International Journal of Entrepreneurship (Print ISSN: 1099-9264; Online ISSN: 1939-4675)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 1S

Strategies for Developing Tarkib Arabic Exercises Instruments for Strengthening the Understanding of Yellow Book

Mahyudin Ritonga, Muhammadiyah University of West Sumatera

Pahri, Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Shalahuddin Al-Ayyubi Jakarta

Rahmawati, Universitas Islam Negeri Imam Bonjol

Syahraini Tambak, Universitas Islam Riau

Ahmad Lahmi, Muhammadiyah University of West Sumatera

Imratul Handayani, STAI Imam Bonjol Padang Panjang

Slamet Riyadi, STAI As-Sunnah Deli Serdang Sumatera Utara

Keywords

Arabic Learning Teaching, Tarkib, Kitab Kuning

Abstract

Tarkib Arabic is one of the most important elements in knowing the ability to speak Arabic, in accordance with the culture of learning Arabic in Islamic boarding schools oriented to grammar, but in providing training models given that is still limited to i'rab and word shighat. This article aimed to analyse Arabic language training models from tarkib aspects, research findings are useful for every educator and observer of Arabic education and can be adopted by every observer of language learning in the world, especially in providing language training in aspects of sentence structure (tarkib). This study used a qualitative method with a critical analysis approach; data sources used were various types of Arabic learning resources used in Indonesia. The results of the analysis proved that to provide Arabic language training requires a variety of variations, the provision of varied training can increase the motivation and ability of students to understand the yellow book, furthermore the form of training in learning methods must also be considered in selecting the training model delivered.

Introduction

In every learning exercise it is needed something that has been taught, this activity aims to determine the level of understanding of students towards the materiataught, and for this training activity an educator is required to be able to choose the training model to be used, this is because the accuracy of an assessment can seen from the form of evaluation provided. This further strengthens the views of experts who explain that to measure a language ability requires various forms and types of evaluation (Rajurkar et al., 2018; Gultom, 2016).

Accordingly, learning Arabic in traditional Islamic boarding schools is oriented towards teaching grammar language (Ritonga & Lahmi, et al., 2020), patterns and directions of Arabic learning oriented to aspects of Arabic knowledge as in boarding schools cannot be separated from the philosophy of the yellow book which is the source of learning various fields of Islam (Alsubaie, 2016), the source of Islamic studies requires knowledge of tools to be able to understand, the science of the tools in question is nahwu and sharaf (Nurbayan, 2014) then combined in tarkib.

Learning activities from yellow book as a reality in the Islamic boarding school shows a model of training in the learning process that functions to know the students' Arabic language skills from the tarkib aspect that has not done dynamically. The stagnation can be seen from the training model that teachers use is limited to training on i'rab and shigat.

The tarkib training model is limited to i'rab and shigat of a word, it will bring up the results of the assessment whose accuracy and validity are questioned (Felix, 2017), because each student has a tendency in learning Arabic, the level of intelligence of the learning level and the direction of Arabic learning that students need to be a consideration for educators in developing and planning a training model for tarkib that will be presented to students.

Due to the diversity in the level of ability and direction of language learning tendencies that are of interest to students, the model of training to be given should also be diverse, it aims to convince educators and students of the validity of the assessment results. Post-tests that only rely on one strategy and one model often make educators feel successful in implementing the learning process, because many students get the maximum value, and at other times educators also do not feel confident in their ability to present learning material because of the pos-test resultsnot many students get the good results.

Another fact that occurs during a post-test is without a balanced instrument that is when a student encounters an actual test, it means that students who look successful in a post-test are not infrequently seen to fail during the actual test, on the other hand students who are deemed to have failed in post implementation -tests actually get better results when taking the real Arabic test.

This reality is inseparable from the learning system implemented classically on the same force basis. Even though students of the same class do not necessarily have the same competence in Arabic, because of the observations on the learning of the yellow book in Islamic boarding schools, not a few of the students in class V are able to take lessons in class VI, and vice versa, not the least among class VI who do not understand the book for their own level.

