Research Article: 2019 Vol: 23 Issue: 1S
Akintolu Morakinyo, University of Zululand
Omotola Akinsola, College of Social Work, University of Tennessee
There are many educational reforms that have taken a turn in Nigeria but leadership and entrepreneurship skills have not received much attention in the reforms and curriculum development as a whole. However, there are limited research and model that create a platform for teenagers and youths to acquire leadership and entrepreneurial skills in public high schools. Previous work has only focused on students in tertiary institutions. In response to the need and to produce youths with entrepreneurial, leadership skills, competent and resilience, this paper investigates the impact of leadership and entrepreneurship education as a strategy for strengthening youth community engagement in Nigeria, lesson learnt from Jumpstart Project. The study adopted the theory of social impact assessment. The respondents are the final year and alumni scholars of the project. A qualitative design method was used. An interview was conducted containing some questions under these sub-themes the accessibility, types, relevant, how they utilized the skills learnt and the challenges faced during the project. An analysis from the responses indicated that leadership and entrepreneurial education is highly important for students in high schools where the students can align their education pursuit with leadership and entrepreneurial skills. However, there is a lot that is expected of them in order to meet up with the school curriculum. Furthermore, this study found a correlation between entrepreneurial and leadership education and academic excellence. The study recommends that such a model should be adopted into the curriculum, where all governmentowned high school students learn the art of leadership and develop the entrepreneurial spirit even as a teenager.
Leadership, Entrepreneurship, Education, Community Engagement, Skills, Social Entrepreneurship.
There are many educational reforms that have taken turn in Nigeria, but much attention has not been given to leadership and entrepreneurship in the reforms and curriculum as a whole. However, there seems to be a limited research and model that create a platform for teenagers and youths in public high schools to acquire leadership and entrepreneurial skills at the stage. Previous work have only focused on out of school youths and students in tertiary institutions (Moberg et al., 2014; Dzomonda & Fatoki, 2019; Olaniran & Mncube, 2018; Sandrock, 2011). Study like Sandrock (2011) advocates for leadership and entrepreneurship training only in higher institutions with focus on graduate students and matriculates.
So research is needed to shed more light on how these concepts- leadership and entrepreneurship education can respond to the need, and produce youths and teenagers in public high schools with social entrepreneurial, leadership, competent and resilient skills. In an effort to address this burning menace, Jumpstart project came to life.
Jumpstart Dream Foundation is a non-profit educational organisation in Nigeria. The organisation provides an alternative and sustainable solution to educational problems prevalent in Nigeria and the continent of Africa. Jumpstart seeks to complement the effort of government in the area of education. The foundation takes specific interests in every student enrolled with it and the foundation does a follow-up on them. It is believed that youths are not the problems to be solved, but the problem solvers. Jumpstart started with the gathering of young people that had a passion for activating the future, and constant discussions led to the formation of JumpStart Dream Foundation (Nigeria) which had its inaugural interactive session in September, 2013. Jumpstart is an impact human benefit organisation focused on rethinking the purpose of education in Nigeria and other African countries.
Through the Adopt-A- School Programme, the foundation educates government owned secondary school students to see themselves as instruments of positive change through a fusion of both academic and entrepreneurial curricular. The vision of the foundation is to cultivate a new generation of leaders and entrepreneurs who will lead ethically and work for the greater good of the society. The programme core values are: personal leadership, ethical actions, powerful relationship, innovation and exponential empowerment.
Based on the need identified by the foundation, the following objectives were set:
1. To educate the scholars (students) to see themselves as instruments of positive change through emphasis on academic, leadership and entrepreneurship curricular, and as change agents who can proffer solutions to the social, economic issues facing their communities, Nigeria and Africa at large
2. To empower scholars to see the possibilities that lies within their hands and minds; also, help them in crafting the vision and hope for their personal life, their academic work and for the future of Nigeria and Africa at large
3. To equip scholars with tools, resources and opportunities to make positive change happen and to train them to become advocates for those who might not have the platform to voice their needs, and
4. To enable scholars and youths lead ethically and be solution- oriented servant leaders to the issues and the needs identified in their communities, Nigeria and Africa at large. (Jumpsart Dream Foundation, 2013).
