Research Article: 2019 Vol: 23 Issue: 1
Daliman, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
Muhammad Zainudin, Airlangga University of Surabaya
Cholichul Hadi, Airlangga University of Surabaya
Fendy Suhariadi, Airlangga University of Surabaya
The purpose of this study is to know whether there are differences in the influence of attitudes, subjective norms and perceptions of entrepreneurial behaviour control, each to the students' entrepreneurial intentions according to Theory of Planned Behaviour, who take the Entrepreneurship course weighs a 3 credits and 2 credits? The subjects of this study are students who take entrepreneurship courses in various study programs at Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta (MUS) in the even semester of 2015/2016 as many as 194 students. The entrepreneurial intentions and its anticede is expressed by modification of entrepreneurial intention scale compiled by Linan and Chen, while the weight of Entrepreneurship course credits is obtained by recording the documents from the study program or faculty. Data analysis was performed with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) statistic through Partial Least Square (PLS) on multigroup analysis with Smart PLS 3.1.7 software. The result of the research shows that the weight of credits is the moderator variable of influence of entrepreneur attitude toward to the student entrepreneurial intention, weight credit is not a moderator variable of influence subjective norm and perception of control of entrepreneurship behaviour toward entrepreneurial intention of student.
Entrepreneurial Intentions, Weight of Credits, Entrepreneurship Course.
Behavioural intent is believed to be important for understanding the behaviour in which people engage in an activity. Therefore, to learn entrepreneurial behaviour first need to learn about intensi entrepreneurship. Intensi entrepreneurship plays a role as a liaison between the consideration for entrepreneurship with entrepreneurship activities to be undertaken by a person, while Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 2005) suggests that the intention is determined by three factors, namely attitude toward behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Based on this theory, then it can be argued that the intention of entrepreneurship is determined by three things: one's attitude towards entrepreneurship, subjective norms of entrepreneurship and perception of entrepreneurial behaviour control.
Entrepreneurship learning in universities in Indonesia has grown in the last decade. Intracurricularly entrepreneurship learning is carried out in the form of organizing Entrepreneurship courses. Entrepreneurship courses in universities (Directorate General of Higher Education, 2013), aiming for students to understand, apply and make entrepreneurial lifestyles (ability to communicate, lead and apply business management in managing their business) properly and correctly. In particularly, entrepreneurship courses are lessons that shape the character of entrepreneurship or at least the students add to the knowledge of the students about the ins and outs of the business both from the side of soft skills and hard skills, so that students are able to take advantage of opportunities around him in creating his own business during college and after graduation.
The fact shows that the implementation of entrepreneurship courses in universities has different characteristics in each study program. The different characteristics of entrepreneurship courses can be seen in terms of status (mandatory or elective), credits weights (4, 3 or 2 credits), direction of entrepreneurship (appropriate or not in accordance with the scholarship of study program), course support (stand-alone or supported by other courses). This happened also at the Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta (MUS).
Entrepreneurship courses in various study programs at MUS in academic year 2015/2016 as contained in Table 1 (Faculty Guidance, MUS, 2014/2015).
Based on Table 1 shows that the implementation of Entrepreneurship courses at MUS in a study program has different weight Semester Credit Units (SCU). In certain study programs have 3 credits, while in other courses have 2 credits. The number of study programs at MUS that gives the weight of 3 credits in Entrepreneurship courses compared with those giving the weight of 2 credits is 1: 4.
The burden of student learning task in the form of learning lectures, responses and tutorials that weighs 3 credits higher or greater than the burden of student learning tasks that weighs 2 credits, both in face-to-face learning, structured assignments and self-study per week per semester. In terms of according to research results of Wu and Wu (2008), Packham, et al. (2010), Yang (2013) finds that the level of education affects to the antecedent of entrepreneurial intentions (attitudes, subjective norms and control perceptions of entrepreneurship behaviour. The level of education is related to the number of student learning tasks in semester credit units at an educational level. This means that on a small scale, the credit burden of 3 credits or 2 credits might influence the antecedent of entrepreneurial intentions.
