International Journal of Entrepreneurship (Print ISSN: 1099-9264; Online ISSN: 1939-4675)

Research Article: 2023 Vol: 27 Issue: 3

Occupational Biosafety Nets in the Literature from 2019 to 2022

Celia Yaneth Quiroz Campas, Technological Institute of Sonora

Francisco Espinoza Morales, University of Sonora

Rosa María Rincón Ornelas, University of Sonora

Cruz García Lirios, Autonomous Mexico State University

Citation Information: Campas, CYQ., Morales , FE., Ornelas, RMR., & Lirios CG. (2023). OCCUPATIONAL BIOSAFETY NETS IN THE LITERATURE FROM 2019 TO 2022, International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 27(S3), 1-16


Security has concern authorities and civil society during last years. Different society’s substrates have different perceptions on security. Present document explores reliability and validity of an instrument which measures security perception in bachelor’s students by reviewing seven dimensions: territorial, national, public (government), human, public (selfprotection), private and internaut. Accordingly, setting values and residual permitted to accept the null hypothesis significant relationship between the theoretical dimensions with respect to the weighted factors.


Instrument’s reliability, Instruments validity, Security perception.


At the time of writing, the pandemic caused by the SARS-COV-2 coronavirus and the COVID-19 disease has infected 10 million, sickened 5 million and killed 500,000 people worldwide (WHO, 2022). In Mexico, it has infected 200,000, sickened 150,000 and killed 25,000 people (PAHO, 2022). In this scenario, the perception of security is a central issue on the citizen's agenda not only due to the health crisis, but also the economic crisis.

In this way, the escalation of violence against vulnerable groups such as children, women and the elderly has increased exponentially and added to the risks posed by the pandemic. Derived from this situation, the perception of security emerges, develops and consolidates as a central issue on the citizen's agenda (Martinez et al., 2018). It is a phenomenon in which potential victims appreciate the pandemic as unpredictable in its effects, immeasurable in its consequences and uncontrollable by the authorities.

Such phenomena, the pandemic and security, converge in the violence against the vulnerable groups as a result of the frustration of the heads of families in the face of unemployment, famine and unhealthiness (Juarez et al., 2017). In this way, the areas at greatest risk are the most densely populated such as Mexico City, mainly in the Iztapalapa mayor's office.

Security, in several countries, have been suffered a lack, or absence, particularly when it is talked about governmental participation. Public security can be understood it as the state labor to protect and safe its population from internal dangers or threats. In Latin-American countries, public safe keeping is perceived as absent; due to big amount of press coverage which exposes mentioned lack (Rincon et al., 2018).

In case of Mexico, day by day, they appear in the news, a bigger quantity of red notes’ coverage, which shows a violent face of the country. The structure of perception of security in: Territorial security; National security; Public safety (State as general attorney); Human security; Public safety (Self-protection); Private security; and, internet perception of safety, scopes (Bustos et al., 2018).

Public safety events occur throughout the world, posing a threat to personal safety, property and national defense. Mexico's security problems are like the general context in Latin America in many ways. However, Mexico has an influence of organized crime due to the levels of consumption of illegal products in the US market. UU (Carreon et al., 2018).

Public security has traditionally been understood as the function of the State that consists in protecting its citizens from illegal attacks on (or crimes against) their property, physical integrity, sexual freedom, etc. The meaning of public safety is inferred as security of persons: inherence, inseparability, breadth and focus on justice (Aldana et al., 2018).

It is stated that our reality’s perception is subjective and that our world’s perception depends of our life conditions. Perception of reality operates from a superior order, from a mesosystem that would include both (perception and reality), and in which each appear like elements and not like closed and independent units. The notion that: what we see, might not be what is truly there, has troubled and tantalized all the population in every sector, class, or roll of our society. Different population’s sector would have different perception of security (Carreon et al., 2018).

It can also be mentioned that cultural stigma in the country, also affects and promotes a lack of public safe keeping, due to the general manner of Mexican population’s thinking, which in comparison with other cultures, appear to be like sluggish and with a short interest to develop in academic, professional, social, among other aspects. The administration of public security is the implementation of public policies that justify the guidance of the State in the prevention of crime and the administration of justice, but only the citizens' distrust of government action is evidenced by a growing perception of insecurity reported in the literature in seven dimensions: territorial, national, public (government), human, public (self-protection), private and internet (Martínez et al., 2018).