5. The programme includes four focus areas which are Tutorial programme, Social entrepreneurship and leadership course, Mentorship and Vocational skills. This study is centered on two areas- 1. Entrepreneurship and Leadership education and 2. Mentorship of the project (Figure 1).
In view of the above, the thrust of this study is therefore to investigate the role of leadership and entrepreneurship education as a strategy for strengthening youth community engagement in developing countries: lesson learnt from Jumpstart Project. The major objectives of this study are:
1. To enquire the rate at which the youths are accessing leadership and entrepreneurship education.
2. To ascertain the type of leadership and entrepreneurship education or training been access by youth on the project
3. To find out the most relevant training by the youth on the project
4. To investigate how leadership and entrepreneurship training being utilized in the project
5. To find out the challenges facing youth in accessing leadership and entrepreneurship education.
This study looked at how a non-government organisation has embedded leadership and entrepreneurship education in academic curriculum to bring about lifelong experience among teenagers and youths.
Leadership and Entrepreneurship Education
Researchers over the years have made several attempt of a definite definition for the term entrepreneurship (Gedeon, 2010). Kobia & Sikalieh, (2010) attribute the lack of universal definition of entrepreneurship to the fact that different disciplines coin different definitions. However, Rigwema & Venter, (2004) see entrepreneurship as the process of initiating, planning, organising, implementing, executing through innovative, and nurturing a business opportunity into a meaningful economic venture in a dynamic environment. Entrepreneurship is the individual’s ability to translate ideas into action. It encompasses creativity, risk-taking and innovativeness, as well as ability to plan and direct action towards the achievement of goals. Entrepreneurship education mainly refers to wide-ranging work within the educational administration with a view to enhancing entrepreneurship. It is embraced and supported by many stakeholders such as educational organisations, labour organisations, non-government organisation, public and private institutions (Ministry of Education, 2009:11). Entrepreneurship education is embedded in continuous learning and interconnection of different operation.
Dzomonda & Fatoki (2019) believe entrepreneurship education is a career that improves both economic and social inclusion of youth through self-employment. Similarly, Ojimba (2012) defines entrepreneurship education as a kind of education that deals with the preparation of individuals for the future of work in an identified profession or business. Studies such as Osoro & Areba, (2013); Sathiabama, (2010) attribute entrepreneurship with wealth creation. As stated in Fatoki & Chindoga (2011), entrepreneur can be describe as someone who ventured into a business combining all factor of productions with the perfect knowledge of the risk involved with the aim of maximizing profit. However, it is imperative to recognise that entrepreneurship education for any individual is not enough without the skills and knowledge to manage both human, material resources, and manage a team. For an individual to successfully establish and manage an enterprise as a business or social entrepreneur, such individual must have the capacity to lead. Krishnan (2012), while supporting this view, argued that the effective leadership is to create and maintain sustainable business with the aim of addressing the personal outcomes of employees.
Entrepreneurship education has been recognised as one of the most important ways to empower the mindset of young people and improve their skills for sustainable livelihood (Dzomonda & Fatoki, 2019; Olaniran & Mncube, 2018). The investment on young people should be a necessity, most especially, in the area of encouraging them to acquire practical skills and knowledge that will be relevant to the various sectors of the economy and make them employable at the workplace (UNESCO with recommendation from ILO, 2002).
The central theme of this study is to investigate the impact of leadership and entrepreneurship education as a strategy for strengthening public high schools students’ community engagement in Nigeria.
Rational for this Study
Leadership and entrepreneurship education played a major role in instilling entrepreneurial culture in young people and enhance national development.
Social impact assessment theory
This present paper is guided by the social impact assessment theory which was postulated by Habermas (1979) and later expanded by Dietz (1987). According to Wilson, (2017) Social Impact Assessment (SIA) can be describe as an outcome, effects, and values of a particular social impact project or programme on its beneficiaries, clients and the community at large. The theory postulates that outcomes can be applied to policy making. In addition Habermas, (1979) opines that decision making with regard to social impact assessment integrates values and scientific analysis. However, the decision of continuity, revision or closure projects or programmes can be consider based on the values and perception of the beneficiaries, public, community members and other stakeholders. Impact assessment helps the interest group to create awareness on how a project or programmes had impacted the community. Thus, can clarify and work throughout the project cycle to fine tune until completion Dietz (1987). As Wilson, (2017) points out that SIA can be used to identify opportunities and be used to mitigate or predict negative impacts for participants and community members. Thus, the findings from this present study will help inform the incorporation and use of leadership and entrepreneurship curriculum in all stages of academics, most especially, in rural based-and government-owned schools.