Based on the above research sharing seen that in particularly there has been no single study that correlates the weight of credits in entrepreneurship courses with the model of students' entrepreneurial intentions.
This study will try to provide answers to the question whether there are differences in the effect of attitude, subjective norms and perceptions of entrepreneurial behaviour control, each to the models of entrepreneurial intentions' student according to Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 2005) who take the Entrepreneurship course weighing 3 credits with a weighted 2 credits?
Entrepreneurial intention according to Ajzen (2005) is a set of motivational factors that influence behaviour, which shows how hard people are willing to try and how much effort will be planned to be deployed in entrepreneurship. According to Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) the intention has four aspects:
Behaviour, i.e. the specific behaviour that will be realized in entrepreneurship.
Goals (targets), i.e. objects that are subjected to behaviour. Objects that are targeted from specific behaviours can be classified into three: the person/particular object (particular object), a group of objects (a class of objects) and people or objects in general (any object).
Situation, ie situations that support the conduct of a behaviour (how and where the behaviour will be realized).
Time, i.e. time of occurrence of behaviour which includes a certain time, in an indefinite period or period of time.
According to the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 2005) there are 3 (three) concepts as the determinant (anticeden) of the intention: i.e. attitudes toward behaviour, subjective norms and perceptions of behaviour control. Attitude toward behaviour refers to the level that a person has in making a favourable or unfavourable evaluation of behaviour. Attitudes toward behaviour are a function of behavioural belief and outcome evaluation. Behavioural belief is a person's belief about the positive or negative consequences of a particular behaviour and the outcome evaluation is an individual's evaluation of the consequences he will gain from behaviour.
Subjective norm (subjective norm) ie refers to the social pressures facing the individual to be able to display certain behaviours or not display them. The subjective norm is a function of normative belief and motivation to comply. Normative belief is belief about the agreement and/or disapproval that comes from the referent or person or group of people who influence the individual (significant others). Motivation to comply is the motivation of the individual to comply with the expectations of the referent.
Perceived behavioural control (i.e., perception of behaviour control) i.e. refers to the ease or difficulty of displaying certain behaviours, as well as the assumptions made by individuals who reflect past experiences as a matter of anticipation in the face of obstacles. Perceived behavioural control is a function of control beliefs, namely individual beliefs about the presence or absence of factors that support or hinder individuals to elicit behaviour, while perceived power control is the perception of the ability to control behaviour or the ability to control behaviour to achieve goals. Based on this, the more favourable an attitude toward behaviour, subjective norms of behaviour, and the greater the control of the behaviour received, so will be greater the intention of a person to display a behaviour.
Further (Ajzen, 2005) states that there are a variety of factors that background antiseden intention. According to (Ajzen, 2005) various factors that background anticeden intention divided into 3 categories: individual, social and information. Individual factors are composed of personality, mood, emotion, intelligence, values, stereotypes, general attitudes, and experience. Social factors consist of education, age, gender, income/income, religion/religion, race and ethnicity, and culture and information factors consist of knowledge, media and intervention. Schematically the background factor that influences the intention in the planned behavior theory (Ajzen, 2005) as shown in Figure 1.
Measurement of entrepreneurial intentions completely with anticeden according to the planned behaviour theory done by Liñán and Chen (2009). According to Armitage and Corner (Liñán and Chen (2009) explains that to measure the intention can be known in three different sizes namely: (1) desire, with the form of statement “I want. . . . . . .” (2) self prediction, with the form of statement “how do i like. . . . . . .” (3) the behaviour of the intentions with the form of statement “I tend to. . . . . .”, while Zhao et al. (2005) using pure intentions item that is with sentence “how you interested in field. . . . .” Based on the two expert opinions above Linan and Chen (2009) have compiled items to reveal the entrepreneurial intentions and its anticeden that have been declared valid and reliable.
