Research Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 1S
Nasser Yousuf Mohammad Fakhar, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Badariah Haji Din, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Total Quality Management, Benchmarking, Information and Analysis, Continuous Improvement, HRM, Management Leadership, Strategic Planning, Service Design, Management Support, Organizational Performance.
Based on the advancement in the Dubai police and need for continuous improvement is all managerial facets, this study is exploring the influences from different total quality management factors on the organizational performance besides to examination of the organizational support moderation interact in Dubai police in the UAE. The proposed models have seven factors of TQM practices, which are the antecedents of organizational performance as the main dependent variable. Management support is added as a moderator and will be tested in the overall relationship from the TQM practices and organizational performance. The actual sample of this research is 388 police officers, which was collected from different police stations and department in Emirate of Dubai. The target or study population chosen for this research is the total number of police officers in all levels and all departments at the Dubai police. Overall, direct relationships for the seven predictors of total quality management practices are significant; the precedence for the relations based on the path coefficient value are benchmarking (0.727), information and analysis (0.692), continuous improvement (0.689), HRM (0.557), management leadership (0.458), strategic planning (0.293), and service design (0.255). For the moderating relationships of management support, it has no significant change in the path coefficient and the moderating effect is not significant.
In every society, peaceful living and security of individuals is in line with the fundamental human right, this can translate to self-actualization and appreciable development for such a society (James, 2017). According to the Tengpongsthorn (2017), argue that the living in a disruptive and unsafe environment causes a serious setback to the advancement and general development of a country. The earlier philosophers and sociologists considered security as one of the basic needs and that security of lives and properties as the major responsibility of the government (David et al., 2020). The popular hierarchy of needs theory by Abraham Maslow, considers security as a basic need that cannot be underestimated (Fallatah & Syed, 2018). Thus, the issue of security is a concern to every individual, organization and government at large (Saier & Trevors, 2010).
Thus, the intention of the government in ensuring crime-free society will not take place until the performance of police force is effective and efficient (Alberus, 2019). Previous studies from different continents have shown that organizational performance is influenced by many factors (Yong et al., 2020). For instance, scholars such as (Tengpongsthorn, 2017) have argued that motivation has an impact on the performance of individuals and the organization at large. According to Osabiya (2015), pointed out that the motivation is at the heart of how productive and innovative things can be achieved. Thus, it is a driving force within organizational employees by which they attempt to realize an objective to attain some expectations or needs (Parmar et al., 2019).
In recognition of the importance of security, every country including Dubai considers the provision of security mechanism for the safety of its citizens (AlZaabi, 2019). Based on this, the Police Force is placed by every nation to ensure the security of lives and properties (Enweremadu, 2019). The police role in each society is to prevent and detect crimes by monitoring the citizens (Pridmore et al., 2019). According to Lai, et al., (2020), argue that the police force refers to an established physical body of consumers licensed through a nation to impose the regulation, guard lives and residential or commercial property and eliminate the public problems via a reputable program of power. The major duty of the police force is to protect and regulate illegal tasks and other social bad habits, and this can be used as one of the significant red flags for holding the efficiency of police (Agarwal et al., 2019). If their functions are well performed, the society benefits immensely, otherwise, the poor performance of police tends to damage the confidence that is reposed on them (Rappaport, 2016).
Intellectuals such as Shafiq, et al., (2019), pointed out the have identified Total Quality Management (TQM) as an international device for the achievement of a considerable progression through the company. According to the TQ, as a monitoring accountancy technique pertains to a general control theory which focuses on helping an institution in obtaining high quality in its own methods and treatments (Al-Dhaafri et al., 2016). The use of TQM as an institution device in Police may enrich efficiency (Ekaabi et al., 2020). According to the competence of employees is identified in literature as a necessity for the general performance of organizations (Shet et al., 2019). However, Unal (2017) posits that an organization can achieve quality work and maximum output if it has a competent workforce. In other words, competent employees add a positive significant value to an organization (Singh & Singh, 2019).