The theory of social impact assessment by Habermas has implications for development programmes and projects motivated for clear discussion by an informed public with the aim of integrating values and scientific information Dietz (1987). The uniqueness of this theory is that it can be used to effectively create a public awareness and encourage their participation in policy issues. It may also reduce the inconsistent impact of some special groups in the decision making process. As Dietz (1987) indicated that the theory can make the outcome of the projects and programmes more appreciable and comprehensive to the public. With that, the theory has implication for this present study reference to rural and local communities who benefited from projects. This indicates that ordinary people at the grass roots level are important in assessing social impact of a project or programme that seeks to improve their lives; in this case, teenager and youths who are involved in leadership and entrepreneurship programmes.
As beneficiaries of the leadership and entrepreneurship project, the youths were in a better position to provide comprehensive views about strengths and weaknesses of the programme. For instance, both the positives and negatives of this project can lead to its continuity, revision or discontinuity. Dietz (1987) affirms that cost-benefit analysis is justified as a means of increasing the efficiency of resources involved. Indeed it is through assessment that the real impact of a project or an academic programme on its beneficiaries can be made known. The assessment of social impact of a project can adopt any suitable research design, but in this case the qualitative research approach was adopted for this present study.
The research employed a case study of a project that has been on for over 6 years. The study completed a descriptive method where a qualitative approach was adopted. According to Creswell (2014) qualitative research can have the possibilities of choosing among narrative, phenomenology, ethnography, case study, and grounded theory. In this present study the use of case study is used to explore the processes, activities and events. The experience of the participants in who have been a beneficiary and part of the project, was deployed through an online interview sessions. The aim was to obtain information about their experiences on leadership and entrepreneurship education during and after the project.
The research instrument for this study was interview. The online structured interview was used to obtained information about the experiences of alumni on leadership and entrepreneurship education during the project.
Purposive sampling was used to select participants representing respondents for the interview as there was evidence that these participants had gone through the same experience during the course of the programme. To be eligible, the participants had to be an alumni or in the final year of the project.
The data was analyzed using a qualitative method created in themes.
Trustworthiness: Two main strategies were used to enhance the trustworthiness of the data. When the initial data analysis was completed, the list of themes generated was sent to the participants for validation (member checking). Through this process, the participants, including the researchers, verified the interpretation of the data. Credibility of the data was enhanced by having two researchers independently code and interpret the data, providing a basis for reflective discussions which helped to provide a more complete understanding.
Findings and Discussion of the Study
The data generated from the interview was grouped under eight main themes based on the form of questions posed to the participants. They include: accessibility of the content of leadership and entrepreneurship education; types of leadership and entrepreneurship education available during the programme; participants preferred area of the leadership and entrepreneurship education and why; unpreferred area and why; area of the programme with utmost important and its relevant; relevance of the entrepreneurship and leadership education programme to the participants and its utilisation; challenges identified by the participants; and strategies to improve the programme.
The researcher sought to find out from the participants how accessible is the content of leadership and entrepreneurship education in the area of theory and practical during programme. The participants expressed positive response towards the accessibility. According to them they have access to concept like emotional intelligence, which encompasses self-awareness, selfregulation and empathy, learning by examples, communication, 21st century skills, navigate and create long lasting solutions.
The view of one of the participant is presented below.
The programmer was accessible, both practical and theoretical aspect. I was carried along and deeply involved in the programme.
The other participant could not agree more:
For me, the leadership and entrepreneurship education was highly accessible, given that it was able to; with its methods carry everyone from different spheres and with different learning abilities. This was helped by the give and take method adopted by the programme in integrating students into community development and participation.
Another participant added:
The leadership and entrepreneurship education was easily accessible during its application at the academy.
The same participant added that:
What made it even more accessible and easier for students to understand and assimilate, giving that it is not a usual education given to students in Nigeria, was the diversity of the tutors, their calmness and willingness to break each session to our level and relate it to things that we could identify in our immediate environment and society at large.