Mexico can be seen from diverse scopes like economic, historic, or social. In that sense, there exist other sub-scopes (or sub-scales in the social scope) like health, public security, education, environmental consciousness, among others. As mentioned before, different population’s sectors have different perception of social sub-scopes (or sub-scales). In case of bachelor’s students, as its scholar formation gives the chance to generate critic manner of thinking, that population’s sector can generate a solid perception of factor that affects society’s context (Garcia et al., 2017).

The security perception theory alludes to dimensions that are convergent with respect to the trust between rulers and ruled. In this way, the central premise of the theory is that citizens have unfavorable or positive expectations of their authorities in charge of law enforcement and crime prevention, as well as social rehabilitation (Carreon, 2020). In this sense, security is a socio-political phenomenon, but reduced to media expectations of government action, as well as mistrust or empathy for its strategies, programs or policies in terms of safeguarding the integrity and dignity of its governed, as well as private property and public interests.

The dimensions of this perception of security have been structured in socio-spatial terms such as the territory or in social issues such as the nation, but with emphasis on the situation of sectors, strata or groups such as the so-called public and citizen security, as well as the interest’s individuals such as private and Internet security (Garcia, 2019).

Territorial and national security have traditionally been the most widely addressed from risk sociology to account for the impact of climate change on sea level and coasts, as well as risk events derived from droughts, frosts, fires, floods or earthquakes in vulnerable areas, the trafficking of species or the appearance of epidemics due to the invasion of animal territories (Quiroz, 2019).

The so-called biosecurity focuses on food as the main indicator of health level in the face of a health or environmental crisis (Hernandez, 2019). In this sense, territorial or national security should have specialized in public because each sector or social stratum demanded different needs according to contingent situations. The citizenization of this security gave way to the individualization of expectations and resources, leading to both personal and virtual self-protection, with the emergence of cyber security.

There are more differences between biosecurity and cyber security, but both are essential for the rule of law, the administration of justice, the procurement of crime, social rehabilitation and collective pacification (Bustos et al., 2020). From a traditional perspective, both dimensions are observable as complementary, but from a progressive approach they are assumed as concomitants. In other words, the effects of climate change are increasingly linked to identity theft, extortion or cooptation, since niches of environmental and social deterioration that originate cybercrime are assumed. Or, based on cyber security, the data of robberies, kidnappings or homicides in situations of natural disaster or health contingencies are observed in real time.

From the theoretical, conceptual and empirical review, the relationships between the variables were modeled (Garcia, 2021). In this way, territorial and national security are concomitant given their level of generality in the protection of the country, as well as the multilateralism involved in international or regional pacification measures. In the cases of public and citizen security, both share the imperatives of safeguarding common goods that, although they are public, can be established as socially and environmentally available to future generations. In this sense, private and digital security is also similar in terms of preventing crimes that threaten the dignity and integrity of the individual rather than of society.

The theoretical relationships between security perceptions are consistent with the observed data (Garcia et al., 2016). This is so because it is presumed that the instrument measures the seven dimensions of security, as well as its consistency when applied to bulls, scenarios and samples. Furthermore, safety as a multidimensional phenomenon suggests measurement levels concomitant (HC) with each other, reflective (HR) and with errors (HE) attributed to variance of the responses.

The concomitant hypotheses allude to the covariance between the dimensions of the phenomenon, as well as to the explanation of its trajectory structure if a new specification or modeling arose by testing the null hypothesis (Garcia, 2020).

The reflecting hypotheses allude to the relationships between the factors with respect to the indicators, suggesting the structuring of the phenomenon, as well as the convergence of the responses to the reactive that measure each feature of the dimensions (Rivera, 2020).

The hypotheses of measurement errors refer to unexplained variances in estimating the structure of concomitant and reflective relationships. Furthermore, it suggests the probable incidence of other factors and indicators not included in the model (Amemiya, 2020).