Furthermore, large numbers of studies have established the existence of a strong relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM) and organizational performance. On the positive aspect of relationship, many studies by (Al-Dhaafri et al., 2016; Mehralian et al., 2017; Prajogo & Sohal, 2003; Rahman & Bullock, 2005; Shafiq et al., 2019; Sinha et al., 2016; Valmohammadi & Roshanzamir, 2015; Yusr, 2016; Zwain et al., 2017), have revealed a positive significant relationship between TQM and organization performance. However, few studies have found negative or no relationship between TQM and performance. Most of the studies conducted on TQM, focus on manufacturing industry, educational industry, hospitality industry, Small and Medium Scale Enterprise (SMEs). So, it appears that there is a dearth of empirical study on the application of TQM in the security sector. Based on this gap in the studies and the inconsistent findings, this study will use TQM as an independent variable in the determination of the performance of the police.
Based on the above illustration on the advancement in the Dubai police and need for continuous improvement is all managerial facets, this study is exploring the influences from different total quality management factors on the organizational performance besides to examination of the organizational support moderation interact in Dubai police in the UAE
Total Quality Management (TQM)
In this era of globalization, total quality management achieved an increasing interest among practitioners and market players as an essential tool for creating a sustainable competitive advantage (Rashid et al., 2020). Moreover, the total quality management increase commitment to quality and enhance performance which will eventually lead to organizational competitive advantage (Kaur et al., 2019). However, the strategy for the development of an organization, the organization needs to use different strategies in terms of quality control, quality system quality assurance, and quality management (Abbas, 2020). As well as, the quality management has become the important factor to accomplish competitive advantage and rebirth in organizational management by mainly focus on excellence (Getnet, 2019). Similarly, the movement of quality passes through several transformations, quality control made and inspection to prevention (Zhou & Yao, 2019). It is more than achievement of client requirement and expectation, but it is more of a complete body of work (Hirschi et al., 2019).
Meanwhile, the organizations can be successful by promoting high quality goods and services to ensure organizational performance as well as high level of advantage, increasing quality, efficiency among other organizations (Kaur et al., 2019). Also, the emergence of quality management to be a top priority strategic management in several organizations, as a result of global competition and pressure to satisfy demand of customers that intend to have quality goods and services (Araújo et al., 2019). Furthermore, the essential methods about quality management are establishing mutual supportive relationship with customers and backward connections with suppliers that have very cogent effect on customer satisfaction (Salimian et al., 2020). Moreover, it is important to note that total quality management strategy originated from the manufacturing sectors and is growing to service organization (Kaur et al., 2019). As well as, the service sectors have several characteristics: right from intangible product and services, direct delivery to the customer and others (YuSheng & Ibrahim, 2019).
In addition, the total quality management was originated and developed, to enhance organizations to be able to compete in the global competition (Van-Kemenade & Hardjono, 2019). Also, many of the top-quality control consist of a number of total quality management meanings (Adekoya, 2019). The total quality management is an approach for ongoing strengthening of the high quality of products and solutions that are provided by the company by means of specific involvement (Abbas, 2020). The determined the total quality management principle as a strategy which incorporates all tasks to comply with and please the assumptions and necessities of clients (Jimoh et al., 2019). Total quality management guarantees that the clients' vocal is consistently matched due to the methods' vocal and it generates far better preparing and concept, exterior and interior emphasis boosts loosened method and safeguards powerful places (Lowe & Pemberton, 2020). Moreover, the total quality management technique is an important factor and monitoring activity, which is rehearsed through an association to accomplish exceptional functionality in an institution (Chia et al., 2019).
Total quality management specified as alternative strategy via which significant concept (efficient method administration, management, consumer complete satisfaction and engagement, constant remodeling, item and companies’ concept, and engagement and instruction of teams) enrich the functionality of general association (Ahaotu, 2019). According to Othman, et al., (2020), the total quality management describes a strategy for boosting competition, performance and versatility of an association. Additionally, mentioned that the total quality management strategy stresses the functionalities of the outside and inside providers, clients and the engagement of workers in interest of ongoing enhancement (Khan et al., 2020).
Specify, the total quality management indispensable monitoring viewpoint that concentrates on minimizing rework, ongoing remodeling, appointment consumer's need, lengthy variation reasoning, staff located trouble fixing, raise worker participation, very competitive benchmarking, consistent size, and nearer organization along with distributors (Mardi, 2019). Essential result factors have been determined as the essential locations inside a company to attain its own objective and sight through evaluation and classification of their effects (Krizanova et al., 2019). The evaluating studies on important excellence factors and relationships and total quality management, along with various vital results factors that may be featured as crucial to possess the execution of total quality (Al-Maamari, 2020).