It can be discovered from the views of the participants that the leadership and entrepreneurship education programme is accessible, and had been of tremendous help to their success. The views expressed by the participants about the leadership and entrepreneurship programme imply that the programme serves as an eye opening experience where they are able to see how the mind of a leader and entrepreneur works. However, one of the participants found only the practical more accessible.
Under this theme, the researcher investigates the type of leadership and entrepreneurship education available to the participant during the programme. Emphasising on the issue of type and availability, one of the participants noted the following:
I had access to various topics that boosted my leadership and entrepreneurship life, including; feedback systems, servant leadership, social engagement, enterprise development, teamwork, contributive and participatory leadership. In all, we were tutored with a curriculum that covers these two areas which had acronym of SELC Education, and translates to Social Entrepreneurship and Leadership Course.
This view was also shared by another participant when he agreed that:
There were diverse kinds of leadership programme that was offered to us. On leadership, we were tutored on topics like visionary leadership, green house management, community leadership, peer group and selflessness in leadership. Also, in entrepreneurship education; we had access to education on social entrepreneurship and business model programmes. All these knowledge were ideally facilitated by Social Entrepreneurship and Leadership Course where we were taken through as beneficiaries of the project. The view of another participant is indicated below:
I have special interest in servant leadership.
On the same note, corroborating the opinions of participant 1 and 2 above, another participant remarks as follows:
I had full access to practical social and entrepreneurship leadership course.
The above views indicate that participants show that there were so many types of leadership and entrepreneurship areas that were covered and available during their stay on the project. The views of the participants led to the conclusion that there were diverse areas that the project actually covered.
Under this theme, the opinions of the participants with regards to their preferred area of leadership and entrepreneurship are detailed. The researcher asked the participants to indicate the area they like most. This question generated different views during the interview from various participants; however the nub of the discussion centered on the fact that every area of the programme is unique to individual scholar (students).
The view of one of the participant is captured below:
Sir (the researcher), at most points, all teachings and aspects of the project excited me a lot, but I really enjoyed the enterprise development as it gave me the chance to give back to my society what I was given at the academy.
In a similar way, another participant expressed the following view:
I can’t really pin down the area that had interest me the most because the entire programme was wonderful and it all had a unique and distinct message that they passed across to the scholars (students) at the academy. However, I could say I have more preference for visionary leadership and community development respectively.
Another participant sharing is own view:
In the leadership aspect, I really liked the feedback part as this helped me foster good relationship with my friends and other people I encountered. While in the entrepreneurship area, I really liked the phase where we had to build up our own business model that is targeted at helping people as well as gaining money into our account.
Another participant considered different area in his opinion:
Servant leadership and personal leadership. It helped me to discover myself and also consider others. I also learnt that it is necessary for me to have impact in others life as a leader.
For another participant, she viewed:
The area I liked the most during the programme is the times we went for workshops, met with people (Mentorship Showcase) in the position to advise us and tell us about their success stories.
In summary, it was generally observed that the participants’ preference is based on interest and need owing to the fact that different participants have a unique area of interest. This agreed with the findings of Akintolu and Oyewole (2017) which assert that participants enrolled in certain skills at the expense of others due to interest and scanty enrollment of trainees.
At this point, the researcher questioned the participants about what they dislike in any areas of the leadership and entrepreneurship education programme and why?
Responding to the dislike, some of the participants noted the following:
I didn’t like the teaching part, not because I was lazy, but because I didn’t see the use of it or its impact. According to Jumpstart approach (Project), it should be learners centered education.
Another noted that:
The area where we taught how to resolve conflicts by using Situation Behaviour Impact (SBI) format is my unpreferred area. I had problem understanding the concept and it only worked for me once out of the countless time I tried using it.
On a contrary, one of the participants said:
All aspects of the academy’s teaching and learning have shaped me to who I am today. Every single knowledge I gained there has over the years facilitated my growth and improved my outlook in life
Another participant could not agree more:I loved and still love every of the programme because I still apply lessons that I have learnt from it in my daily life.
