International Journal of Entrepreneurship (Print ISSN: 1099-9264; Online ISSN: 1939-4675)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 6

Testing theory of planned behavior and product properties to examine intention to buy dog food: evidence from Thailand

Kamon Parkprasert, Chulalongkorn University

Achara Chandrachai, Chulalongkorn University

Chaleeda Borompichaichartkul, Chulalongkorn University

Nutthee Am-In, Chulalongkorn University

Citation Information: Parkprasert k., Chandrachai A., Borompichaichartkul C., Am-in N. (2021). Testing theory of planned behavior and product properties to examine intention to buy dog food: evidence from Thailand. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 25(4), 1-11.


In the last five years, people's attitudes toward dogs have shifted dramatically. While a massive industry like dog food has emerged primarily to provide a healthier option for dogs. Also, there are new markets that are rapidly increasing, such as dog food flavoring agents. However, these products are not essential for the proper care of dogs. But it can make a significant difference to the products. This research examines attitudes towards dogs. that the psychological factors influence the desire to purchase flavoring agents to make dog food more appetizing to dogs, according to the Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Product Properties to examine Intention to Buy Dog Food And also Our findings show that uncertain of their knowledge, self-centric view, dog-centric view, social context from veterinarians, and ability to control the outcome from flavoring agent products were all theoretical factors that influenced the desire to purchase flavoring agents. To identify product properties that are related to purchase intention, such as providing a variety of flavor alternatives, consistent nutrition, a simple method, adding palatability to food without soaking it, and using natural raw elements as components. Furthermore, attitudes regarding dogs did not appear to be related to product purchasing intentions. The insights gathered from this study can be applied to the marketing of currently available dog food flavoring products. Including, the development of new items that satisfy the needs of consumers.


Flavoring Agent, Appetite, Dog Food, Pet Attitude, Theory of Planned Behavior.


For the past five years, Thailand's fastest-growing market has been dog food. Dry dog food revenue increased by 44.4 percent between 2016 and 2021, growing from 12,602.5 million baht to 18,210 million baht. Market revenue for wet dog food increased by 48.5 percent, from 2,811.4 million baht to 4,175 million baht. The market for dog treats and dog food flavoring agents, which products are not essential for the proper care of dogs. But it can make a significant difference to the products, has grown the most, increasing by 83.6 percent from 4,160.7 million baht to 7,641.7 million baht. These markets have expanded. Despite the fact that the dog population only increased by 12.3%, the population increased from 7.38 million to 8.29 million dogs (Euromonitor International, 2021). The change in owners' attitudes toward dog food contributed to the expansion of the dog food market. Because if the dogs are considered as family members, owners are more concerned about their dogs' health, the nutritional value and the freshness of their food, as well as the experience of consuming that meal. Owners who view them as pets, on the other hand, are more likely to be concerned about the price and convenience of stores (Boya et al., 2015).

According to previous research, dog owners perceive how much their dogs enjoy their food based on how quickly they finish it (Perry, 1969). However, as shown in a recent survey, owners judge their dog's experience based on their perceptions of color and shape. Different countries would have different preferences, In Poland, for example, a medium round brown food was associated with a positive perception (Gomez Baquero, 2018). While in Thailand a large yellow food in bone shape is more favorable (Koppel et al, 2018). When it comes to fragrance, Spices, herbs, soup, and roasted chicken all have a pleasant aroma. Offal, rancidity, and grains are perceived negatively.

The importance of scent is perceived differently by different nationalities; for example, the French place a higher value on fragrance than Americans. (Delime et al., 2020). Some studies have discovered that owners judge the quality of dry dog food by looking for a natural component and those goods containing natural ingredients are considered healthier and tastier (Vinassa, 2020; Hjelmar, 2011).

The market for dog health food is on a clear upward trajectory, while food with a variety of scents and flavors is still debatable. As shown in a report on dog food sales, Italians prefer to buy beef and chicken dog food. While the majority of Americans buy dog food flavored with beef, chicken, seafood, or smoked salmon, (The Nielsen Company, 2016). As a result, the objective of this research is to see how much importance Thai consumers place on flavor and fragrance effects in flavoring agent goods.

Literature Review

Attitude toward Pets and Pet-Related Expenses

Several studies have investigated demographic factors, such as the fact that women have more relationships and spend more money on their pets than males (Lue et al., 2007). Owners with a high income place a premium on brand and product quality, while those with a low-income place a priority on price and convenience (Bhakat, 2019). Age-related factors studies found that owners over 65 and fewer than 35 years old prioritize nutrition over appearance and dog experience (Vinassa, 2020).