In the position as described above, two contradictory conditions can be seen in the teacher so that they do not know what steps should be taken in following up the learning that done, therefore a constructive thought is needed to innovate the post-test model that can be applied in measuring the ability of students to speak Arabic, especially from the aspect of tarkib. Therefore this article will describe the forms of pre/ post-test that can be used by teachers in measuring the ability of students.

Basic Theory

Tadribat in Teaching Arabic Language

Learning foreign language requires various forms of practice, because besides cultural differences there are also differences in the patterns of different languages. Therefore, Arabic as a second language for students in Indonesia, but the source of learning is dominated by the Yellow Book that requires varied training.

Because of the many gaps between student and target languages, the training model is not only limited to what has been discovered by scientists, but also has to provide training with various strategies such as providing training through messages sent via WA or other technological media (Suwantarathip & Orawitwatnakul, 2015), providing language training with media that are already familiar with the lives of student will increase their enthusiasm in learning the targeted language (Wang, 2014).

When educators want students' abilities to be truly realized in the target language then their daily lives are filled with training activities according to the pattern and structure of the targeted language (Pezzetti, 2018). In line with the urgency of the practice in learning Arabic, Kamal seeks to find Arabic learning resources that are oriented towards the practice of using Arabic (Kamal, 2020).

In accordance with the objectives of language learning related to communicative abilities and grammatical abilities, these two abilities are difficult to be realized in every student without training, therefore training in foreign language learning becomes a necessity in improving language skills.

Tarkib of Arabic Language

Grammar is a set of rules found in language (Hidayat, 2017), from this understanding, it can be raised an understanding that grammar is as one of the elements of language elements becomes a foundation for language users both in speaking and writing. Tarkib in Arabic as expressed by experts broadly derived from two fields of science (Hayisama-ae et al., 2016) namely:

First, sharaf, this field regulates the forms and patterns of words contained in Arabic (Shamsan & Attayib, 2015), through sharaf the Arabic user can develop a wider and more form of words (Boudelaa & Marslen-Wilson, 2013; Ritonga & Asrina, et al., 2020) so that among Arabic experts categorizing sharaf as the parent of Arabic science. This statement is certainly not excessive if it is understood that a word can be derivated to hundreds of other words.

Second, nahwu, that is the field of Arabic governing sentence structure (Mustapha et al., 2013), or more clearly a field of linguistics that discusses the state of words in their formation into sentences and their position in a sentence. Both fields of science are embraced in Arabic elements that are then called tarkib.

In learning the yellow book, both nahwu and sharaf are the tools to be able to read and understand them. It is certain that people who do not understand Arabic tarkib will not be able to express the meaning contained in the yellow book (Ritonga & Lahmi, et al., 2020).

Therefore, the accuracy of the results of the assessment of the ability of students is needed before they are taught the material contained in the yellow book, so that the determination of the group in learning the yellow book is nevermore based on the level of boarding school entry level but the ability possessed by students, so it is possible for students in class V learn the book with class VI, or grade six in formal education but study the book at grade V level or even with students who are in class IV.

Research Method

To find the pre/post-test instrument of yellow book learning in order to measure students' Arabic language skills in the tarkib aspect, this study was designed with a qualitative approach because the data founded in the form of words/sentences. Sources of research data consisted of primary and secondary sources; the primary source was the yellow book teacher at the Islamic boarding school, an expert in Arabic education. While the secondary source is the yellow book that is learnt in Islamic boarding schools.

To find the pre/post-test instrument of yellow book learning in order to measure students' Arabic language skills in the tarkib aspect, this study was designed with a qualitative approach because the data founded in the form of words/sentences. Sources of research data consisted of primary and secondary sources; the primary source was the yellow book teacher at the Islamic boarding school, an expert in Arabic education. While the secondary source is the yellow book that is learnt in Islamic boarding schools.

As for the data analysis technique used in this qualitative study, the researcher conducted an analysis since data collection, data classification, presentation and drawing conclusions, to ensure the validity of the data in this study also used triangulation techniques.