The Weight of Credits in the Entrepreneurship Course
The implementation of entrepreneurship courses in a study programs generally based on the credit system. The credit system is a system of education implementation by using Semester Credit Units to state the burden of student study, lecturer workload, learning experience, and program implementation burden. According to Government Regulation No. 49 of 2014 on National Standards of Higher Education Article 15 stated that “the student's learning expenses are expressed in the amount of semester credit units (credits)”. One credit is equivalent to 160 (one hundred and sixty) min of learning activity per week per semester. Semester is a unit of time of effective learning activity for 16 (sixteen) weeks.
It is mentioned in article 16 that “1 (one) credits in the form of lecture learning, responses and tutorials, including (1) learning activities with face-to-face 50 (fifty) min per week per semester, (2) learning activities with structured assignments of 50 (fifty) min per week per semester and (3) independent learning activities 60 (sixty) min per week per semester. Article 17 paragraph 1 states that the normal burden of student study is 8 (eight) hrs per day or 48 (fortyeight) hrs per week equivalent to 18 (eighteen) credits per semester, up to 9 (nine) hrs per day or 54 (fifty four) hrs per week equivalent to 20 (twenty) credits per semester. To fulfil the achievement of graduate program learning, we need a study load of 144 credits, taken within 4 (four) to 5 (five) years for the undergraduate program”.
The 3 credits of course means that according to Government Regulation No. 49 of 2014 on National Standards of Higher Education, the student's learning load in the form of lecture learning, responses and tutorials, covers: (1) learning activities with face-to-face 50 (fifty) min per week per semester times 3, (2) learning activities with structured assignments 50 (fifty) min per week per semester times 3 and (3) independent learning activities 60 (sixty) min per week per semester times 3, so the total student learning load per week for 3 credits is 160 min times 3 ie 480 min. This means in one semester multiplied by 16 weeks ie 7,680 min or 128 hrs. When the course of Entrepreneurship is given the weight of 2 credits means the student's learning load per week is 160 min times 2 i.e. 320 min, so in one semester multiplied by 16 weeks that is 5,760 min or 96 hrs.
Entrepreneurship courses in universities (Directorate General of Higher Education, 2013), aims to enable students to understand, apply and make lifestyle entrepreneurship with the ability to communicate, lead and implement business management in managing its business properly and correctly. In particular entrepreneurship courses are lessons that shape the character of entrepreneurship or at least the student adds to the student's knowledge about the ins and outs of the business both in terms of soft skills and hard skills so students are able to take advantage of opportunities that exist in the vicinity in create your own business during college and after graduation.
Directorate General of Higher Education (2013), expressed material coverage and formulation of Entrepreneurship course objectives as follows.
1. The scope of the material of entrepreneurial character includes creativity, commitment in work, work ethic and responsibility, independent or non- dependent, risk-averse, achievement motives, perspectives, innovative behaviour, seeking opportunities, leadership, managerial and personal skills.
2. Formulation of objectives: Able to understand the importance of entrepreneurial character and spontaneously-auto can behave like an entrepreneur and based on his understanding to make the character as a pattern of life in everyday life.
Communication and Interpersonal
1. The scope of communication and interpersonal materials of entrepreneur include communication, leadership and motivation.
2. Formulation of objectives: Able to apply leadership and communication skills smoothly and appropriately to motivate themselves and others so as to be a regular and neat person in building a productive communication.
Creativity and Innovation
1. Coverage of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship innovation materials includes the role of innovation and creativity in product development and developing superior products and services.
2. Formulation of objectives: Able to create product alternatives, services and problem solving smoothly and precisely that can provide competitive advantage and make creativity as a lifestyle.
Selling Products and Services
1. The scope of materials for selling entrepreneurial products and services is to market and sell products to retail and corporate consumers.
2. Formulation of objectives: Able to understand the process of selling products and services as a business artery to both retail and corporate consumers and able to do it spontaneously and automatically in every opportunity and make it as a pattern of life in everyday life.
