Research Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 1S
Khalid Khalifa Fadhel Khalifa Almazrooei, University in Changlun
Muhammad Fuad bin Othman, University in Changlun
Mohammed R A Siam, University in Changlun, Kedah
Community Collaboration, Community Communication, Government Intervention, Police Innovative Services, Dubai Police.
The aim of study is to examine the impact of the community collaboration and community communication on the innovative services delivery by surveying stockholders in relation to the Dubai Police in the UAE. The study population equates to the total number of civil servants excepts those in police or security agencies that knew much about the security developments in Dubai. The philosophy behind this is to investigate the unbiased. The actual sample size for this study is 344 which is collected in face-to-face collection technique by using a printed copy. The samples are collected from different location to have the best diversity in locations and duty among the population. The results show that the proposed model is successful because it can explain 40.34% of the innovative police services. The two variables community collaboration and community communication are both good predictors and have significant relationships with the innovative police services. For government intervention, it seems that the more interact the stronger relationship between community collaboration and innovative police services but not community communication.
The concept of innovativeness in recent times has gained numerous attentions from different scholars. Thus, innovativeness had been argued to be key to sustainability practices, effective and efficient service delivery (Shahzad et al., 2020). Moreover, the innovativeness specifically the use of artificial intelligence had also been argued to have reduced cost and increase the revenue (Cam et al., 2019). Although the importance of innovativeness has been widely unveiling, the factors that trigger innovation in organizations to date remain vague specifically in the police force (Pasha, 2019). Some of the arguments given that causes innovativeness include the interplay between several actors in society (Gallouj et al., 2018). While scholars believed that advancement in technology has spurred global innovation (Isaac et al., 2019). So, what led to innovation specifically remains vague, to answer this question, the researcher feels the urge to embark on empirical investigation.
Nevertheless, there has been continuous innovation in the police force specifically in the Dubai police servicing to the extent that Dubai was awarded as the most innovative country based on human capital and research; infrastructure; market sophistication; business sophistication; knowledge and technology outputs; and creative outputs (Abbas, 2019). With this, the police department argues that their technological innovation had solved some crimes issues that might be left unsolved if not for their technological innovation (Shrouk, 2017). Also, from the available pieces of literature, there are indications that factors such as technological advancement had prompted innovativeness specifically the adoption of artificial intelligent in the business model as well as in the police force (Cam et al., 2019).
In business, there are indications that the adoption of artificial intelligence has been beneficial whereas, there is contempt the contribution of artificial intelligent pertaining to police service innovativeness (Delle et al., 2018).
On a contrary, academics and practitioners identified that the innovativeness embarked on by the police to keep the community safe using artificial intelligence alone without the collaboration and communication with the community does not really work at most times (Dinnen & Peake, 2015). To support this, evidence from the Crime and Safety report (2019) listed that despite the innovativeness ongoing in the police force service in Dubai, the street is arguably not 100% safe for United State citizens visiting Dubai. The crimes like pickpocketing, ATM scams and Fraud, shoplifting and on rare occasions, the criminals committing crime uses weapons (OSAC, 2019). So, the question is, if innovativeness in policing service is effective why crime still exists in the street specifically, the street of Dubai. To answer this rhetoric question, the researcher considers empirical investigation on the perceptions of the community towards the effectiveness of innovativeness in policing services in Dubai.
Similarly, there have been ongoing arguments about the effectiveness of police-community collaboration in assuring and delivering effective policing services. For example, the study of Jackson (2015), argue that to deliver an innovative effective policing service, to ensure transparency, trust, and usefulness, the police need to collaborate and communicate with the community. The contrary to this, believes that caution needed to be taken so that juveniles are protected from policing abuse (Bleakley, 2020). However, the considering this, it is paramount for the researcher to examine the perceived effectiveness of communication and collaboration in policing service as part of innovativeness in policing service in Dubai. This is because this area of research is yet to gain attention from scholars and practitioners. Despite the rampant innovation happening around the globe, there are indications that the observed innovativeness will not be possible if there no backing from the government via supportive policies (Shumetie & Watabaji, 2019).
The aim of study is to examine the impact of the community collaboration and community communication on the innovative services delivery by surveying stockholders in relation to the Dubai Police in the UAE.
Innovation in the Service Industry
The objective of innovation is to provide customers with good services and enhanced products as well improving customers’ experiences which in turn lead to business success (Keiningham et al., 2020). Therefore, from this definition, it is not bad to promptly argue that innovation in the service industry has a significant impact on business success (Wallenburg et al., 2019). Using a case study approach to examine the factors that contributes to service innovativeness, factors such as environment, government intervention via policy employee, customers and expert ideas were reported by earlier studies to significantly contribute to positive or intend service innovation result (Singh et al., 2020). Other factors earlier investigations argue to enhance service innovativeness includes legal protection, patents, and trade secrets (Morikawa, 2019). Although, arguing that service innovation is essential to business success, nevertheless, the author argues that for this to be achieved, all the business employees needed to be tune in to the objective of the innovation (Shafi, 2020).