The participants expressed their feelings to those areas of the programmes they don’t like. Some of the participants are not really satisfied with some areas of the programme and want it to be replaced. One participant was of the view that:
If the SBI format can be replaced with a better way of resolving conflict and giving feedbacks, probably, a modify dialogue or meditation system.
The view of another participant indicated:
I think what the management should do is to scrap 80% of the teaching part and strive to implement the heart and mind of a leader in each and every one of the schools.
The same participant was quick to add that:
Scrap most of the teaching aspect and get listeners who would listen to the scholars and mentor them throughout their time at Jumpstart (project).
However, there are participants who agreed to love all aspects of the project and do not see the need for replacement.
The participants were also interviewed on the area of the programme which is of utmost importance and its relevance. The participants have diverse view on this also.
One of the participants have this to say:
The social entrepreneurship education part as this require you to muddle up everything you have learnt under leadership and entrepreneurship to succeed in it. You have to start up your own enterprise by thinking of a way to provide a basic need in your immediate community.
Another participant could not hide her feelings towards this:
For me, I think that the very most important aspect of the programme is the nurture of leadership and encouragement of entrepreneurship innovations; also, the mentorship and external workshops.
On the same note, another participant remarked as follows:
The social entrepreneurship and leadership course that was carefully taught to participants was the best.
Specifically one of the participants added:
I give community involvement utmost importance
Similarly, another expressed himself as follow:
I like the aspect where students had mentors that mentored and monitored them in applying the skills they have learnt and helping them through their challenges.
In a form of summary, the participants admitted that this is a kind of programme that has prepared and is preparing young people for global greatness and participation. Students were able to learn how to also be a part of positive changes in their various communities.
Under this theme the researcher sought to ascertain from the participants about the relevance of the programme and how the skills learnt have been utilized.
Participants have experience various ways in which they have utilized the programme in their sphere. The view of one of the participants is presented below:
The relevance of the programme to me as students is that it opened my eyes to the world that was ahead of me. I was challenged to see my worth and how I could be of a positive impact to my society and the world at large. I also became a global citizen that cares so deeply about the world and realised that my contribution to the development of the world really matter.
The same participants further added he had utilized the programme:
I have been able to utilize the skills that I have learnt from the programme to be more proactive and be a solution provider. I have also been able to work on different community development projects on the area of environment, education and an advocate for the subjects of feminism. I am also a volunteer with other organisations that work on the United Nation’s goals.
With the same view, another participant remarked as follows:
The programme has helped to shape my life and my mentality about life. The programme has transformed me into a selfless ambitious individual, with plans on how to make impact in the world.
The same participants viewed the utilization as:
I have utilized the skills I learnt both in classroom situations and outside. And I am now a better me.
Another participant could not agree more with this view:
As for me, this programme is all-rounder. In my school, while I was the president of child right club, I utilized the skills learnt from the programme to help other students by organising others to publicly talk about their rights everywhere.
Another learner expressed the following view:
I also started my social enterprise shortly after I graduated.
The views expressed by the participants have shown that the programme had a great impact on them and brought out some hidden potentials. This had enabled some of them to come up with sustainable solutions to societal problems. The participants agreed that they now understand the world beyond the conventional mindset; they see themselves as part of the big change they are looking forward to create in our world. This support the idea of (Pihie et al., 2014) that the greater the teachers perceive the importance of practicing entrepreneurial leadership by school principals, the more innovative the school is in innovative school culture, encouraging and supporting entrepreneurial thinking and innovative ideas, and overcoming the challenges of applying innovative educational methods. In the study conducted by Nafukho and Muyia (2010), agreed that an initiative towards entrepreneurship education and training play a pivotal role in the developing skills of young people.
The researchers probe more into the challenges the participants encountered with the programme and personal challenges. For the programme, the participant however identified numerous challenges among which are: lack of strong dedication and commitment from the facilitators, little professionalism to the programme, too flexible curriculum.
Precisely, one participant lamented that:
One of the challenges I identified was pertaining to the practical aspect of the programme. The community involvement was seldom done.
The view of another participant is indicated below:
The programme is really time-consuming. There were times I had quarrels with my parents because I used to get home late. This usually hindered me from getting proper attention from my parents as they initially taught I was unserious.