Results and Discussion

Result Research

In each language there are elements that can be seen separately even though they are closely related to each other and even fuse to form a phenomenon called language. Performance and language skills also vary, some are oral and some are written, some are receptive and some are productive.

There are several systems for teaching language elements and language skills, namely separate systems, integrated systems and joint systems. In modern language teaching methods, teaching grammar functions as a support for the achievement of language proficiency, grammar is not an objective, but a means to be able to use language properly and correctly in communication. This statement does not seem to apply in Islamic boarding schools, because the reality that is seen is learning oriented to the ability of qawa'id or tarkib.

Some current approaches and methods emphasize the need for functional grammatical presentation, both in terms of material selected and the way they are presented emphasized. It is not the mastery of the method and memorizing the definition, but also the ability to make grammatical sentences, therefore the training given is in the form of drills in sentence patterns.

In accordance with the results obtained through observation, interviews, documentation studies and focus group discussions, the pre/post-test instruments that can be used as a measurement tool for students' Arabic language skills from the aspects of tarkib include:( Table 1 )

Table 1
Instrument Exercis Instrument of Arabic Tarkib
SNO Instrument Measured Target
1 Mechanism training Instill habits by providing a stimulus to get the right response
2 Meaningful training Express the sentence based on the context of the reality
3 Completing sentence Express the sentence in the context of reality
4 Communicative Training Grow students' creative power to speak according to the correct tarkib
5 Answering Question Measuring children's abilities in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor
6 Selecting answer Measuring children's abilities in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor
7 Summarize the sentence The students' response to what they heard
8 Selecting the terfm of sharf and nahwu and makes the example Students' understanding of the terms mentioned
9 Connecting Students' understanding of content
10 Asking and answering Measuring cognitive and affective of student
11 Exchange and change Measuring student cognitive and affective
12 Finding the alinea The understanding of text
13 Reveal like a pattern in the text The understanding of structure
14 Do what is revealed Cognitive, affective and psychomorphic
15 Ask with istifham letters Cognitive
16 Adapt the fi’il with the pronoun Understanding of dhomir
17 Mentioning derivation Understanding of wazan
18 Providing line Application of nahwu
20 Reading Application of nahwu and sharaf
21 Matching Understanding of sentence structure
22 Mentioning anonym and synonym Understanding of the meaning
23 Translating Understanding of the text

Discussion

In accordance with the data contained in table 1 above, the purpose that will be described as well as expert opinion on the types of instruments mentioned. First, the mechanism exercise, basically this exercise aims to instill habits by providing a stimulus to get the correct response, these exercises can be given verbally or in writing (Namaziandost et al., 2018) and integrated with speaking and writing skills training (Sadiku, 2015).

This mechanism exercise can be used by the teacher in learning the yellow book by selecting the type to be used, because there is also a kind of mechanism exercise model such as simple repetition, namely students repeating what the teacher said, or substituting sentences simply, for example the teacher mentions حامد يحب قمصا أبيض , underlined words are replaced with words that are determined by the teacher, for example, the word سروال , in this case, a teacher can develop by replacing other elements, if the above language elements are replaced then at the next stage the teacher can develop to replace the subject, predicate or adjective, or replace two elements at once.

Furthermore, the mechanism exercise can also be done with the type of transformation, it means that it changes the form of mudzakkar to muannats, or from the singular to "two" or "plural" forms. It could also change the form of sentences from the number of fi'liyyah to the number of ismiyyah, or change the form of statement sentences into question sentences, change from active sentence forms to passive sentences, incorporate sentences that show cause and effect, or combine sentences that show contradictory relationships.

To carry out these mechanical exercises, the teacher should start by giving examples and showing the parts need to be changed. After clear, the teacher only needs to give instructions to continue the substitution or transformation and so on. For variations in the implementation of drills in the classroom can be done in several ways including: 1), the teacher is reading or giving stimulus and students are asked to respond. 2), the teacher plays the tape recorder and asks students to take turns responding. 3, The teacher asks a student to prepare and lead a drill on a particular subject. 4), the teacher asks students to drill in pairs, one reads the stimulus and the other responds, then switches roles. The use of this mechanism exercise will be able to strengthen understanding of sentence patterns (anmath al-jumal).