The essential effectiveness factors are business society, management, ongoing renovation, monitoring company, item and assistance layout, information technology, staff member permission, consumer alignment, administration of client connection, practical TQM application timetable, information market value add-on method, client and market understanding, assessment and inspect job, amount of difference discussed, eigenvalues, and collective percent (Owuor et al., 2017). According to Mahmud (2017), assessed TQM essential results consider SMEs, they exposed that the applications are an enhancement resources, administration leadership, continual remodeling bodies, reviews, body and procedures, workplace and lifestyle, personnel progression, and also learning and instruction. According to the Ahadi & Kasraie (2020), suggested that the essential result factors of TQM application in SMEs are monitoring renovation, consumer concentrated, creating originalities, staff member permission, and workers instruction.
Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against its intended outputs (or goals and objectives). Specialists in many fields are concerned with organizational performance including strategic planners, operations, finance, legal, and organizational development (Oghojafor, Muo & Aduloju, 2012).
Also, focused on the general market functionality, the research studies in the general field suggested that the application of efficiency administration was most likely to supply better solutions to clients, so they can attain their goals, market effectiveness and performance (Gregory et al., 2019). Meanwhile, the performance of public and private organizations is different based on their goals and core values of business (George et al., 2019).
The private organization is established to achieve profit and enhance customers, whereas the public sectors are established purposely to achieve good performance, quality as well as customer satisfaction (Othman et al., 2020). This indicates that the public sectors established purposely to satisfy the needs of the society within available budget (Al-Dhaafri et al., 2016).
The Public establishment differ in goal and objectives that are more relevant and tangible in nature when compare to private organization (Blom, 2020). Moreover, the promoting government performance tends to be the mainstream of the public administration policy and research for the last two decade (Mele & Belardinelli, 2019). In addition to that, governments are looking for a way to improve their performance in the area of program outcome, citizen participation, use of public resources, transparency, customer satisfaction, prevent corruption and irregularity, accountability; and strengthen integrity among others (Wang et al., 2019).
The reform is essential to enhance and protect the performance of public sectors, as well as strengthen the role of government in providing the basic services and development for the ordinary citizens (Wang et al., 2019). With regards to the performance, the measurement of performance is an integral part of management process to examine whether strategic objectives are met in the public sectors (Al Ahbabi et al., 2019). Both what constitutes performance and how to measure it have been a conundrum for many years, particularly because there is little consensus about what constitutes performance and because measuring it is complex, technical and takes many forms (Paul & Martine, 2018).
The degree to which senior management understands the importance of the entity (process, product, service, activity) and the extent to which it is involved in its activities. Management support is important especially when there is a transit from one status to another. However, management support found to be more with matters mapped with organizational strategic objectives (Slack, Chambers & Johnston, 2010).
Leadership and top management support is considered as one of the most crucial factors for organization performance in the literature (Le & Lei, 2019). Top management has to lead the process, take the charges, and provide facilities and work directions (Benzaid & Taleb, 2020). There are numerous researchers in the literature who determine leadership as a very important factor, and considered top management support as the main driver of business excellence (Alamiri et al., 2020). In addition, Zairi (1994), pointed out that the leadership as a quality management element comprises: providing direction and vision to employees to follow, improving communication skills, improving of information ability sharing, bringing enlightenment, and enhancing synergies value added (Fu et al., 2020). Moreover, the leadership plays a significant role in leading the entire organization to adopt and implement quality management practice successfully (Saffar & Obeidat, 2020).
The management of police officers takes place according to the public management practices of the country (Brunetto et al., 2020). Moreover, the police organizations are hierarchical in structure and are regulated via a legislative and organizational framework although some are more authoritarian and run along paramilitary lines (Cunneen, 2020). The public organizations in many countries adopted different aspects of new public management (which loosely can be defined as adopting a selection of private sector management tools) as the dominant approach to public administration so as to improve performance, efficiency and effectiveness (Funck & Karlsson, 2019).
