International Journal of Entrepreneurship (Print ISSN: 1099-9264; Online ISSN: 1939-4675)

Research Article: 2020 Vol: 24 Issue: 1

Readiness of Technology Adaptation towards Digital-Based Entrepreneurship

Diana Harding, Universitas Padjadjaran

Anissa Lestari Kadiyono, Universitas Padjadjaran

Hanny Hafiar, Universitas Padjadjaran

Titin Nurhayati Ma’mun, Universitas Padjadjaran

Hery Wibowo, Universitas Padjadjaran

Yus Nugraha, Universitas Padjadjaran

Ahmad Gimmy Prathama Siswadi, Universitas Padjadjaran

Abstract

Entrepreneurship is a profession that is starting to attract teenagers, especially entrepreneurs in the creative industries. This is inseparable from the influence of social media which exposes the success of young entrepreneurs. But entrepreneurship in the creative industries field requires creativity and skills in technology. Therefore this study aims to measure the level of technological readiness of students as a provision for entrepreneurship later. The method used is descriptive quantitative using four dimensions: optimism, innovativeness, discomfort, and insecurity. The results show a tendency that the level of technological readiness of students is in the neutral category. So it takes effort to further enhance the degree of technological readiness of students to be ready to become entrepreneurs who is skilled in doing digital marketing, after graduating from education.

Keywords

Technological Readiness, Entrepreneurship, Education, Students.

Introduction

In the 1990s, parents in Indonesia tended to encourage their children who had become scholars to become civil servants. The reason is that there is a pension guarantee for the future, a fixed salary, financial assistance for health care and more fixed working hours. Now, there is a paradigm shift in the way of thinking. Now, parents tend to free more types of career choices of their children. As long as it is considered in accordance with the passion of their children and can guarantee economic stability for future life

That is why, now, entrepreneurship is one of the choices of Indonesian youth as a profession in the future. Some of the reasons behind it are the freedom to choose working hours, can pursue a preferred field, can become a boss for himself, as well as the amount of income that can be independently regulated without being bound by rank and structural position

This way of thinking is influenced by the phenomenon of social media. Social media often brings up young CEOs who successfully manage their own businesses. There is a lot of mass media coverage in Indonesia about the high income earned by these young entrepreneurs. The news is sometimes accompanied by a lifestyle description containing work styles that tend to be able to combine work and hobbies. Accompanied by the opportunity to expand the scope of modern social relations of young entrepreneurs. This can increase the interest of adolescents in Indonesia, to aspire entrepreneurship as a profession

In fact, the mass media coverage about the success story of young entrepreneurs is an iceberg phenomenon. Because the number of young entrepreneurs who fail to develop their businesses is certainly more, but still not too exposed by media. One of the reasons for the lack of success of young entrepreneurs in starting a business is due to the choice of business they are involved in. Some successful entrepreneurs who have been exposed by the media are entrepreneurs who are able to develop businesses in the business and creative industries.

Entrepreneurship in the creative field is becoming a new trend. Because, entrepreneurship in the creative field does open up many new opportunities that have not been explored yet. But the creative industries often require entrepreneurs to be able to take advantage of technological media. From the production aspect to the marketing strategy. A study states that the success of a business that managed by entrepreneurs cannot be separated from the influence of global trends (Grizane & Jurgelane, 2017). The integration of information and communication technology has a strong position in the economic sector and also other fields. This creates new global cultural conditions (Davidavičiene, 2008). So, technological readiness is important for anyone who are interested in entrepreneurship.

Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize readiness on digital aspects of adolescents in Indonesia, including students at school, so they are able to take advantage of every opportunity that provided by the industry. This study intends to measure the readiness of digital technology that is owned by teenagers who are interested and directed to become entrepreneurs.

Method

The research was conducted in a Muslim-based school, with a boarding education model. This school adds special lessons, namely entrepreneurship education material. Because, one of the goals of this school is to produce graduates who have independence, including independence in finding and creating job opportunities.