The results of Meadow's analysis of the mechanism exercise can develop students' language skills (Meadow, 2016), because in addition they are introduced to varying sentence patterns also build a living language environment. While Suzuki et al emphasized that mechanism training is one of the efforts to optimize second language practice for students (Suzuki et al., 2019). The results of the two analyzes become the basis for the authors to later emphasize that the mechanism training in the study of the yellow book will be able to facilitate students in understanding Arabic patterns contained in the yellow book.

Second, meaningful exercise, if the exercise mechanism is entirely manipulative, because the sentence uttered by students has nothing to do with the context or situation, then this meaningful exercise has been linked to the actual context or situation, therefore it can be said as a semi-communicative exercise, giving context can be in the form of props: both natural objects and pictures that are used to give meaning to the sentences that are practiced. For example the teacher prepares a set of pictures that show various types of pronouns, then the teacher displays a model of the sentence.

After the sentence is revealed by the teacher, then he points to each figure in the picture and students are asked to respond by saying the sentence by heeding the change in verb form in accordance with the type of pronouns pointed by the teacher. Clearly, if the teacher points to the figures in the pictures provided, then the students' responses are in accordance with the figure figures, Classroom situation: objects in the class can be used for giving meaning. To realize meaningful exercises in language learning, teachers can use various media that are better known by students (Son, 2008).

Third, Perfecting Sentences, this exercise aims to determine the ability of students to understand words and sentences, such as:) يكتب الطالب ....... )الدرس , thus this exercise is expected to measure students' cognitive abilities. Vince explained that one indicator of the ability of students in the vocabulary and grammar aspects (Vince, 2003) is seen from the ability to perfect sentences.

Fourth, communicative exercises, these exercises foster students' creative power and actual language exercises. Therefore, this exercise should be given if the teacher feels that students have gotten enough material (in the form of vocabulary, structure and communicative expressions) that is appropriate to the situation and context specified. In the audiolingual method, this communicative training is only given few months after manipulative exercises, but in the communicative method the communicative training can be given at the first meeting of language lessons. For example, if students have been given examples of sentence patterns: كم قلمك؟ then the teacher can provide this type of sentence training by instructing students to ask each other questions about the their reality.

These communicative exercises can be in an individual form, where the teacher asks questions to students, for example: ماسم أبيك؟ , هل لك أخ؟ , كم أخا لك؟ , في أي مدرسة يتعلم أخوك؟ , exercises such as this is further applied in pairs and in small groups.

As a target language and has not been known by students, learning languages such as Arabic should be dominated by communication exercises, for that teaching material also needs to be designed (Firiady, 2018) with the purpose of communication skills. In the next stage the teacher can determine the topic or material to be discussed based on the sentence patterns that have been trained. Then each group prepares to report the results of their conversation to the whole class. Although the sentence patterns trained still revolve around certain patterns, the response that arises may be unexpected, and that is that is called real communication.

The next instrument that can be used by teachers in measuring the ability of Arabic tarkib on students is to answer questions, this training pattern aims to measure students' abilities in terms of cognitive, effective and psychomotor, because the practice by answering the questions has many variations, such as: 1) Answer the following questions briefly. 2) Answer the answer نعم or لا, 3) Answer using the pronoun, 4) Answer with the answer نعم , without replacing, 5) Answer with the answer of لا, 6) Answer the following sentence based on the existing examples, 7) Answer the following question in accordance with the existing examples, for example: هل هذا.......؟ نعم هذا......\ لا هذ. , 8) Answer the following questions as in the example, 9) Answer by not using pronouns.

Furthermore, the teacher can provide training by making statements, while students are asked to choose the answer "right" or "wrong". Another model that the teacher can do in giving Arabic tarkib exercises to improve students' understanding of the yellow book is to summarize, this strategy is done by taking one paragraph of material contained in the yellow book or the teacher makes his own sentence then the student is instructed to summarize it by using the word "ذلك ".

