International Journal of Entrepreneurship (Print ISSN: 1099-9264; Online ISSN: 1939-4675)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 23 Issue: 2

Entrepreneurial Skills at Retirement Age: Analysis of the Importance of Training for Retiring Employees in Bandung City

Sutangsa, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Ace Suryadi, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Achmad Hufad, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Oong Komar, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Ari Riswanto, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Abstract

Entrepreneurship is basically the ability in creative thinking and innovative behavior that is based on the acquisition of resources, goals, tactics and tips in dealing with business Challenges. For some people who will retire, their views on workload, salary and achievement expectations after retirement will require separate adaptations, given productivity that will not be as much as during the working period. This study seeks to analyze the important role of mastering entrepreneurial expertise through training for prospective retired employees. This study was conducted analytically by interviewing, observing and distributing questionnaires in a training institution in Bandung that specializes in developing and training skills for postemployment employees, including conducting entrepreneurial training for retirement preparation. The results of the study show that not all training results can be applied, where several aspects relating to improving financial management need to be given more attention and assistance. Another finding was the positive attitude of the training participants in the implementation of the training and entrepreneurial abilities shown by the participants to respond positively to some entrepreneurial instruments.

Keywords

Training, Entrepreneurial Ability, Retirement

Introduction

Towards retirement, employees are faced by the problem of adjustment in a new situation by re-orientation attitude and of setting preferences and stability, and by anticipating disobedience because of the conditions of age and the lack of funding (Kerr & Armstrong- Stassen, 2011). This will sometimes have a negative effect financially and mentally. They need special adaptation in dealing with this period along with worrying and losing job positions, routines and social status that appear to accompany (Kibler et al., 2012; Tornikoski et al., 2015). This symptom is referred to as Post Power Syndrome as a form of anxiety in older people which causes him to be more sensitive than before because of something that triggers stress and can even cause interference with mental health (Santoso & Lestari, 2008). This can occur during the absence of busy reimbursement and substitute income sources to cover excess non-productive time and lack of household budget funds after retirement. Some agencies have anticipated the emergence of these symptoms by providing training for employees who will face retirement. Thus, various anxiety and symptoms will not occur because the employee has long ago before retiring has had planning activities and other sources of income other than pensions fund received. People who have made preparations for retirement tend to be more adaptable to change (Shultz & Wang, 2011). Every individual who will retire needs to prepare himself to be able to adjust to the demands of the environment. Prospective retirees must be equipped and prepared to enter a mentality that will surely occur so that they will remain productive and innovative. Because this requires a new mindset, including in seeking business opportunities, these employees will need entrepreneurial skills. Here, training does not merely focus on existing financial management aspects, but also on developing self-potential, and running one's own business.

Entrepreneurship training is arranged for retirement preparation which (Pillay et al., 2010; Alayis et al., 2018) is scheduled by several training institutions. In the city of Bandung, one of the institutions active in entrepreneurship training is Duta Transformasi Insani (DTI), which organizes entrepreneurship training periods in preparation for retirement. This program is structured to complement the expertise of the participants, oriented towards entrepreneurial vigilance and attitudes to change themselves from the concept of dependence to independence and build an understanding of business ethics and the insights and skills of entrepreneurs. The material presented included guidance on mentoring, mental preparation for retirement, building an entrepreneurial spirit, maximizing talent potential, and managing a healthy elderly life and visiting a business center. This study aimed to analyze the application of the results of the training that had been followed by the participants, especially participants in the retirement training and participants' attitudes towards the implementation of training and entrepreneurial skills. The attitude on the changes faced in the transition period experienced by prospective retirees is an evaluative attitude. Some of the previous studies have paid attention to aspects of entrepreneurship, training and preparation of expertise. However, the attention that combines these three aspects specifically in the critical and transformative period of retirement, and its application for retiring person has not yet obtained sufficient attention. Here, this study offers an originality side through experimental and practical case study research.

Literature Review

Entrepreneurial Skill in Retirement Age

Retirement is an individual state to have stopped working on the main job or process of separating a person from his working activity. Hence, it is common that in retirement, workers will try to find opportunities to run their own businesses to remain productive and generate income and not solely rely on pension funds. As entrepreneurs do, they will see and assess business opportunities, and pooling resources (Beehr & Bennett, 2015; van Solinge, 2014). needed to take appropriate action, taking advantage as well as having the nature, character and willingness to realize innovative ideas into the new business creatively in order to achieve success and revenue (Spear, 2006). The attitude shown by some retiring persons is said to be an evaluative response. The response will only arise when characteristics are exposed to a stimulus which demands an individual reaction. Response evaluative means that the shape of the reaction expressed an attitude that the incidence based the evaluation process within the individual who gave a conclusion to the stimulus in the form the value of good-bad, positive-negative, pleasantunpleasant, then crystallized as a potential reaction the attitude object. The attitude is related to giving an evaluation of the object (Harris, 2001). The individual attitude on the intention of entrepreneurship has been investigated by a number of researchers using elements attitudes contained in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), including the autonomy/authority, economic challenge, self-realization, and perceived confidence, security and workload, responsibility, and social career (Harris, 2001; Akyol & Gurbuz, 2008).