Precisely, the objective of the present work is to specify a model for the study of the perceived security in the face of the pandemic, confinement and violence towards vulnerable groups such as the elderly, women and children with respect to the head of the family, civil and health authorities.

What are the networks of meanings around biosafety in migrant workers from central Mexico in the face of the pandemic?

The contributions of the study to the discipline are 1) systematic review of the state of the art, 2) systematization of findings, 3) proposal of a theoretical and conceptual model, 4) methodological approach, 5) diagnosis of the problem, 6) discussion between the findings and literature reviewed, 7) design of pedagogical sequences.

Thus, the first section reviews the theoretical and conceptual approaches that explain the phenomenon (Mejia et al., 2016). The second section presents the results of studies related to the subject (Mendoza et al., 2017). In the third section the axes, trajectories and relationships between the variables are proposed. In the fourth section, the decisions to approach the problem are presented (Quintero et al., 2017). In the fifth section, the results are described (Sandoval, 2020). In the sixth section, these findings are discussed (Garcia, 2018). The seventh section reflects on the contribution and application of study in the classroom.


A documentary, cross-sectional and exploratory study was carried out with a non-probabilistic selection of sources indexed to national repositories: Clase, Conacyt, Latindex and Redalyc, considering the period from 2019 to 2022, as well as the search by keywords; "safety", "biosafety" and "COVID" (see Table 1).

Table 1 Sample Descriptive
2019 2020 2021 2022
Clase 3 1 5 3
Conacyt 4 3 4 4
Latindex 5 2 6 1
Redalyc 6 4 3 2

The Delphi inventory was used, which includes questions related to the relevance of the findings reported in the literature regarding job security. Expert judges on the subject were selected from their h-index of citations in academic Google. The criteria of the judges allowed to evaluate the findings sought in the literature (see Table 2).

Table 2 Descriptive of the Judges
Sex Age Grade Profession Income
Female 52 Doctor Psychology 37’984.00
Male 40 Master Psychology 41’987.00
Male 58 Doctor Sociology 33’865.00
Male 62 Master Psychology 30’892.00
Female 39 Master Sociology 27’963.00
Male 46 Master Economy 31’949.00
Male 41 Doctor Economy 26’962.00

The judges were contacted through their institutional mail. Respondents were informed about the project and those responsible. The confidentiality and anonymity of their answers were guaranteed in writing. The protocols for studies with humans recommended by the ethics committee were followed. The Helsinki protocol was used to carry out the investigation. The study followed the guidelines of the American Psychological Association.

The judges coded their responses using a Likert scale ranging from 0 = "not at all in agreement" to 5 = "quite in agreement". The data was captured in excel and processed in JASP version 15. Non-parametric statistical coefficients were used. Centrality and grouping were estimated, as well as the network of relationships, considering a learning of the biosafety protocols reported in the literature.


The slope of the simulated and observed data suggests a fit. It then means that the dimensions of biosecurity in the face of COVID-19 emerge from the context of study. In this sense, the network of meanings is oriented towards dimensions related to anger; fear, anxiety, frustration, exhaustion, depersonalization, stress, distance, confinement, opportunism and stigma (see Figure 1).

Figure 1 Scree Plot
Source: Elaborated with data study

Figure 2 shows the relationships between the indicators and the twelve established factors. The pandemic directly impacted emotions. The model includes negative relations between the factors but positive relations between the factors with respect to the indicated ones.

Figure 1 Path Diagram
Source: Elaborated with data study

The results show an emotional diversification because of the containment and mitigation policies of the pandemic in the literature published from 2019 to 2022, considering the criteria of the expert judges on the topics. The resulting structure suggests that the twelve components of the security model suggest a diversity of meanings.


In relation to the theory of the perception of security, which raises nine dimensions related to territory, nation, citizenship, public, private, human and internet, this work demonstrated that human security is the factor that most reflects the perceptual security structure (Carreon 2014). Lines of study referring to the dimensions of human security will allow us to notice conflict scenarios between rulers and ruled, as well as the emergence of citizen and private security.

