International Journal of Entrepreneurship (Print ISSN: 1099-9264; Online ISSN: 1939-4675)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 23 Issue: 2

Empowering Women through Entrepreneurship Training and Courses: Study in a Female-Dominated Business

Yani Kamasturyani, Universitas Negeri Semarang

Tri Joko Raharjo, Universitas Negeri Semarang

Abstract

Training is the basic capital to develop and improve the quality of human resources. Quality human resources are productive, have expertise and are able to compete in the world of work and entrepreneurship. One type of training that can increase the productivity of human resources is make up training that is commonly dominated by business women. For this reason, an effective method of competency improvement is needed to help graduates with high quality through courses and training. The purpose of this study was to determine the increase in competencies which include soft skills and hard skills of graduate training through courses and training. This research is a quasi-experimental research. Data collection techniques used was in-depth interviews, questionnaires and observations. The data obtained were analysed through a paired t test, the research was carried out in the institutes for bridal makeup courses and training. The research subjects were 30 graduates from 10 institute courses and training in the city of Cirebon. The paired t-test results obtained ρ-value <α (0.05). This shows that there are significant influences of courses and training on improving graduate competencies, increasing self-confidence, increasing courage to appear in public, improving my technical skills and improved quality of bridal makeup.

Keywords

Courses and Training, Competence, Training Graduate

Introduction

The development of human resource potential through training is very necessary because it has important aspects for increasing productivity and also has goals that must be achieved for the progress of a nation (Basri, 2015). Rasmani & Wibowo (2017) explain that training is a strategic way to improve human resources within an organization. Sutarto (2017) states that through development in the field of education the Government strives to overcome and reduce the social problems that exist in Indonesia, the way is by developing and fostering non-formal education in various program activities. Non-formal education programs are related to efforts to guide, foster and develop community members. The aim is to educate people to be understanding, have expertise, and have a good mental attitude in renewal and development. Training is a learning experience that is intentionally designed so that it can help participants master the competencies that were not previously owned (Beni & Pribadi, 2014). One type of training to increase the productivity of human resources to become entrepreneurs is training in bridal makeup. Entrepreneurship can be an effective way for someone to help the family economy. But the factual condition of training graduates does not yet have my ability well. For this reason, an effective method of competency improvement is needed to help graduates with high quality. Course participants generally do not have the confidence and courage to pass the training; participants do not have the desire to improve their abilities in the field. This is due to several factors including the role of training management which is often ignored by trainers or training providers. Though management is a tool to facilitate achieving goals. Good management, all activities can be carried out effectively and efficiently. Handayaningrum's research (2012) shows the results that training management produces a level of expediency, systematics, level of clarity, level of readability and level of implementation of the model, high and very high categories. Rivai & Murni (2005) stated that training is part of the education process which aims to improve the ability or special skills of a person or group of people in a relatively short time with methods that prioritize practice rather than theory, so that they gain high competence in understanding and carrying out a job certain in an efficient and effective way.

Minister of national education regulation No. 49 Th 2007 concerning management standards for non-formal education is a standard normative reference to management in courses and training programs covering planning, implementation, supervision and evaluation. The institute for training and training is one of the efforts to empower the community through the skills and skills taught. Training must be able to accommodate the needs of the people who need skilled and professional makeup artists. The phenomenon that is developing now is that the institutions that hold training in the Cirebon region are less than optimal in implementing course management and training. Even recruited educators do not have the ability to provide learning to adults, they only focus on results. Finally, put out is only cognitive aspects, results oriented, not process, creativity of students is low. Training graduates do not yet have the ability to develop professional skills. Based on research on 10 training institutions in the city of Cirebon, there was a decrease in the number of participants who wanted to pursue training; this was due to the fact that there were still many graduates who were not able to obtain high quality. Therefore, an effective method of competency improvement is needed to help training graduates to get high quality through training courses and training. Courses and training are activities to showcase and introduce the work they make to the community. Courses and training or performances are a way to carry out communication between the creator of the work and the community as connoisseurs of the work. The purpose of this study was to determine the improvement of competencies which include soft skills and hard skills of graduate training through courses and training in the city of Cirebon. The results of this study are expected to improve the competence of graduates, and ultimately be able to contribute to regional development.

Research Methodology

The research was conducted at the Cirebon city course and training institute. The research subjects were 30 graduates from 10 Institute courses and training in the city of Cirebon. In this study the first observation was carried out through a questionnaire (pretest) which allows testing of changes that occur after the program. The experimental design used was one group pretestposttest design (Sugiyono, 2012). The treatment given is a course and training or performance by carrying out activities to include graduates in performance activities organized by professional organizations. Graduates demonstrate the results of makeup in public and invited guests representing the education office, practitioners, instructors, and the general public. Data collection techniques used was in-depth interviews, questionnaires and observations. The results of the protest and post-test data obtained were analysed by paired t test.