Furthermore, Jahanshahi, et al., (2020), argues that the innovation outcome must be customer-oriented. Moreover, to support this stance, using an experimental approach to compare expert and customers’ approaches to customers’ needs, the customers are more innovative in-service delivery, while, experts’ innovative approach is quite easy to implement (Rai, 2016). According to the (Salunke et al., 2019), argue that technically suggest customers’ input during service innovation plans to enhance innovation quality. Moreover, to achieve significant service innovativeness, the employee must be given some amount of autonomy to achieve creativity and innovativeness (Peñate et al., 2020). Meanwhile, the conceptual investigation exploiting and including knowledge-intensive business offerings significant to innovativeness itself during the implementation of the service innovation process (Winneberger & Hengsteler, 2020).
History of Police Services
Police are set of individuals empowered by the state to control crimes enhance peace, harmony, and progress among the people of the community residing within the pre-defined jurisdiction (Babatunde, 2017). Other functions of the police in society include the protection of the elderly from being victims of crime (Xie & Baumer, 2019), disciplinary control and the knowledge and regulation of populations (Stenson, 1993). According to Goerger, et al., (2020), police are the verifiable public agency in charge of crime control policymaking and implementation. History has it that policing service start as a volunteerism job as those who join the police at the early time, did it out of the zeal to keep the community safe, therefore they are not being paid for the job done (Dwyer et al., 2020). The needs arise from a population explosion around that time and several public unrests and rioting rocking most cities in the United States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) (Gaffikin & Warf, 2002).
Community Collaboration and Innovative Police Service
Community Police Cooperation
A collaborative partnership between your law enforcement agency and the individuals and organizations it serves is essential to finding answers to community problems (Dlamini, 2020; Mitchell, 2016). So that, and according to many researchers such as (Currie & Sellassie, 2019; Harkin, 2018; Melvin-Campbell, 2019; Monteoliva-García, 2020) they found out that a better community-Police collaboration will defiantly lead to a better and effective police service delivery (Currie & Sellassie, 2019; Mitchell, 2016) and based on that the researcher is expecting significant positive direct effect of Community-Police collaboration in the police force on effective police service delivery. As this hypothesis is compatible with other hypothesis in others studies such as; (Buffone et al., 2017; Christensen et al., 2018; Currie & Sellassie, 2019; Harkin, 2018; Melvin-Campbell, 2019).
Hypothesis 1 Community Collaboration has a significant relationship to the innovative service delivery in Dubai police.
Community Communication and Innovative Police Service
Community-Police communication is the channels and tools to make two ways communication between the police and community to solve the community problems (Stawnicka & Klonowska, 2018; Strudwick et al., 2019). So that, and according to many researchers such as (Fray, 2017; Lu, 2019; Nawab et al., 2019; Strudwick et al., 2019) they found out that a better community-Police communication will lead to a better chemistry and enhance the coordination as well which will lead at the end and to a better and effective police service delivery (Dlamini, 2020; Pridmore et al., 2019) and based on that the researcher is expecting significant positive direct effect of Community-Police communication in the police force on effective police service delivery. As this hypothesis is compatible with other hypothesis in others studies such as; (Dlamini, 2020; Lu, 2019; Mitchell, 2016; Monteoliva-García, 2020; Pridmore et al., 2019; Strudwick et al., 2019).
Hypothesis 2 Community Communication a significant relationship to the innovative service delivery in Dubai police.
Government Intervention Moderation 1
As has been defined before, government intervention is kind of instructions and laws imposed by government to seek some changes like social or economic (Droste et al., 2016; Huang & Du, 2017; Zhang & Yousaf, 2020). On the other hand, and as has been explained before about the significant relationships between the community-police collaboration in the police agency and effective police service delivery (Deng et al., 2017; Sinayi & Rasti-Barzoki, 2018; Wang, 2018). Other researchers such as (Abdulhabib & Al-Dhaafri, 2019; Buffone et al., 2017; Christensen et al., 2018; Deng et al., 2017; Melvin-Campbell, 2019; Mitchell, 2016; Sinayi & Rasti-Barzoki, 2018; Wang, 2018) also discussed and emphasized on the important positive moderating role of the government intervention in the relationships of this study independent and deepened variable (Abbas, 2020; Palladan, 2017) based on that the researcher is expecting that government intervention significantly moderates the relationship between community-police collaboration and effective police service delivery. As this hypothesis is compatible with other hypothesis in others studies such as; (Abbas & Policek, 2020; Flom, 2020; Hendrix et al., 2018; Skrbiš & Laughland?Booÿ, 2019; Young & Ready, 2018).