Business Financial Management
1. The scope of financial management materials of entrepreneurial enterprises includes personal financial management, and business financial management evaluating, controlling business and performance and organizational evaluation and business management.
2. Formulation of objectives: Able to evaluate business management from planning to implementation spontaneously and automatically in managing family and business assets and making it an efficient and effective lifestyle.
Based on the above description is known that there are 5 types of material in entrepreneurial learning that includes character, communication and interpersonal, creativity and innovation, selling products and services and management of business finance.
Theory of Learning: Connectionism
Connectionism learning theory (Woolfolk et al., 2015) was developed by Thorndike (1874-1949), based on experiments he performed in the 1890s. The basis of learning is the formation of associations between sensory impression and the tendency to act or to be known by the relationship between Stimulus and Response (S-R). In other words, according to this theory human behaviour is nothing but a relationship between stimulus-response or stimulus-response as much as possible. Bonds or connections can be strengthened or weakened in harmony with the many uses and effects of the stimulus-response. It is understood that whoever controls the stimulus-response relationship as much as possible is one who is clever or successful in learning. The formation of stimulus-response relationship is done through repetition. One of the laws of learning on learning theory is the law of practice (Law of Exercise). This law explains the likelihood and weakness of stimulus and response relationships. The implication of this law is that more and more a lesson is repeated, the more it will master it.
The effect of the Weight of the Credits on the Intention
The course given the weight of 3 credits, according to the theory of connectionism learning will be more successful in studying the same material in the same time period than the weighted 2 credits, given the time required is different i.e. 3 to 2. Likewise for Entrepreneurship courses given the weight of 3 credits will be more successful mastering the material in the same timeframe than the given weight of 2 credits. Based on this description, it is possible that the weight of credits will affect the relationship between attitude, subjective norms and control perceptions of entrepreneurship behaviour towards the entrepreneurial intention.
Various research results linking between entrepreneurship learning with the student entrepreneurial intentions based on the theory of Planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) has done a lot (Wu and Wu, 2008; Sharif, et al., 2010; Packham et al., 2010; Obschonka, et al., 2010; Hermina, et al., 2011; Ghozali, et al., 2013; Lestari, et al., 2013).
Wu and Wu's research (2008) found that (1) the level of education (Diploma/Strata) and the main areas of study program (Business/non Business) and achievement/academic results have an effect on entrepreneurship attitude, (2) the main areas of the study program (Business/Non Business/Engineering) affect the perception of behaviour control (3) attitudes and perceptions of control of entrepreneurial behaviour affect the intention of entrepreneurship (4) entrepreneurship education (Yes/no) has no effect on the anticeden of intentions and entrepreneurial intentions itself, also obtained that the subjective norm does not affect the entrepreneurial intentions.
The results of Packham's study et al. (2010) get that the entrepreneurship education that students gain has an effect on the attitude of students in entrepreneurship. Research Obschonka, et al. (2010) get that early entrepreneurial competence has an effect on entrepreneurial control beliefs. In the case of entrepreneurial control beliefs affect the perception of behavioural control, so it is possible achievement of entrepreneurial competence influence perception of behaviour control. Similar results were obtained by Yang (2013). The Yang (2013) study found that there is a relationship between entrepreneurship education by the degree of control of entrepreneurial behaviours. Research Sharif et al. (2010) found that the mastery of entrepreneurial learning contents affect the entrepreneurial intentions.
It is also found that (Hermina et al., 2011) entrepreneurial learning process equip production technique in order to produce the product either in the form of goods, services or ideas, will support the interest to become an entrepreneur. Because an entrepreneur must have the ability, knowledge and skills to the products/services to be produced, if they have it all then this will cultivate their interest to become an entrepreneur.
Another study was conducted by Lestari et al. (2013) in Educational University of Indonesia on Accounting Education Study Program on the influence of entrepreneurial knowledge on student entrepreneurship attitudes it was found that entrepreneurial knowledge had a positive and significant effect on student entrepreneurship attitude. Research Ghozali, et al. (2013) with samples of Malaysian students get that materials entrepreneurial learning affect the attitude of students in entrepreneurship. The results of Yang (2013) found that there is a relationship between entrepreneurship educations with the level of entrepreneurial behaviour control.