Regarding security studies where a continuous coercive and persuasive state in its relationship with citizens stands out, this work has shown that human security is a dimension that explains the differences and similarities between rulers and ruled (Garcia, 2019). The development of this dimension will allow us to notice the transition from a coercive system to another persuasive one. That is, the security attributed to the legitimate violence of a democratic government will be observed up to the security that demarcates the regime from all responsibility and recharges the citizen with the attribution of prevention by confining their expression and their property.

Regarding the modeling of the seven dimensions of security perception, the present study has shown that these explain 55% of the variance and warn of the emergence of a common factor that the literature identifies as second order (Garcia et al., 2016). Research lines concerning the emergence of this common factor will allow evaluating, accrediting, and certifying the relations between rulers and governors in matters of multidimensional security.

In summary, perceived security is a multidimensional psychological phenomenon since it derives from the relations between authorities and citizens with respect to crime prevention, the administration of justice and social rehabilitation, although other dimensions such as sectoral or media security to explain the impact of policies, strategies and programs on civil decisions and actions.


In Mexico, a common interpretation or idea of which country is lacking in security prevails. The absence of custody is influenced by the presence of organized crime, the illegal sale of drugs and weapons, and the corruption available in each branch of the government, among the main aspects.

The correlations of reliability and validity when the unit far shows that there are other dimensions linked to construct. In this sense, the inclusion of self-control explains the effects of state propaganda regarding crime prevention, law enforcement and peace education on lifestyles of civilian sectors.

The contribution of this study is concerned about the reliability and validity of an instrument which measured seven dimensions of security: territorial, national, human, public, public, private and digital.

The studies on public safety identify in the government's expectations the predominant factor that explains the phenomenon as an efficient, effective and effective institution, but in the present work the emergence of this phenomenon has been demonstrated from a structure of perceptions around the personal, citizen, public, human, national and territorial agenda.


Aguayo, J. M. B., Contreras, F. G., Aréchiga, B. L., & Najera, M. J. (2018). Contrastación de un modelo de decisión prospectiva e implicaciones para una gobernanza universitaria de la sustentabilidad. Margen: revista de trabajo social y ciencias sociales, (89), 9.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Aguayo, J. M. B., Lirios, C. G., & Nájera, M. J. (2020). Percepción de seguridad frente a la COVID-19: Security perception against COVID-19. Revista de Investigación Académica Sin Frontera: División de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales, (34), 1-28.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Alboreida, D. M., Guillén, J. C., Rubio, S. M., & Lirios, C. G. (2017). Especificación de un modelo de representaciones propagandísticas en adultos mayores ante la seguridad pública. Tlatemoani: revista académica de investigación, 8(25), 21-30.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Aldana, W. I. Rosas, F. J. & Garcia, C., (2018). Specification of a Model for the Study of the Public Security Agenda. Atlante, 9 (1), 1-20.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Amemiya, M. (2020). Retrospective metanalysis of the random and homogeneous effect of the validity of the risk perception scale. Am J Appl Sci Res, 10(4), 25-35.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Carreón, J. (2020). Neural networks of scenarios, phases and discourses of violence of the Internet. Journal of Neurology & NeUro Toxicology, 4 (3), 1-9.

Carreón, J., Blanes, A. V., & García, C. (2018). Confiabilidad y validez de un modelo de gobernanza percibida de la inseguridad. Sin Frontera, 11(27), 1-53.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Carreón, J., Hernández, J., & García, C. (2017). Una revisión teórica para el estudio de la gobernanza de la seguridad pública. Epsys, 4(1), 1-15.

Google Scholar

Garcia, C. (2019). Exploratory factor structure of security public. International Journal of Systems, 23(1), 62-86.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Garcia, C. Carreon, J. & Hernandez, J. (2017). Co-management as a security device for local sustainable development. Eureka, 14(2), 268-289.