Hypothesis 3 Government intervention significantly moderates the relationship between community collaboration and the innovative service delivery in Dubai police.
Government Intervention Moderation 2
Government intervention is the process or roles that are imposed by the government to make some changes in certain situations where the intervention is needed (Howell et al., 2019; Mahmoudi & Rasti-Barzoki, 2018; Wang, 2018). On the other hand, and as has been explained before about the significant relationships between the community-police communication in the police agency and effective police service delivery (Maclean, 2017; Margraf, 2019). Other researchers such as (Abbas & Policek, 2020; Flom, 2020; Musgrave, 2020; Nowicka-Skowron, 2018; Vanharanta, 2019) also discussed and emphasized on the important positive moderating role of the government intervention in the relationships of this study independent and deepened variable (Alosani et al., 2020; Kawiana et al., 2018; Kombo, 2018; Willis et al., 2016) based on that the researcher is expecting that government intervention significantly moderates the relationship between community-police communication and effective police service delivery. As this hypothesis is compatible with other hypothesis in others studies such as; (Al-Ali et al., 2017; Chatman & O’Reilly, 2016; Del-Rosario & René, 2017; Paro & Gerolamo, 2017) (Figure 1).
Hypothesis 4 Government intervention significantly moderates the relationship between community communication and the innovative service delivery in Dubai police. Emotional intelligence has a significant mediating effect in the relation between attributed charisma and employees’ commitment in UAE banks.
The study follows systematic steps to achieve the desired objectives in a scientific approach. The study is allocated as deductive approach because it is based on hypothesis evaluation. In addition the study is quantitative methods because the design is based in numerical data and statistical analysis as well. The data used for this study is original collected in a cross-sectional time horizon in 2019 by using a questionnaire that adapted from previous studies.
The study population equates to the total number of civil servants excepts those in police or security agencies that knew much about the security developments in Dubai. The philosophy behind this is to investigate the unbiased. The actual sample size for this study is 344 which is collected in face-to-face collection technique by using a printed copy. The samples are collected from different location to have the best diversity in locations and duty among the population.
The survey was organized to ask question in likert-5 format. Likert 5 questionnaire style has been used in social science studies for long time and proved to be a suitable style for measuring human perceptions. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) techniques are used for statistical data analysis via the SmartPLS software package, which is used in management and social science studies such as (Salem & Alanadoly, 2020; Salem & Salem, 2018).
The items used in measuring community-police collaboration were adapted from the studies of (Carter & Radelet, 2002; Fridell & Lim, 2016; Pickett & Roche, 2016; Nagin et al., 2015). In general, six items were used in measuring community-police collaboration.
• I believed collaborating with the community is the best strategy to prevent crime in my society
• I perceived that community partnership with police force enhance community security.
• In my own opinion, I believed the police department gather more information about potential crime in the community
• The minority races are subjected to police brutality due to community policing.
• I perceived community policing to be harsh on minority race in area where the minority race has history of crime
• The police need to collaborate with the minority ethnics to make them feel safe.
The items used in measuring community-police communication were adapted from the studies of (Cam et al., 2019; Mokyr, 2018; Maguire & John, 2006; Williams et al., 2018). In general, seven items were used in measuring community-police communication.
• Communicating with the community enhance strategic policing policies formulation.
• Interaction of police department and the community enhance policy and community priorities mitigations.
• Having civilian police among the society will help to prevent unforeseen crime.
The awareness that people are working for police make it difficult for crime offenders to commit crime.
• Collaborating with police will leads to power abuse by those collaborating with police officers.
• The minority race will suffer from the joint civilian police collaborations.
• Reporting anonymous case with precise location has help improve communication between community and police officers.
The items used in measuring government intervention were adapted from the studies of (Gayadeen & Phillips, 2014; Morikawa, 2019; De-Fuentes et al., 2001; Cheurprakobkit & Puthpongsiriporn, 2005). Therefore, to measure the moderating role of government intervention in this research, a 9 items were developed to capture the perception of the masses on the issues raised in this research.
• I believed the government provides resources ‘finance’ needed to support police-community partnership innovation.
• The provision made by the government promotes innovation in delivering effective police service
• The provision made by the government inhibit innovation in delivering effective police service.
• I believe the role government can enhance service innovativeness between the police and the community by formulating and implementing policy that encourage such innovativeness.
• I believe it is the duty of the government to create awareness about the police-community collaboration.
• It is the duty of the government to create awareness about several channels of effective policing strategies.
• Through unbiased service policy from the government, the interest of the minority race can be protected can be protected against community policing abuse of power.
• Through unbiased service policy from the government, the civil rights of the minority race can be protected against community policing abuse of power.
• Overall, the intervention of government to enhance police innovation had made significant impact.
