization to identify the root cause of any prevailing issue or problem. Once that cause is identified next step is about taking measures to mitigate the impacts of that problem by applying modern techniques and methodologies. Same work is in practice at departmental and organizational level in Dubai police force where main motive of the e-learning programs is making the workforce ready to handle any worse scenario or situation.

Furthermore, along with providing the general training by conducting sessions at larger scale with more participants to brief them or to train them about any general task or even about a specific task or skill, it is also likely for the authorities to identify the problems or shortcomings of the workforce at individual level and then individuals with identical results can be grouped together in small group levels and can be provided with the training keeping in view the strengths and weekends of that group thus making theses online training programs more beneficial according to the needs and requirements of the individual workers.

The major limitation was that the study is established based on the mediation mechanism in between the relationship of independent and dependent variables, whereas, future studies can also examine some moderating variables like motivation of the police workforce to attend the training session and check the effect of that motivation in change of results. As, when we particularly talk about the enhanced performance of the employees, their capacity building and satisfaction level with job after attending online training sessions then their motivation level is very important to notice and study.

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