Data collected through a questionnaire. Total samples are 260 respondents were taken from Al Aqsa High School students. The location of the school is in Jatinangor, Sumedang, West Java. One of the educational mottos from this school is to create graduates who are knowledgeable, think creatively and dynamically. Creative thinking is one of the important assets in entrepreneurship. A total of 36 questions were distributed to respondents through a questionnaire, and analyzed descriptively to measure the technological readiness of the students

Results and Discussion

Attractiveness factors of entrepreneurship, including the image of entrepreneurship or the ability of creativity, become something that is considered important (Rainisto, 2003). On the other hand, Individual intentions for entrepreneurship arise because they consider entrepreneurship as an effort to maximize all potential and effort. This is what constructs their motivation for entrepreneurship (Fitzsimmons & Douglas, 2005). Motivational capital to be able to maximize potential, can encourage individuals to develop their creativity.

Creative entrepreneurs tend to dream of a new world and field of business (Bogdány, 2014). However, the demands of the globalization era require individuals to be able to adapt to technology. Included in the business field. So it takes the readiness of individuals in utilizing technology, with all its developments. Technology readiness refers to the tendency of people to be able to use new technology to achieve goals in life at home or at work (Parasuraman, 2000). Including the use of technology in starting entrepreneurship.

This study uses several dimensions, that consisting of optimism, innovativeness, discomfort, and insecurity (Parasuraman, 2000). Optimism: a positive view of technology and a belief that technology can improve control, flexibility, and efficiency in life; Innovativeness: a tendency to become a technology pioneer and thought leader, Discomfort: the perception of a lack of control over technology and feeling overwhelmed with it, and Insecurity: distrust of technology, which arises from skepticism about the quality of technological work, and fears of negative consequences. Of these four dimensions, optimism and innovativeness are drivers of technology readiness, whereas discomfort and insecurity are inhibitors (Parasuraman, 2000). The four dimensions of readiness technology can be described as follows:

From the Table 1, it is known that the answer score of 31065 for the 36 statements given, the highest score was given a score of 5 and the lowest score was given a score of 1, then:

Table 1 Respondents' Answers to the Technology Readiness Variable
No Dimension Score Max Score %
1 Optimism 8699 13000 66,91
2 Innovativeness 5643 9100 62,01
3 Discomfort 8692 13000 66,86
4 Insecurity 8031 11700 68,41
Total 31065 46800 66,38

Minimum Score: 1 x 36 x 260= 9360

Maximum Score: 5 x 36 x 260 = 46800

Range: 46800 – 9360= 37440

Interval: 37440 : 5 = 7488

The category intervals for the score readiness answer technology variable scores are as follows Figure 1:

Figure 1 Technology Variable Scores

Data on the continuous line above shows that technology readiness is in the neutral category. Thus, it appears that most respondents have neutral readiness technology. This can be seen from the perception of 260 respondents which after analysis reached 31065 or 66.38%. There are additional data results obtained through interviews and focus group discussions with several students who have similar characteristics with respondents. It is known that, some students have understood the importance of skills in the field of digital-based technology to support entrepreneurship. One of the digital media mentioned by students is social media. They realize that several social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and also online can be used to help disseminate product information as a marketing strategy.

Social media is one of the fastest growing media in the history of the digital technology development. Social media websites can attract more than 1 billion visitors every month (Richardson et al., 2016). Social media platforms like Facebook are becoming popular quickly. This media can be utilized by private users and business organizations. Consumer marketing and business management, including image and brand are connected with the complexity of the rapid development of this global technology world (Stueber & Wurth, 2017). Social Media is a new driving force in promoting business, associations and product brands to make news, influence, establish relationships and strengthen relationships with friends (Akram & Kumar, 2018).