However, in addition to demographic characteristics, attitudes toward pets can be used as a separator to categorize potential dog owners. A variety of methods for assessing dog attitudes have been investigated. The Pet Attitude Scale is the most used method (PAS). Developed by Templer. The measurement composes of 18 questions with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.93. The question might be divided into three groups using the primary component. These elements include affection and interaction with pets, such as verbal communication with pets, treating pets as family members, such as allowing pets to stay in the owner's home, and happiness from owning a pet, such as watching pets eat (Templer & Arikawa, 2011).

Furthermore, in recent research, the Coleman Dog Attitude Scale (C-DAS), which has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.98, has been used to assess pet owners' attitudes toward their pets. The questions were classified into three different categories using principal component factor analysis. Those factors include an attachment for their pets, cognition (the owner believed their pet was cute), and conduct (caring for their dogs) (Coleman, 2016).

The owner's attitude is directly related to the cost of owning a dog. In a survey, respondents were asked about dog-related expenses, such as “the price of pet care does not concern me,” “I paid a lot for my dog,” “I often find special products for my dog,” “I factor in my dog when I decide to buy a house,” “I factor in my dog when I decide to buy a car,” “I like to buy gifts for my dog,” “I buy health product for my dog without concern about prices,” and “I often take my pet to the veterinarians”. Using these replies, three groups were identified: basic owner, moderately attached owner, and extremely attached owner.

The group that lives a dog-oriented lifestyle and has an Anthropomorphism perspective of dogs has a high level of attachment and dog-related expenses (Boya et al., 2012). Owners who have a good attitude put a high priority on healthy food for their dogs and are less price-sensitive when purchasing food for themselves (Tesfom & Birch, 2010). This is the reason for the emergence of a new market, which includes a variety of supplements and natural health foods (Viana et al., 2020).

Theory of Planned Behavior and Pet-Related Expense

The theory of Planned Behavior has been widely used to predict the intention and behavior of humans. According to the theory, one's behavior is controlled by behavioral intention, which would be dictated by 3 factors. The first factor is one's attitude toward behavior, or one's favorable or negative thoughts towards a certain behavior.

The subjective norm, or acknowledgment of others' approval of a specific action, is the second factor. The final factor is perceived behavioral control, or the perception that their behavior and result could be easily controlled (Ajzen, 1991).

Several studies have used the theory of planned behavior to describe the conduct of a dog's owner. For example, to explain obesity in dogs caused by a lack of physical activity and a lack of attention from the owner when feeding can be anticipated by their behavioral beliefs, which are the result of their knowledge and understanding of their control beliefs and normative beliefs. While the intention of feeding the dog could not predict the habit of feeding the dog. However, the intention of exercise could predict the behavior of exercising (Rohlf et al., 2010).

According to the research based on the theory of Planned Behavior, attitudes regarding the intention of buying a product for dogs can be influenced by both self-centric views, such as believing that food is beneficial for their dog, and dog-centric views, such as believing that the dog enjoys the treat. In subjective norms, people who play an important role in buying dog foods are friends and family (Xu & Jiaqi, 2019). At the same time, veterinarians also play an important role in educating and recommending products.

A survey in Italy found that 1 in 4 dog owners bought the product that was recommended by the veterinarians (Vinassa, 2020). Research on consumer behavior on dog’s and cat’s food it was discovered that attitude towards the product, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control affect intention to buy. However, no link was discovered between perceived behavior control and actual customer behavior when it came to purchasing dog and cat food (Pratama & Yuliati, 2021).

Properties that Owners Prioritize in Flavoring Agents

The process of flavoring dry dog food could occur in 2 steps. The first step is in manufacturing, the flavoring agent would be coated on dog foods before packaging. Flavoring agents that were used to coat dog’s food are meats that have been broken down by enzymes, L-Lysine, L-Cysteine, seasoning powder, sugar, soy sauce, blood, yeast, whey protein, cheese powder, marinated meat, hydrolyzed-plant protein, egg, onion powder, herbs powder and artificial flavoring agents, such as bacon, cheese and smoked flavor (Hand, 2010).

Another step that a flavoring agent could be added is the owners add the flavoring agent at home. Purchasing dry dog food would mean that their dog would have to eat that flavor for 1-2 months or until the owner purchase new food. Including sick dogs that require dietary restrictions, such as kidney diseases and diabetes, would only have one flavoring option. Therefore, some owners would mix in chicken soup, fish soup, wet dog food, or other food to act as a flavoring agent. This addition would cause the dry dog food to become wet resulting in the food could not be kept a room temperature. Moreover, the food needs to be thrown out if the dog did not manage to finish their food. Hence, this would affect the nutritional value of that food (Buffington et al., 2004).

A study on the reasons for pet owner's decision to use the flavoring agent has yet to be conducted. However, there is a study on the use of herbs in 7 European countries includes Austria, Hungary, Germany, Iceland, Latvia, Slovakia, and Netherland. The study found that factors that impact this decision the most are the knowledge of herbs benefit in case regular consumption Furthermore, a person's interest in gastronomy is a factor that influences their decision to include herbs in their dishes, which is influenced both directly and indirectly by an understanding of the herbs' benefits.