Garcia, C., Carreon, J. & Hernandez, J. (2016). Governance of terror to crime. Eureka, 13(2), 168-185

Google Scholar

Garcia-Lirios, C. (2021). Meta-analysis of perceived safety in public transport in the Covid-19 era. Mathematical Eco , 12 (1), 107-116.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

García-Lirios, C., Guillén, J. C., Valdés, J. H., Rubio, S. M., Estrada, E. G., & Ferrusca, J. F. R. (2014). Identidad sociopolítica delictiva en México. Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos de Psicología, 14(1), 5-16.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Guillén, J. C., Lirios, C. G., & Valdés, J. H. (2014). Emociones y desconfianza hacia las autoridades. Revista de Antropología y Sociología: Virajes, 16(1), 163-183.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Guillén, J. C., Ugalde, A. B., & Lirios, C. G. (2018). Redes de violencia en torno a la gobernanza de la seguridad pública. Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales y Multidisciplinaria, 60-65.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Hernandez, J. (2019). Internet harassment in the documentary and expert agenda. Asian Journal of Science & Technology, 10(8), 1-3.

Hernandez, J. (2020). Specification a model of sexual violence. British Journal of Medical & Health Science, 2(2), 1-4.

Juarez, M., Carreon, J., Quintero, M. L., Espinoza, F., Bustos, J. M., & Garcia, C. (2017). Reliability and validity of an instrument that measures dimension a security and risk perception in student of a public university. International Journal of Advances in Social Science and Humanities, 11(12), 23-13.

Lilies, CG (2013). Public spheres: media agendas of insecurity and injustice. Dialogues of Law and Politics , (12), 28-38.

Google Scholar

Lirios, C. G. (2018). Specification a model of representations of human capital in aging, youth and childhood. Revista CIFE: Lecturas de Economía Social, 20(32), 167-175.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Lirios, C. G. (2019). Estructura factorial exploratoria de fiabilidad internauta en vísperas de las elecciones federales. IROCAMM-International Review Of Communication And Marketing Mix, 1(2).

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Lirios, C. G. (2020). Specification a model for study of insecurity systems. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 20(G1), 7-10.

Google Scholar

Lirios, C. G., Guillén, J. C., & Valdés, J. H. (2016). Gobernanza de la seguridad pública a partir de la identidad y percepción de riesgo establecidos en la agenda ciudadana por los medios de comunicación/Public Security Governance based on ideas of identity and risk perception that have been. Revista Rumbos TS. Un espacio crítico para la reflexión en Ciencias Sociales, (13), 103-116.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Lirios, G., Cruz, J. C. G., & Valdés, J. H. (2017). Governance of public security. Literature review for a discussion of the state of knowledge of criminal sociopolitical identity. Journal of Social Work and Social Sciences, 84, 1-17.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Martínez, E., Anguiano, F., & García, C. (2018). Governance of social work towards a network of violence. Social. Science Learning Educational Journal, 6(1), 1-3.

Mejía, S., Carreón, J., & García, C. (2016). Psychological effects of violence and insecurity in older adults. Eureka , 13 (1), 39-55.

Google Scholar

Panamerican Health Organization (2021). Statistic SARS CoV-2 coronavirus and COVID-19 disease in the Americas. PAHO.

Quintero, M. L. (2017). Expectations model around public safety in microentrepreneurs in central Mexico. Sin Frontera, 10(26), 1-20.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Quiroz, C. Y., Aguayo, J. M. B., Nájera, M. J., Mojica, E. B., & Quintero, S. M. L. (2019). Metanalytical retrospective of the policies in the handling of risk of transportation in the Mexico City. Net Journal Social Sciences, 7(4), 92-100.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Rincon, RM, Juárez, M., & García, C. (2018). Interpretation of speeches around the habitus of mobility to reveal the meaning of public transport. Margin , 90 (1), 1-13.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Rivera, B. L. (2020). Exploratory structural algorithm of perceived risk factor. International Journal of Humanities & Social Science Invention, 10(8), 26-30.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref   

Sandoval, F. J. (2020). Job expectations in the face of risk events and collateral social effects. International Journal of Humanities Social Science & Education, 7(5), 1-7.

World Health Organization (2021). Statistics SARS CoV-2 coronavirus and COVID-19 disease in the world.

Received: 02-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. IJE-23-13253; Editor assigned: 05-Feb-2023, PreQC No. IJE-23-13253(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Feb- 2023, QC No. IJE-23-13253; Revised: 22-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. IJE-23-13253(R); Published: 28-Feb-2023

Get the App