TQM practices and Organizational Performance
Research studies of TQM present that there is a lot of research studies that disclosed the outcomes relating to the result of TQM strategies and company functionality (Terziovski & Samson, 1999). There is one more comprehensive pragmatic research by Sluti (1992) and Terziovski & Samson (1999) that looked at the connection between high quality techniques and company efficiency. The seeking’s of this research study were discovered to blend the end results with respect to its own functionality effects (Abusa & Gibson, 2013). A thorough assessment of the TQM associated literary works, presented that most of the performed investigations mentioned a considerable and beneficial connection between TQM strategies and company efficiency (Fotopoulos & Psomas, 2010; Valmohammadi, 2011).
Total quality management includes organization-wide efforts to "set up and make irreversible climate where staff members continually improve their capacity to offer as needed services and products that customers will certainly find of certain worth (Hendricks & Singhal, 2001; Oakland, 2014). On the other hand, Organizational performance comprises the actual output or outcomes of an organization as measured against its designated results (Fray, 2017; Hendricks & Singhal, 2001). So that, and according to many researchers such as (Douglas & Jr, 2001; Kannan & Tan, 2005; Kaynak, 2003; Love, Li, Irani & Faniran, 2000; Oakland, 2014; Shortell et al., 1995) they found out that the use of total quality management will help to create more comfortable environment as it will ease rising more good ideas as well as will lead to a better and organizational performance (Aquilani, Silvestri, Ruggieri & Gatti, 2017; Bolatan, Gozlu, Alpkan & Zaim, 2016; Supriyanto et al., 2017; Tortorella, Giglio, Fogliatto & Sawhney, 2019) and based on that the researcher is expecting significant positive direct effect of total quality management on the organizational performance. And this hypothesis is consistent with other hypothesis in others studies such as; (Aquilani et al., 2017; Bolatan et al., 2016; Hendricks & Singhal, 2001; Kannan & Tan, 2005; Love et al., 2000; Oakland, 2014; Supriyanto et al., 2017; Tortorella et al., 2019).
As particular to information and analysis, Information Technology (IT) is the use of computer systems to save, get, transmit, and manipulate data or info (Cho, Her & Eom, 2020; Muhammedrisaevna, Mubinovna & Kizi, 2020; NGOMA, 2018). IT is generally utilized within the context of service procedures instead of individual or amusement innovations (Aljazzaf, 2019; Wahab, Shin & Hyun, 2020). IT is thought about to be a subset of Information and Communications Modern Technology (ICT) (Kheng & Muthuveloo, 2019; Kiatsuranon & Suwunnamek, 2017). On the other hand, Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of a company as measured against its intended results (or objectives and goals) (Abualoush, Masa’deh, Bataineh & Alrowwad, 2018; Kanyuga, 2019). So that, and according to many researchers such as (Abualoush et al., 2018; Aljazzaf, 2019; Hersona & Sidharta, 2017; Kanyuga, 2019; NGOMA, 2018) they found out that the use of information technology in the workplace will help to make the work done easier and faster by saving the resources as well, and this will lead to a better and higher organizational performance (Cho et al., 2020; Kiatsuranon & Suwunnamek, 2017; Muhammedrisaevna et al., 2020; NGOMA, 2018) and based on that the researcher is expecting significant positive direct effect of information technology on the organizational performance. And this hypothesis is consistent with other hypothesis in others studies such as; (Abualoush et al., 2018; Aljazzaf, 2019; Hersona & Sidharta, 2017; Hitt & Tambe, 2016; Kanyuga, 2019; Kheng & Muthuveloo, 2019; Kiatsuranon & Suwunnamek, 2017; Wahab et al., 2020).
Hypothesis H1 Strategic planning has a significant effect on the organizational performance.
Hypothesis H2 Management leadership has a significant effect on the organizational performance.
Hypothesis H3 HRM has a significant effect on the organizational performance.
Hypothesis H4 Service design has a significant effect on the organizational performance.
Hypothesis H5 Continuous improvement has a significant effect on the organizational performance.
Hypothesis H6 Information and analysis has a significant effect on the organizational performance.
Hypothesis H7 Benchmarking has a significant effect on the organizational performance.