The items measuring service quality were adapted in this research because it had been widely adapted in social science researches and confirmed to be reliable and valid (Cronin & Taylor, 1992, Gronroos, 1988; Lien & Zhou, 2017; Napitupulu et al., 2018; Santos, 2003). Eight questions are adapted for this scale.
• In recent times, Dubai Police are proactive in preventing crimes.
• With the technology adoptions, the police response time has significantly improved.
• Several innovativeness embarked upon by the policing agency meets the needs of the society
• The police agency successfully integrates the society into the security team.
• The recent innovativeness in the policing agency protect the Dubai citizens from domestic crime.
• The recent innovativeness in the policing agency protect the Dubai citizens from international crime.
• Overall, I perceived that the police service quality has significantly improved.
• Overall, the communities are satisfied with the recent policing services delivery.
Validity and Reliability of Constructs
The proposed model of this research is cause-effect model to interconnect between community collaboration, community communication, government intervention, and innovative police services. Such designs need to be tested for validity and reliability before proceeding to the relationships evaluation.
Several measures have been conducted such as composite reliability, outer loading, convergent validity, and discriminant validity to ensure reliability and validity of the measurement model (Hair, Hult, Ringle & Sarstedt, 2016; Sekaran & Bougie, 2016). As shown in Tables 1 composite reliability is measured by Cronbach’s Alpha and all values are above the cut-off value of 0.70.
Therefore, the reliability of measurement model is achieved. In addition, outer loading for all the items are above 0.708 with no cross loading from foreign item, therefore indicator reliability is achieved. The Average Variance Extracted (AVE) values are above 0.5, therefore convergent validity is achieved.
Finally, Table 1 shows the matrix of Fornell-Larcker criterion, which indicates that no discriminate validity issues are. Some items were eliminated based on the rule of thumb for outer loading and cross loading.
Construct Reliability and Validity
|Community Collaboration (CCR)||CCR1||0.744||0.607||0.869|
|Community Communication (CCU)||CCU1||0.827||0.622||0.877|
|Government Intervention (GI)||GI1||0.725||0.567||0.856|
|Innovative Police Service (IPS)||IPS1||0.738||0.606||0.906|
This roadmap for examining the validity and reliability are applied in social science studies such as Salem & Alanadoly (2020) and Salem & Salem (2018). ( Table 2 )
Discriminant Validity – Fornell-Larcker Criterion
The model of innovative police services can explain 40.34% of its variance based on the prediction of community collaboration and community communication. The purpose of assessing the power of the model construct is to devalue the success of the model based on predictive power R2 (Hair et al., 2016). The results of the hypothesized relationships are also tabulated in Table 3. The table shows that two direct relationships are accepted.
Structural Relationships and Hypothesis Testing
|Path Coefficient||Standard Error||T Statistics||P Value||Effective Size f2||Relationship|
|Community collaborationà Innovative Police Services||0.369||0.036||10.184||0||0.27||Significant|
|Community communication à Innovative Police Services||0.206||0.035||5.824||0||0.093||Significant|
The threshold for accepting or rejecting any hypothesis is p-value value, which is supposed to be less than 0.05 (significance at 5% level). Community collaboration has the highest impact with path coefficient score of 0.369 and effective size of 0.270. Community communication has the second impact with path coefficient score of 0.206 and effective size of 0.093.
For the moderation affect, Table 4 shows the moderation of government innovation in the two relationships. Government intervention interact in the relationship between community collaboration and innovative police services is not significant is significant with P value=0.003 and path coefficient of 0.599. However, government interventions interact in the relationship between community communication and innovative police services is not significant because the P value: 0.205.
Moderation Assessment of Government Intervention (GI)
|Path Coefficient||Standard Deviation||T Statistics||P Value (one tailed)||Status|
|CCR * GI-> IPS||0.599||0.197||3.042||0.003||Significant|
|CCU * GI-> IPS||0.259||0.204||1.27||0.205||Non-Significant|
The aim of study is to examine the impact of the community collaboration and community communication on the innovative services of the Dubai Police; besides to the interaction of the government intervention. The results show that the proposed model is successful because it can explain 40.34% of the innovative police services. The two variables community collaboration and community communication are both good predictors and have significant relationships with the innovative police services. For government intervention, it seems that the more interact the stronger relationship between community collaboration and innovative police services but not community communication.
The study contributes to the knowledge of prediction of the innovative police services in Dubai. The proposed combination of variables and inclusion of government intervention as a moderator is significant contribution to academic research.
This study is limited to the empirical examination of Dubai Police and the replication of the same conceptual model in different countries or even in other organizations will be beneficial to the generalization of the relationships in the model. In addition, the model can explain 40.34% of the variance but by adding more variables the explanation for sure will be better. The rejection of the interaction of government intervention in the relationship from technology use is rational but need more investigation.
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