Results and Discussion

In Cirebon City there are 22 training institutions. The study was conducted in 10 Institutions of Training with 30 training graduates. Characteristics of respondents in the age range and education are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 Characteristics of Respondents
Characteristics Amount %
Age
17-32 years old 18 60
33-48 years old 10 33.3
49-64 years old 2 6.7
Gender
Female 30 100
Male 0 0
Education
Elementary School 0 0
Junior School 5 16.6
High School 25 83.3
Undergraduate 0 0

Based on Table 1, the overall number of female students is the highest age range between the ages of 17-32 (60%) and most recent education is high school (83.3%).

Increased Competency of Students

Competencies of students are grouped into soft skills which include confidence and courage, as well as morality which includes makeup techniques and the quality of the makeup results.

Table 2 (pre-test) and Table 3 (post-test) shows the value of p 0.000 < α (0.005) shows that courses and training improve the competency of training graduates in general. Courses and training are activities to showcase and introduce the work they make to the community. Table 2 shows that courses and training can increase the confidence of graduates of training Selfconfidence is a feeling of confidence that is owned by someone that what they do is good and right. These beliefs can add value to the mastery of the technique to be more competent. Through confidence, all work can be done calmly. Self-confidence is self-confidence in the form of feelings and the assumption that he is in a good condition that allows individuals to appear and behave with confidence. According to Umar (2011), self-confidence is different for each individual. Self-confidence is able to channel energy to everything we do. In this sense confidence can arise because of the skill in doing work skill fully and satisfactorily. Through courses and training, students are given the widest opportunity to create a work and be exhibited in front of the wider community. This gives self-satisfaction to the owner of the work, so that through this course and training it can increase the confidence of graduates of training. Selfconfidence is the basic capital for success in all fields. Efforts to increase self- confidence can be done by learning and practicing. Muhammad (2016) states that an increase in self-confidence can be done with the interaction between graduates. These interactions provide feedback that greatly supports graduates' confidence. Through courses and training, graduates have the opportunity to interact with connoisseurs of their work. The interaction graduates feel that their work is seen by others, it can increase self-confidence.

Table 2 Soft Skill and Hardskill Competence of Training Graduates (Pre-Test)
Variables Indicators Results Std. Dev p-value
Softskill Confidence 29.60 1.67 0.000
Bravery 15.73 0.907 0.000
Hardskill Makeup technique 15.37 0.809 0.000
Makeup results 15.48 0.809 0.000
Table 3 Soft Skill and Hardskill Competence of Training Graduates (Post-Test)
Variables Indicators Results Std. Dev p-value
Softskill Confidence 52.40 1.003 0.000
Courage 27.97 0.850 0.000
Hardskill Makeup technique 27.93 0.868 0.000
Makeup results 27.84 0.842 0.000

The results show that courses and training can also increase the courage of graduates in makeup. Courage is defined as the nature to appear in front of the public and dare to bear the risk when having to make decisions quickly and on time. The nature of courage someone does not have from birth but this trait can be formed by making a conducive atmosphere so that he feels comfortable and more confident (Sari, 2013). This is in accordance with Hendrawan's (2006) study that courses and training to make marginalized people have the courage to appear in public. According to Mardiati & Yuniarti (2013), courage can arise through the process of discussion. The communication between educators and students is able to generate courage for students to express their opinions this ability to speak can support the courage of students to enter the world of entrepreneurship after training. The learning process during training is emphasized by two-way communication and discussion with instructors or other students. This experience fosters the courage of students. This is also in line with the research of Frinaldi & Ali (2011).

The t-test results show that courses and training can improve my technical skills. Improved techniques and results are included in one of the important points of the course and training activities. Good makeup techniques include powder application techniques, eyebrow making techniques, techniques for diagnosing facial shapes, and proper techniques for using cosmetics that are suitable for bridal skin types, accuracy of makeup techniques will produce the perfect makeup quality. This is in accordance with the research of Puspitasari et al. (2012) that students had to master makeup techniques and have high self-confidence. Through courses and training can improve the quality of results, several factors that encourage both internal and external factors, one of the driving forces that exist in the individual is quality. Quality is the level of good or something. Quality is the relationship between influence and driving factors. The quality of students is one of the supporting factors, to get the perfect makeup result. The quality of the dress can be known if someone is working creatively, effectively and innovatively in makeup. Competency enhancement will be obtained through a good learning process, confidence and courage. Competent instructors are very influential on improving student competency, and in the end will produce competent output, in accordance with Efron's (2014) research instructor spirit when teaching is one of the factors that determine the success of the learning process in improving graduate competency.

Conclusion

Training is the basic capital to develop and improve the quality of human resources. Quality human resources are those who are skilled, professional, productive, competent and able to independently compete in a healthy world of work and entrepreneurship. Courses and training are activities to showcase and introduce the work they make to the community. Courses and training or performances are a way to carry out communication between the creator of the work and the community as connoisseurs of the work. The purpose of this study was to determine the improvement of competencies which include soft skills and hard skills of graduate training through courses and training in the city of Cirebon. The results of this study are expected to improve the competence of graduates, and ultimately be able to contribute to regional development. The statistical results of the paired t-test obtained ρ-value < α (0.05) showed that there were significant influences of courses and training on improving graduate competency training, increasing graduates' self-esteem, increasing courage to appear in public in makeup, improving technical skills arranging makeup and improving the quality of the bridal makeup.

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