Management Support as a Moderating Effect on the determinant of Organizational Performance
In analyzing the regulating impact of the component of company functionality connection, it has been highlighted by some scientists that Total Quality Management (TQM), motivation, company quality, competence and relevant information and innovation could be researched as a solitary construct (Terziovski & Samson, 1999). A few other analysts like Dow, et al. (1999) and Powell (1995), mentioned that Total Quality Management (TQM), motivation, company distinction, competence and relevant information and innovation lead to a good partnership with the company functionality (Yasin et al., 2004). These two blended end results, advised that a number of total quality management (TQM), motivation, business superiority, competence and relevant information and innovation constructs possess considerable results on the company efficiency (Hendricks & Singhal, 2001).
Management support that is represented by Support managers supervise the maintenance and security of technical services and information within an organization, as well as ensuring adequate training and abilities of IT employees (Dwarswaard et al., 2016; Lee et al., 2016). Furthermore usually management support results in availability of financial resources, in-time allocation of human and other physical resources and also it refers to the delegation of necessary power to project leaders and project team for successful completion of projects (Maes, 2017; Pearce et al., 2016; Wijermans et al., 2016).
Hypothesis H8 Management support moderate the relationship between total quality management and organizational performance.
Based on the critical literature review regarding the managerial as well as the theoretical issues, the research framework of the study was developed as depicted in the following. The proposed models have seven factors of TQM practices, which are the antecedents of organizational performance as the main dependent variable. Management support is added as a moderator and will be tested in the overall relationship from the TQM practices and organizational performance (as seen in Figure 1).
This study is a scientific approach study arranged into systematic steps to formulate hypotheses for the research topic and provide a deductive approach to evaluate that hypothesis. The study assumed that the organizational performance, TQM practices, and organizational support can be quantified and predicted based on cause effect analysis model.. Therefore, the study is belongs to positivism philosophy, deduction approach, quantitative methodology, empirical survey study, used cross sectional data.
The tools used for data collection is a well-structured survey that adapted from previous studies and adapted to be suitable for this particular study. The survey was organized to ask question in likert-5 format. Likert 5 questionnaire style has been used in social science studies for long time and proved to be a suitable style for measuring human perceptions. The organizational performance scale is based on the balance scorecard and questions sourced from (Kaplan & Norton, 2000; Welter et al., 2011). The total quality management scales are based on different related studies and questions sourced from (Androwis et al., 2018; Kanji et al., 1999; Kaynak, 2003; Oakland, 2014; Psomas & Antony, 2017). The management support scale is adapted from (Al Shobaki Mazen et al., 2016; Ismail et al., 2019).
The actual sample of this research is 388 police officers, which was collected from different police stations and department in Emirate of Dubai. The target or study population chosen for this research is the total number of police officers in all levels and all departments at the Dubai police. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) techniques are used for statistical data analysis via the SmartPLS software package, which is used in management and social science studies such as (Salem & Alanadoly, 2020; Salem & Salem, 2018).
In PLS-SEM, two part of data analysis is essential in regression-based models, the reliability and validity tests (measurement model) and the relationships tests (structural Model)
Validity and Reliability of Constructs
Several measures have been conducted such as composite reliability, outer loading, convergent validity, and discriminant validity to ensure reliability and validity of the measurement model (Hair et al., 2016; Sekaran & Bougie, 2016). As shown in Table1, composite reliability is measured by Cronbach’s Alpha and all values are above the cut-off value of 0.70. Therefore, the reliability of measurement model is achieved. The Average Variance Extracted (AVE) values are above 0.5, therefore convergent validity is achieved. Table 2 shows the matrix of Fornell-Larcker criterion, which indicates that no discriminate validity issues are. Table 3 shows the outer loading of the items in its variables, in which only one variable deleted because of it weak loading below the threshold of 0.708. In addition, outer loading for all the items are above 0.708 with no cross loading from foreign item, therefore indicator reliability is achieved.