Entrepreneurship Skills

Entrepreneurial skills are related the ability to change something into something better. Thus one entrepreneur must still be based its ability to implement the functions within the business that is run can be managed properly. (Sternberg, 2004). Some entrepreneurship skills training programs are directed to have capabilities and skills in running some small business in the sector of manufacturing, services, agriculture and trading such crafts, workshops, banking, insurance, warehousing, advertising, plantation, farm, fisheries, food industry (Gerry et al., 2008). Entrepreneurial skills have significant influence on the competitiveness of small businesses. The lack of managerial ability and inability to respond to change and adapt to changing, with additional factors inhibiting the success of small businesses (Sternberg, 2004). Littunen (2000) and Stevenson & Jarillo (2007) show that entrepreneurial skill is a learning process, which in turn affects the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur. The combination of the nature of talent and education or training will form a leader as strategists and managers.

Training

Training has some meanings, including giving lessons and practices, developing in the desired direction to cause growth in a required direction, preparation and the practice. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. The term training is used here to indicate any process by which the aptitudes, skills, and abilities of employs are directed to perform the specific jobs. The term used during training here is to show each process to develop their talents, skills, and the ability of employees to complete certain jobs (Littunen, 2000; Stevenson & Jarillo, 2007). Training as a series of activities designed to improve the skills, knowledge, experience, or a change in the attitude an individual. Training is a part of education that involves learning to acquire and improve skills outside the education system that prevails, in a relatively short time, and by using a method that is more about practice than theory (Gerry et al., 2008). Then, based the study to 640 students in the Portuguese found that entrepreneurship training had a positive significant effect on the intention of students to start a business after they graduate from college (Franke & Lüthje, 2004).

Research Method

This research was conducted using the qualitative approach with data collection conducted by three techniques like interview, observation, and measuring the scale of attitudes with questionnaires. The questionnaire is based on two indicators: indicators of entrepreneur training and entrepreneur skills. Participants completed questionnaires to see the attitude and interests of participants the entrepreneurship training and entrepreneurial skills. Interviews were conducted to trainees and directors and managers of training institution in DTI Bandung to obtain information the material, and the results from the training as well as follows-up to the participants who have after training. This research subject is the trainees in a training institution of DTI Bandung as many as 40 trainee entrepreneurship the pension preparation period. The population of this research is all trainees in training institutions DTI Bandung.

Results

Response Scale

Statement attitude scale questionnaire was also divided into two indicators to training and entrepreneurial skills. The result of questionnaire analysis is shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Analysis of each Indicator Questionnaire
Indicator Statement Score Total Score Percentage Evaluation
I 1 96 340 70.3 Good
  10 102      
  9, 12, 14 86      
  4, 7, 8 56      
II 2 106 755 78.3 Good
  3 88      
  5, 19 99      
  6, 20 92      
  11, 16, 17 104      
  13, 15, 18 104      
  15 103      
  16 59      

In the first indicator of the importance of participating in training, the participants fully answered the perception of training with a score of 340 or equivalent to 70.3%. These results indicate the participants were eager to take part in the training. In the second indicator of the need for entrepreneurial expertise, participants almost completely responded to entrepreneurship skills training with a score of 755 which was equivalent to 78.3%. This shows that most trainees have high degrees of entrepreneurship skills training because they feel very useful for the participants. Thus, trainee’s positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship training. These statistical results show that the awareness of participants who are prospective retirees is high in the importance of preparing themselves in economic matters and mentally facing retirement. Institutionally, this study also raises other implications regarding the need for institutions and entrepreneurial training to prepare employees for retirement.

Observation

Entrepreneurship training is governed by the retirement preparation of DTI training institutions by organizing a period of entrepreneurship training as preparation for retirement. This program is structured to complement and enhance participants' expertise. The content of this retirement preparation program includes increasing entrepreneurial vigilance and motivation to change them from the concept of dependence to independence and building an understanding of business ethics and the insights and skills of entrepreneurs. The results of interviews and observations of participants and directors of training institutions revealed that among the various aspects of focus and training instruments, not all of them could be implemented. Some aspects of which the results still cannot be applied in connection with various obstacles. This can be seen from various reports of participants who have completed the training. After that, the DTI training institute followed up on these results. Some strategies are then implemented. For participants who have succeeded, they are asked to follow up with programs that already exist in the agency. The main obstacle is related to financial management. In this regard, the participants have not been able to apply because it takes time to prepare financial conditions that are ready to support the post-retirement life needs and other needs before retirement. This is because most of those involved in the training are active retired employees, so their salaries must still be allocated to current needs and post-retirement preparation.

Conclusion

Analysis of the results of the attitude response through questionnaire data scale shows that entrepreneurship training participants consider training to be beneficial and useful. Statement of attitude scale through this questionnaire consists of useful and negative statements. All statements indicate that almost all participants answered positive statements, and some responded negatively. This is evident in the results of the statement analysis that participants generally liked the importance of entrepreneurship training. The results of this observation reinforce this that the participants expressed enthusiasm and motivation during the training. Although there were minorities of participants who were negative, they considered the importance of this activity. However, overall, the results of the attitude analysis scale generally describe a positive attitude towards training. Based on observations, the study found that not all training results could be applied, especially with regard to improving financial management. This study has limitations due to only being implemented in one training institution. In addition, respondents are retired candidates who are still actively working. Future studies are expected to expand experiments at various research institutions, and examine the functions of entrepreneurship training after employees retire.

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