Based on the description above, it can be argued that there is a difference of influence between attitudes, subjective norms and perceptions of entrepreneurial behaviours control on student entrepreneurship intentions between groups of students taking Entrepreneurship courses weighing 3 credits with 2 credits.
Research Framework and Hypotheses
Schematically the conceptual framework and the operational thinking flow of the research are as shown in Figure 2.
Group 3 Credits and 2 Credits
1. There is a difference between the two pathways of the attitude to entrepreneurship influence to the entrepreneurial intentions among students who take the 3 credits of Entrepreneurship course with 2 credits.
2. There is a difference between the two pathways of the entrepreneurship subjective norm influence to the entrepreneurial intentions among students who take take the 3 credits of Entrepreneurship course with 2 credits.
3. There is a difference between the two pathways of the perceptions of entrepreneurial behavior control to the entrepreneurial intentions among students who take the 3 credits of Entrepreneurship course with 2 credits.
The overall data collection is done at the end of the 2015/2016 semester between June 23 to July 23, 2016, by asking time to Mr/Mrs lecturer entrepreneurship courses to provide the scale of research and on the other hand is awarded after taking the test entrepreneurship courses completed with giving the scale after the students out of the class, then promptly requested to fill the intended scale awaited until the completion, so that at the same time required personal assistant faculty Psychology students 6-8 semesters, amounting to 16 students, who have been rehearsed about implementing the test first. After the data collected and then checked on each scale is eligible or not, too furthermore on the scale that meet the requirements tabulated as research data.
Population and Sample Research
The population of this study are students who ake entrepreneurship courses in various study programs at Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta in the even semester of 2015/2016 which consists of 22 study programs. Samples are some students who take entrepreneurship courses in various study programs at Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta in the even semester of 2015/2016 which includes 12 study programs, which consists of 4 study programs that weighs 3 credits are Economic faculty: Management, Accounting, Development Studies and Faculty of Psychology. Courses of 2 credits are Teacher Training and Education Faculty: Accounting, Biology, Mathematics and English, Faculty of Engineering: Machinery, Electrical, Architect and Pharmaceutical industry and faculty.
The sampling technique used purposive random sampling, obtained as many as 194 subject of research, with the characteristics of the subject (1) students who take entrepreneurship courses in the even semester of 2015/2016, (2) students are in semester 4, 6 and 8 and minimum follow 75% attendance, less than 75% attendance was excluded from the study sample.
The variables in this research are: The endogenous variable is entrepreneurial intentions, and the exogenous variables are attitude toward entrepreneur, subjective norms of entrepreneurship and perceptions of entrepreneurial behaviours control. Multi groups are the student take Entrepreneurship course, which is differentiated between 3 credits and 2 credits.
The research instrument used to reveal entrepreneurial tententions, attitudes toward entrepreneurship, subjective norm of entrepreneurship and perception of entrepreneurship behaviours control is a modification of the instruments made by Linan and Chen (2009) with scale 7, start score 1 for answers that strongly disagree and score 7 for answers that states strongly agree. The instrument of this study as shown in Table 2. The higher the score the subject gained shows the higher the entrepreneurial intentions and the lower the score gained the lower the intention of entrepreneurship. The group of subjects who take the entrepreneurship courses on 3 credits and 2 credits are revealed by using documentary method, by taking note of the Faculty guidebook of 2015/2016.
Data analysis technique in this research use statistical Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) through Partial Least Square (PLS) in multi group analysis, with 5% significance level. The calculation is done with the software of Smart PLS
Data analysis is done by following steps:
Calculate the path coefficient of the bootstrapping table to obtain the path coefficient and standard error values for each group. Test whether there is a difference with the Smith- Stterthwait formula (Chin, 2000) as follows.