Internal Consistency and Convergent Validity
|Organisational Performance - Customer||OP_Cu||0.7||0.786|
|Organisational Performance – Financial Performance||OP_FP||0.807||0.92|
|Organisational Performance – Internal Process||OP_IP||0.669||0.754|
|Organisational Performance – Learning and Growth||OP_LG||0.645||0.816|
|TQM - Benchmarking||T_B||0.72||0.87|
|TQM - Continuous Improvement||T_CI||0.823||0.893|
|TQM - Information and Analysis||T_IA||0.765||0.847|
|TQM - Management Leadership||T_ML||0.754||0.834|
|TQM - Service Design||T_SD||0.795||0.871|
|TQM - Strategic Planning||T_SP||0.704||0.79|
Discriminant Validity – Fornell-Larcker Criterion
|OP _C u||OP_F P||OP_IP||OP_L G||T_ B||T_ CI||T_ HR||T_I AS||T_ ML||T_ SD||T_ SP|
Outer Loadings of The Proposed Items
Relationships Examinations and Discussions
For the purpose of assessing the power of the model construct in predicting the outcome variables, predictive power R2 and predictive relevance were used (Hair et al., 2016). Results of the main dependent variable, organizational performance, illustrate a satisfactory predictive power and a medium predictive relevance. As seen in the table the related R square value is 0.552 (a power of 55.2%) and the related Q square is 0.296 (a relevance of 29.6%).
Predictive Power and Predictive Relevance of Proposed Model
|Predictive Power||Predictive Relevance|
|R Square||Status||Q Square||Status|
The research study relationships are in one instructions along with the ideal degree of evaluation is one-tailed. Table 5 shows the path coefficient assessment with the values of T Statistics and also Beta values for the end result variable organizational performance (OP). All antecedents have significant relationships, in which the p value scores are above 0.05 and the t statistics ratings are above 1.98. The overall TQM have a path coefficient of 0.557. The precedence for the different factors of the TQM based on the path coefficient value are B (0.727), IA (0.692), CI (0.689), HR (0.557), ML (0.458), SP (0.293), and SD (0.255).
Path Coefficient Assessment of Crisis Management (Cm)
|Path Coefficient||Standard Deviation||T Statistics||P Value (one tailed)||Status|
|TQM-B → OP||0.727||0.027||26.789||0||Significant|
|TQM-CI → OP||0.689||0.037||18.533||0||Significant|
|TQM-HR → OP||0.557||0.054||10.295||0||Significant|
|TQM-IA → OP||0.692||0.033||21.253||0||Significant|
|TQM-ML → OP||0.458||0.06||7.642||0||Significant|
|TQM-SD → OP||0.255||0.075||3.407||0.001||Significant|
|TQM-SP → OP||0.293||0.073||3.981||0||Significant|
|Oveall TQM → OP||0.557||0.04||13.866||0||Significant|
Table 6 shows the path coefficient assessment with the values of T Statistics values for the moderating variable management support. Respectively, the p value and t statistics values are out of the threshold acceptable values because 0.139 is out of the 5% significance level. Therefore, management supports have no moderating effect on the proposed relationship.
Moderation Assessment of Management Support
|Path Coefficient||Standard Deviation||T Statistics||P Value (one tailed)||Status|
|Moderating Effect TQM -> OP||-0.049||0.033||1.481||0.139||Non-Significant|
Overall, direct relationships for the seven predictors of total quality management practices are significant; the precedence for the relations based on the path coefficient value are benchmarking (0.727), information and analysis (0.692), continuous improvement (0.689), HRM (0.557), management leadership (0.458), strategic planning (0.293), and service design (0.255). For the moderating relationships of management support, it has no significant change in the path coefficient and the moderating effect is not significant.
Contributions and Recommendations
The study contributes to the knowledge of total quality management practices, organizational performance, and managerial support in the police of Dubai. The proposed combination of wide variety of TQM practices and inclusion of management support as a moderator is another theoretical contribution especially when it is applied in the police performance. The study also add knowledge about the effective TQM practices that applied in Dubai police, which assure the fact that Dubai police is one of the most effective police force in the world.
Managers and decision makers in police performance in the UAE and worldwide should emphasize on the benchmarking, information and analysis, and continuous improvement because those are the most contributors to the effective organizational performance. Policy makers should create new policies to assure the compliance with all TQM practices to assure that the police must have the best performance.
This study is limited to the empirical examination of the UAE – Dubai police; however, replicating the same design with same research design, but in different countries, will provide extra knowledge to generalize the proposed relations. The interception of management support in the relationship from TQM practices are found to be no significant, additional work is needed to reveal the reason and explain this non logical relation. In addition, the model can explain up to 55.2% of the organizational performance variance, scholars are welcome to investigate more management practices to increase the model power.
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