On the same note, another participant stressed as follows:
The personal challenge I had was first a family challenge. My family didn’t see the reason I had to leave home weekends, while I could be useful in the house.
The same participant was quick to add a personal challenge that:
I also had a challenge of communicating with my peers and meeting with people I had never met before. Also, the programme itself seemed too foreign to me because it was not the usual type of education I was used to.
Under this theme, the researchers consider the views of the participants based on their suggestions on how to improve the programme. The participants were asked their suggestions to the programme, management, school administrators/principals, government and their colleagues.
Some of the suggestions from participants are as follows:
To get dedicated and passionate educators, and facilitators who will also serve as mentors, also have more programmes where scholars (students) get to go out and meet some other successful people or startups where they have a good vision of what leadership entails. That the programme should involve more practical than theory and emphasis should be laid on the entrepreneurship aspect.
Academic tutors too should be leadership and entrepreneurship oriented as this would help give better understanding to what leadership means.
More students should be given scholarship not based on their educational grades in the course of the test, but in their ability to learn, improve and to develop.
The same participants stated that:
I was not the best student in my class; I was sometimes above average, but this programme has opened my world and improved me. Many could be improved.
For the management, the participants suggested that:
A concrete system for administration should be established. Most scholars are not happy with promises that are not kept; instead put things that you are sure you can do and let them see that you can then initiate things that aren’t on the curriculum, but can be done. Remove everything because students lose trust in an unstable system.
The management should try to introduce the programme to schools (government and private owned schools). It will be led by a senior scholar (student) who has been part of the programme and the meeting might be taking place during the extra-curricular hour.
Scholars (Students) representative council should be involved in the affairs of the programme as this would help give better understanding to what leadership means.
The programme should create more interesting activities and programmes for the scholars (students). Also, every student should be treated with equal dignity and should be celebrated.
There should be improvement on the area of documentation when it comes to formalising agreement for the release of scholars (students) for the programme. The stakeholders involved need to consider such as the parents, schools and even the government. This will give scholars (students) a smooth run in learning from the academy (programme). Omilani and Akintolu (2017), in their study concluded that management has all the will power to motivate and execute any project or motivate workers.
For the School Administrator
Administrator and principals should encourage programmes like this to be introducing to their school because the students will eventually make the school proud when they partake in this kind of programme.
Thrive to find a student passion and not just push them to cram your teachings. Also, lead by examples.
Never hinder students from attending programmes like this as everything in this life is not only about mathematics and English.
Education goes way beyond everything we learn within the four walls of school. Eight hours is enough time to see students in such archaic setting. They should never be a hindrance to students’ participation in this project. Rather they should join them to work it all out.
They should allow students to develop their interest in their desired goals or field of study. School administrators should allow organisations to implement projects in school. (Pittaway and Cope (2007) agreed that institutions of higher learning can take the role of shaping the mindset of youth and teenagers by introducing and incorporating entrepreneurship education into the syllabus as a career option.
One of the participants indicated:
If my school principal had allowed us to create a peace club in my school some years back, I wonder how developed and what impact it would have created. Corroborating this, Sandrock (2011) maintained that entrepreneurship education and career guidance can be introduced early enough when students are in primary school in order to prepare them for the entrepreneurial career.
Suggestions to their colleagues are as follow:
Learn to always practice all what we are being taught and work together in harmony and love, in order to achieve more.
Find out why you wake up every morning, what drives you, what is your purpose, what do you want in life. Have vision, mission and purpose to your existence.
Never make the mistake of thinking that academics are everything. Make out time to attend programmes like this also.
My colleagues should imbibe the ability and willingness to learn and see themselves as leaders of today. Let’s join the society to solve problems and preserve our world.
The project is a rare opportunity that connects you to global learning and the 21st century education. Make most of your time there and make sure you not only improve your life with the knowledge acquired there, you also improve your immediate society, nation, continent and world at large.
By way of summary, the participants suggested that such programmes should be embrace by students in order to solve the problems of today because tomorrow comes with its own challenges.
To the Government
The participants expressed their feelings and raised suggestions on how the government can be involved base on the experience during the programme. One participant suggested that:
Government should support and encourage the establishment of Non-Governmental Organisations across the states. There are still many lives that need to be touched and the government can’t do it alone. But NGOs like this can serve as channels to achieve these goals
Another participant could not agree more:
Proper recognition should be given to programmes like this as we need to build teenager and youths social entrepreneur.