Sample path 1: Path coefficient for group 3 credits Sample path 2: Path coefficient for group 2 credits
1. S.E sample 1: standard error value group 3 credits.
2. S.E sample 2: standard error value group 2 credits.
Measurement Analysis (Outer Model)
In relation to endogenous variable of this research in the form of second order data (Ghozali and Latan, 2015), then first analysis whether each item contained on the second order type meets the validity requirements or not. Furthermore, if the results of measurement analysis on the second order are obtained an item or more invalid, then the item is discarded, for further re- analysis, until all items are declared valid. If the item has been declared valid, it is necessary to simplify, by summing the item scores of each indicator, so as to obtain one score as first order data (Ghozali and Latan, 2015), which then carried out structural analysis.
Construct Validity Test
The validity of the items in each research con- duct can be seen from the outer loading results should be more than 0.7 (Ghozali and Latan, 2015). Outer loading results of second order type on 21 items that reveal attitude, subjective norm and perception of entrepreneurship behaviours control, and entrepreneurship intentions, both from the student group weighing 3 credits and 2 credits obtained>0.7, with p<0.05. The Result of the lowest and highest of as shown in Table 3.
Based on these results, it can be concluded that items on the second order level have met the validity requirements and can be used to form indicators in accordance with the research construct, both on 3 credits and 2 credits. Furthermore after it is known that the items on the second order has qualified the validity, it is necessary to simplify with how to add those items in one score, so per indicator only consists of a score. Another simplifying purpose is to obtain simpler, less complex information, so that it is easier to understand from a theory used in a study, although no new information from the variables is studied (Abdillah and Yogiyanto, 2015).
Based on this step, it will be found that each indicator on each construct of the study consists only of an item or a score, for subsequent re-measurement analysis on fisrt order items, as well as research data.
The result of the measurement of the score or the first order items, either from the student group weighing 3 credits and 2 credits is>0.7, with p<0.05 as shown in Table 4.
Based on outer loading results in Table 4, it can be concluded that these indicators have fulfilled the requirements of validity, which means it can be concluded that all the research indicators on this measurement analysis qualify the convergen validity. Discriminat validity in the PLS can be seen from the results discriminat validity (Ghozali and Latan, 2015) that is with comparing each of the AVE square roots to the correlation values between constructs. If the AVE square root value is higher than the correlation value between the constructs, it can be stated as meeting the criteria of discriminant validity. Output results discriminat validity model Fornell-Larcker Criterion in this study obtained that the correlation of the construct with the indicator is higher than the correlation of indicators with other constructs, as shown in table 5. This indicates that the latent construct predicts the indicator on each block is higher than in the other block. Based on this explanation we can conclude that the scale of this research is valid because it has fulfilled discriminant validity. Another way to assess the validity of a construct is to look at the value of AVE. AVE results in this study shows the AVE value for all constructs greater than 0.50, as shown in Table 6.
Based on this description, it can be concluded that the scale of this study has met Convergen and discriminant validity criteria.
Test of Construction Reliability
The construct reliability test is measured by two criteria (Ghozali and Latan, 2015) composite reliability and Cronbach's Alpha. The construct is valid if the value of composite reliability and Cronbach's Alpha>0.70. The results of composite reliability and Cronbach's Alpha calculations on all constructs show p values<0.05, as shown in Tables 7 and 8 It can be concluded that all collisions have good reliability.
Subject Research Description
The research uses 194 students as shows Table 9.
Based on data Table 9 it is known that this research using respondents who take the entrepreneurship course with the weight of 3 credits consists of students of the Faculty of Psychology as much as 16.49%, 7.73% of men and 8.76% of women. Students who come from the Faculty of Economics as much as 32.99%, 11.34% of men and 21.65% women. Respondents who take Entrepreneurship courses with 2 credits weight consist of 20.10% of Faculty of Pharmacy students, 5.15% male and 14.95% female.
Students who come from the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education as much as 19.07%, 4.12% of men and 14.95% women. Faculty of Engineering as much as 11.34%, 8.77% male and 2.58% women.