For entrepreneurs, social media can be optimized to create and strengthen networks, and build relationships with friends (Kahar et al., 2012; Simangunsong, 2016). Social media can be used to reach new customers, foster relationships with existing customers, and increase customer awareness of the product (Michaelidou et al., 2011; Simangunsong, 2016). However, rrelationship marketing cannot be done entirely online, there must be a synergy between online and offline activities so that business communication can be more effective (Purwaningwulan et al., 2019). Therefore, entrepreneurial education and training is still needed for students to become entrepreneurs with complete abilities. Capabilities which include technological and human aspects.

There is a research that studies the effect of entrepreneurship training with the addition of knowledge and skills. The results of the entrepreneurship training assessment indicate an increase in students' entrepreneurial knowledge, attitudes and behavior skills. Training provided by institutions can have an impact and influence to increase students' economic empowerment as evidenced by increased income and greater business opportunities (Hidayat & Saepudin, 2016). That is why, the educational innovators and social entrepreneurs continue to strive to redevelop learning models and learning environments that support entrepreneurs in the future (Groff, 2013). To produce an effective and efficient model of entrepreneurship education. Including educators in various schools in Indonesia.

Conclusion

Some students showed a tendency for technology readiness in the neutral category. This neutral category indicates the need to provide capacity building for students to have a higher level of technological readiness. This becomes necessary because most students have an interest in entrepreneurship. On the other hand, the types of entrepreneurship that students are interested in are entrepreneurs in the creative industries. Creative industries require technological readiness and skills. So that the intervention of the school to add and improve material on technological readiness, in order that the school could prepare the students to be ready to become entrepreneurs after graduating from school.

References

Akram, W., & Kumar, R. (2018). A study on positive and negative effects of social media on society. International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering, 5(10), 347-354.

Bogdány, E., Balogh, Á., & Csizmadia, T. (2014). Leadership succession and the origin of successor in Hungarian SMEs. Management & Marketing. Challenges for the Knowledge Society, 9(3), 283-300.

Davidavičiene, V. (2008). Change management decisions in the information age. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 9(4), 299-307.

Fitzsimmons, J., & Douglas, E.J. (2005). Entrepreneurial attitudes and entrepreneurial intentions: A cross-cultural study of potential entrepreneurs In India, China, Thailand And Australia. Babson-Kauffman Entrepreneurial Research Conference, Wellesley, MA., June.

Grizane, T., & Jurgelane, I. (2017). Social media impact on business evaluation. Procedia Computer Science, 104, 190-196.

Groff, J. (2013). Technology-rich innovative learning environments. OECD Innovative Learning Environments Project, 1-30.

Hidayat, D., & Saepudin, A. (2016). Locally-Based enterprise training to improve the economic empowerment of the learners. Mimbar, J o urnal Sosial Dan Pembangunan, 32(2), 292-301.

Kahar, R., Yamimi, F., Bunari, G., & Habil, H. (2012). Trusting the social media in small business. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 66, 564-570.

Michaelidou, N., Siamagka, N.T., & Christodoulides, G. (2011). Usage, barriers and measurement of social media marketing: An exploratory inves- tigation of small and medium B2B brands. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(7), 1153-1159.

Parasuraman, A. (2000). Technology readiness index (TRI): A multipleitem scale to measure readiness to embrace new technologies. Journal Of Service Research, 2, 307.

Purwaningwulan, M.M., Suryana, A., Wahyudin, U., & Dida, S. (2019). Creative innovation online relationship marketing Islamic fashion e-commerce in Indonesia. Library Philosophy and Practice, 2579.

Rainisto, S. (2003). Success factors of place marketing : A study of place marketing practices in Northern Europe and The United States. Dissertations: Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Strategy and International Business.

Richardson, P.S., Choong, P., & Parker, M. (2016). Social media marketing strategy : Theory and research propositions. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 10(2), 24-34.

Simangunsong, E. (2016). Social media & internet : A study in start up companies. J o urnal Manajemen Dan Kewirausahaan, 18(2), 145-151.

Stueber, H., & Wurth, S. (2017). A literature review of marketing and facebook. Thesis: Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.

Get the App