Supporting the suggestion of first participant above, this participant has this to say: We understand that they cannot do it all in raising the standard of education, which is why they need to give their support to projects like this however, they can form partnership with such programmed as this. It will boost and encourage others who have ideas on how to make our educational section better.
Another participant expressed the following suggestion:
My suggestion is that education is a priority and should not be politicized. Adequate funding and enabling environment plus qualified, intelligent and selfless teachers should be employed. Education has also gone beyond ‘Math’ and ‘English’. Our education should focus more on making the young students change makers, active thinkers and solution providers.
On the same note, another participant suggested:
Let’s (government) help students create an Africa we all want to live in, a positive Africa, in every way we are empowered. Don’t make students choose their careers because of some criteria you set, which you feel that they can’t reach.
As identified in the study of Akintolu and Oyewole (2017) that there is negligence on the part of the government in providing fund for the entrepreneurial scheme and to support training center, most especially private owned.
The views of the participants led to the conclusion that leadership and entrepreneurship education was so appropriate in strengthening youth’s community engagement in this 21st century. The above suggestions indicate that leadership and entrepreneurship education needs to involve various stakeholders including the government in its full implementation both in theory and practical in our school curriculum. According to the interview, the participants are highly engaged, and also recognized different areas of leadership and entrepreneurship education based on interest and need. Quote from one of the participants there were diverse kinds of leadership and entrepreneurship programmes that were offered to us.
Social entrepreneurship should be addressed, discussed, and cultivated through education because an entrepreneurial culture that is nurtured will make social entrepreneurship a mechanism for enhancing a community. The views expressed by the participants have shown that the programme had a great impact on them and brought out some hidden potentials. This made some of them come up with social impact project to solve societal problems. This corroborated the findings by Othman et al., (2012) in a survey involving university students who are engaged in social entrepreneurship projects auspices by SIFE Malaysia Foundation. The researchers found out that those who engaged in such programmes possess a high level of resilience compared to those who do not participate. In addition, social entrepreneurship should be cultivated among the students to polish their social entrepreneurial skills as well as fostering unity among them.
Concerns were raised by the participants on the need to scrap the traditional method of delivery, which Ahmad & Buchanan (2015) refer to top down policies which may facilitate enterprise ideas, but limited to promote the individual skills, readiness, attitude and knowledge that characterise successful enterprise. Traditional approach of teaching in a formal setting seems inappropriate for building new crops of entrepreneur. Such teaching approach cannot be merged with what entrepreneur will experience in real world. Therefore, this study emphasised the need to bridge the gap between theory and practice.
From the findings above, the participants agreed that government should give proper recognition to programme of this nature so as to build teenagers and youths with social entrepreneurial spirit. AbWahid et al. (2013) cannot agree more by saying the integration of social entrepreneurship approach in teaching and learning for multi-racial students is believed could form the generation of genuine collaborative leaders who adhere to national unity.
Limitation of the Study
One of the limitations may be borne out of the fact that participants selected might not have a holistic and complete experience of the programme. This might be due to the purposeful sample adopted for the study in order to bring about thoroughness in the process.
The interview focus mainly on the students and neglect the educators; this might lead to imbalance of the information. However, the purpose was to examine the impact and role leadership and entrepreneurship education plays on young people during the programme.
Also, due to the distance of all participants, the interview was conducted online which may hinder the process of the interview. However, this was totally managed as the researchers were so specific about the questions and found an appropriate time to conduct the interview.
The researchers observed that the participants were so much interested in some particular areas and concepts of the programme such as emotional intelligent, visionary leadership, service/community leadership, among others. For subsequent programmes, more attention should be given to those areas to bring about effectiveness in the programme. The study recommends that educators should be adequately trained with 21st century skills and behavioural competences in order to deliver the content of leadership and entrepreneurship education.
The study also suggests to similar or subsequent programmes that less attention should be accorded to theory aspect when developing or amending the curriculum. Government should be more involved in establishing and supporting such initiatives in order to create ethical leaders and entrepreneurial spirit in the next crop of leaders.
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