Structural Analysis Result (Inner Model)
Hypothesis test results are known by looking at the results of the table path coefficients following the significance of t statistics on the Bootstrapping report algorithm, with the results as shown in Table 10.
Based on test result from path coefficient obtained that:
Group 3 Credits
1. Test of path coefficient 1 obtained statistical t-value of 5.515 and p<0.05, then the hypothesis of analysis (Ha) accepted, which means that attitudes towards student entrepreneurship have a meaningful influence on the entrepreneurial intentions.
2. Test of path coefficient 2 obtained statistic t-value of 0.125 and p>0.05, then the hypothesis of analysis (Ha) is rejected, which means that the subjective norm of student entrepreneurship has no significant effect on the entrepreneurial intentions.
3. Test of path coefficient 3 obtained statistic t-value of 3.227 and p<0.05, then the hypothesis of analysis (Ha) accepted, which means that the perception of student entrepreneurship behaviour control has a significant influence on the entrepreneurial intentions.
Group 2 Credit:
1. Test of path coefficient 1 obtained statistic t-value of 1.556 and p>0.05, then the hypothesis of analysis (Ha) rejected, which means that attitudes toward student entrepreneurship does not affect the entrepreneurial intentions.
2. Test of path coefficient 2 obtained statistic t-value of 1.717 and p>0.05, then the hypothesis of analysis (Ha)rejected, which means that the subjective norms of Student entrepreneurship does not significantly influence the entrepreneurial intentions.
3. Test of path coefficient 3 obtained statistical t-value of 5.009 and p<0.05, then the hypothesis of analysis (Ha) accepted, which means that the perception of student entrepreneurship behaviour control has a significant influence on the entrepreneurial intentions.
The result of multi group analysis, at significance level of 5%, was obtained as seen in Table 11. The difference test result obtained that:
1. Hypothesis (1) test shows that the two pathways of the attitude to entrepreneur- ship influence to the entrepreneurial intentions differ significantly between the students who take 3 credits of Entrepreneurship course with a 2 credits.
2. Hypothesis (2) test shows that the two pathways of the entrepreneurship subjective norm influence to the entrepreneurial intentions do not differ between the students who take 3 credits of Entrepreneurship course with a 2 credits.
3. Hypothesis (3) tests shows that the two pathways of the perceptions of entrepreneurial behaviour control to influence to the entrepreneurial intentions do not differ between the students who take 3 credits of Entrepreneurship course with a 2 credits.
The result of Hypothesis (1) test shows that both the influence of entrepreneurship attitude toward entrepreneurial intentions differ significantly between the students who take the Entrepreneurship course weighs 3 credits with the weighted 2 credits. This is in accordance with the theory of learning koneksionisme which states that who controls the stimulus-response relationship as much as possible is one who is clever or successful in learning. The formation of stimulus-response relationship is done through repetition, the more often a lesson is repeated, the more the lesson will be. Repetition is more done for students who take entrepreneurship courses that weigh 3 skis than those weighing 2 Credits. This is also in accordance with the results of research by Wu and Wu (2008) found that the level of education (Diploma/ Strata) has an effect on entrepreneurship attitude, and entrepreneurship attitude influence to entrepreneurship intention. The results of Packham's et al. (2010) study, found that entrepreneurship education obtained by students influenced the attitude of students in entrepreneurship.