The teacher can also provide tarkib exercises by making example sentences, from the example sentences students are instructed to mention terms related to nahwu or sharaf in the sentences mentioned. In addition, teachers can also do Arabic tarkib exercises by instructing students to connect, this strategy that has variations to be developed by the teacher, such as connecting several words into a sentence, connecting sentences using selected words by the teacher, or connect two words by using connecting letters.

Then the teacher can also give instructions to students to ask and answer, instructions for this strategy can be made by "make questions in accordance with pictures and answers, or make questions according to maps and answers". Another strategy is to give an exercise in swapping and changing, it means that the teacher gives instructions to exchange a word for another word, or change the sentence form with another form.

Another strategy that can be done is by searching the paragraph, the intention is the teacher instructing students to see a paragraph from the contents of the yellow book, from the predetermined paragraphs then ordered that students find fa'il, isim mawshul or other things that are considered by the teacher to have relations with the abilities expected to be owned by students. From the predetermined text it can also be said that students compile a sentence by referring to the sentence patterns contained in the text.

Another strategy is to do expressed, it means that the teacher expresses a sentence and the student does what the teacher expresses, or a student expresses the sentence and the other student does what is expressed. Another strategy is to instruct students to ask questions with the question sentences that have been provided, as an implementation of this strategy can be seen in table 2 below:

Table 2
Sample Ask With of Istifham Letters
Teacher Istfham Alphabeth Student
علي طالب، هو يذهب إلى المدرسة ألن
يتعلم اللغة العربية
من، كم، إلى أين، لماذا، لمن، هل
وغيره
.1 من علي؟
.2   إلى أين يذهب علي؟
.3 لماذا يذهب علي إلى المدرسة؟

The example above suggests that the teacher initially explained about Ali's profession and what he did, then the teacher wrote a few Istifham letters, and the student selected a istifam letter that could be used to ask questions about the teacher's previous explanation, and that letter was used for asking.

Another tarkib training instrument is to mention, the intention is that the students were instructed to be able to express a part of the isim, a feature of the text that has been studied. Furthermore, the teacher can also instruct students to adjust the verb (fi'il) with the correct pronoun (dhomir) (Ritonga & Bustami, et al., 2020). In addition, the teacher can also use the instruments of mentioning word forms, Arabic word forms that are conditional on wazan will enrich the ability of vocabulary (Haspelmath, 2010).

Moreover, teachers can do Arabic exercises on tarkib by ordering students to give lines to the text contained in the yellow book, this strategy is not much different from instructing students to read the yellow book. Because the yellow book is free from lines, the ability of students can be developed by getting used to giving lines and reading the yellow book.

Another strategy that can be done by the teacher is by instructing students to match words with other words or match words with pictures. Matching exercises have a variety of variations, including: pairing answers with questions that have been provided, pairing questions with matching answers, pairing pictures with expressions. This exercise aims to measure the ability of students to understand a question and how to answer it, so the teacher can see student achievement in terms of cognitive and psychomotor.

Another instrument that can be used by teachers in giving Arabic tarkib exercises is by instructing students to find synonyms and antonyms of several words contained in the yellow book text. This instrument is useful to know the level of students ability in the aspect of vocabulary that is also a very important language element to have.

Another strategy is to order students to translate texts, this is intended to determine the ability of students to express the meaning contained in the yellow book text.

Various kinds of variations and training strategies on the language elements in terms of tarkib mentioned above, it gives a signal that the teacher should not be focused on one model or variation of the exercise, because if the teacher is only focused on one variation then it is likely that the teacher cannot measure how far the ability of students to understand learning material, both in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor. In addition, it is also feared that if teachers only use one variation of tarkib exercises students will feel bored with learning Arabic.

Conclusion

From the description above it can be concluded that, in modern language teaching methods, teaching grammar functions as a support for the achievement of language skills, grammar is not an objective, but that is a means to be able to use language properly and correctly in communication. If the Arabic tarkib training instruments mentioned above serve as a guide in measuring the ability of the yellow book, then a teacher can already see how far each student's achievement of learning material, both in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor. The most important thing is the provision of varied training will increase students spirit.

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