Based on the above description, it can be concluded that the two channels of influence of entrepreneurial attitudes towards the intentions of entrepreneurship differ significantly between students who take entrepreneurship course weighs 3 credits with a weighted 2 credits. This means that the weight of credits is a moderator variable influence of entrepreneurship attitude to student entrepreneurship intention. The result of hypothesis 2 test shows that the two paths of subjective influence of entrepreneurship entrepreneur towards the entrepreneurship intentions do not differ between the students who take the Entrepreneurship course weighs 3 credits with the weighted 2 credits. The result of both path coefficient of the influence of the subjective norm of entrepreneur towards the intention of entrepreneurship is not significant. This is due to the large number of female sample subjects who accounted for nearly 63%. This is in accordance with the results of research Gupta and Turban (2008) and Kickhul et al. (2008) who found that the intention of entrepreneurship of male students is higher than women. This means that the weight of credits is not a moderator variable the influence of subjective norms of entrepreneurship to the student entrepreneurship intentions. The result of hypothesis 3 test shows that the two path influences perception of entrepreneurship control toward entrepreneurship intention do not differ significantly between student taking entrepreneurship course weighs 3 credits with weighted 2 credits. Nevertheless the result of path coefficient test obtained that perception of entrepreneurship behaviour control significantly influence to student entrepreneurship intention. These results are consistent with research (Autio et al., 2001; Obschonka et al., 2010; Iakovleva et al., 2011; Kautonen et al., 2011) who found that perceived behaviours control has a relationship with intention. Nevertheless it turns out for students who take the course of Entrepreneurship weighing 3 credits with a weighted 2 credits is not influential on the path influence perceptions of entrepreneurial control of entrepreneurship intentions, in other words there is no difference path influence perceptions of entrepreneurial control of entrepreneurship intentions. This means that the weight of credits is not a moderator variable influence perceptions of entrepreneurial behaviours control on students entrepreneurship intentions.
Based on the results of the above test and discussion, it can be concluded that the effect of different subjects taking entrepreneurship between the weighted 3 credits with 2 credits only occurs on the influence of entrepreneurial attitudes towards the intentions of entrepreneurship, the influence of subjective norms and perceptions of entrepreneurial behaviours control is not the case. This means that the weight of credits is a moderator variable influence of entrepreneurship attitude to student entrepreneurship intention. Model of the research results as shown in Figure 3.
In relation to the results obtained research that the weight of credits is a moderator variable influence of entrepreneurship attitudes towards student entrepreneur intent, it is expected:
1. For students who take the Entrepreneurship course that weigh 2 credits to improve its attitude towards entrepreneurship, by multiplying discussion of strengthening understanding of entrepreneurship knowledge with fellow students, or reproduce reading entrepreneurial literature books, both practical and theoretical guidebooks. Moreover, it is also expected to reproduce entrepreneurship seminars both on campus and outside campus.
2. For lecturers of entrepreneurship subjects that weighs 2 credits to improve student entrepreneurship attitude, with much of the discussion task of strengthening the understanding of entrepreneurship knowledge with fellow students, or exhibiting a variety of entrepreneurship literature books, either practical or theoretical handbooks or entrepreneurial handbooks to read, summarized or reviewed, in order to increase knowledge to the entrepreneurship.
3. For the Entrepreneurship class stakeholders weighing 2 credits to be expected to hold many entrepreneurship seminars both on campus, as well as exhibition results of Entrepreneurship Student Creativity Program or products from Entrepreneurship lectures.
4. All of the above suggestions are also expected to apply to students taking Entrepreneurship courses that weigh 3 credits.
5. For researchers, because the weight of credits is a moderator variable influence entrepreneurial attitudes to the intent entrepreneurship of students, then in future research the weight of credits can be a consideration in doing similar research.
This study has several limitations: (1) the limited number of research subjects for each subject characteristic, as seen in the description of respondents. This is likely to influence the results of the research, although theoretically justifiable, by being analysed through PLS; (2) The limitation of the number of exogenous variables in this study that only reveals one of the principal characteristics of a college course in the form of credits weight only. In terms of the principal characteristics that accompany such a course, in addition to the weight of the credits course, the nature of the course between mandatory and elective, the support of other courses is supported or not supported by other similar subjects for entrepreneurship development (production, finance, marketing and others), the direction of developing entrepreneurship in accordance scholarly study program or in general, the location of the course is in the early semester, middle or end and so forth, as well as the difference study program. Taking into account the fundamental characteristics of another course, as mentioned above, it is hoped that a comprehensive comprehension of the answers to similar research problems.
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