Similarly, the factor of attention to one’s health effect both directly and indirectly affect knowledge of health risk factor and affect the behavior in using the herb as part of cooking as well (Szűcs et al, 2018). While the study in other flavoring agents, such as the use of monosodium glutamate in China found that there 2 out of 3 consumers decided to buy the product with a guarantee from relevant institutions (Zhu et al., 2020). Dog’s flavoring agent is a new product that saw exponential growth in the past few years. By using The Technology Acceptance Model or TAM, factors that have a direct impact are Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness (Davis, 1989).

Research Methodology

This is quantitative research to find factors that correlate with consumers' intention in buying dry dog food flavoring agents. Independent variables are variables that were predicted to affect the consumer’s intention referring to the literature review. Independent variables were attitude toward dogs, behavior in changing dog’s food flavor, attitude toward flavoring agents, social norms, ability in using the flavoring agents, and the owner’s priorities in the flavoring agent properties. Dependent variables were intended to buy the flavoring agents for dog consumes a normal amount and for dogs that consumer in a lower amount.

The sample population was dog owners in Thailand age between 15 to 60 years, which is working age. Screening questions where dry dog food is their dog main food, and the owner is responsible for taking care and making a decision in buying dog's food. There were 420 people in the sample and the randomization was done by non-probability sampling with purposive sampling technique through the online platform, Facebook fan page related to dog’s ownership.

Questionnaires were divided into 6 parts. Part 1 was a general question regarding information about the respondent, which included age, sex, and educational degree. Part 2 was about information related to the owner’s dog, which included the number of dogs and experience in caring for dogs that require dietary restrictions. Part 3 was the measurement of the owner’s attitude toward dogs through the Templer Pet Attitude Scale, which measured affection and relation, perception of the dog as a family member, and shared happiness with dogs. The scale consisted of 18 questions (Templer & Arikawa, 2011). Part 4 was for attitude toward dog’s food flavoring agent, 3 questions for unsureness, 2 questions for self-centeredness, 2 questions for dogs’ centeredness, 1 question for veterinarians’ social norms, 1 for other dog owners’ social norms, 2 for the ability of flavoring agent control and 1 for changing dogs food flavor. Question for measure attitude toward dog food flavoring agents, social norms, and ability to control flavoring agents is adapted from research by Rohlf and his team in 2010 that adapted from Theory of planned behavior for use with the behavior of feeding dogs (Rohlf, 2010). The question in parts 3 and 4 were translated from English to Thai.

Part 5 was the importance of different properties in flavoring agent, which consisted of 7 questions includes various flavoring options, does not affect the food nutritional value, does not add moisture to the food, validated by research to be safe for sick dogs, help dogs to eat better, produce from natural ingredient and ease of use. Part 6 was the intention to buy products, which divided into 2 following scenarios: intention to buy dog food flavoring agent to change to flavor when the dog could eat normally, and the dog eat in a lower amount. Part 3 to 6 would be measured by the Likert scale that was divided into 7 levels. Before the survey is given out to respondents, the survey has been tested for validity by a Pre-test with 20 dog owners to check that the questions produced appropriate information.

Furthermore, the survey questions were tested for reliability in different 20 dog owners. The Cronbach’s Alpha values in part 3 were 0.74, part 4 received 0.772, and part 5 received 0.779. Each part has received more than 0.7, thus the question in those parts was reliable and could be used for testing.

Analysis of Data using Statistical Package of Social Science for Mac (SPSS) in both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive Statistics was used to describe the general information of the respondent, their dogs, and the intention to buy flavoring agents in the form of frequency and percentage. Inferential Statistics was used to describe the attitude of the owner toward dogs, social norms, the ability to control the flavoring agents, frequency of changing dog’s food flavor, and the important properties in flavoring agents. To find the relationship between intention to buy flavoring agents when the dog could get normally and when the dog eats in a lower amount. The statistic technique that was used to examine in this research was Spearman’s Rho and the significance coefficient would be at 0.05. This is due to the data was examined by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk found that data did not fit a normal distribution; therefore parametric statistics could not be used.

Research Results

Characteristics of the Sample Group

The sample group was mainly composed of the female with 334 females, 65 males, and 2 other sexual orientations, which is 79.5, 15.5, and 0.5 percent, respectively. The majority of people in the sample age were between 41-50 years old with 203 people or 48.3 percent. 157 people in the group age between 31-40 years old, which accounted for 37.3 percent.

The rest of the group are distributed between ages between 15-20 has 5 people, 21-20 years old has 41 people, and 51-60 years old has 40 people. The educational degree of this sample consisted largely consisted of people with an undergrad degree, which has 282 people or 67.1 percent. The group that has an educational degree lower than undergrad contains 122 people or 29 percent and People with an educational degree higher than undergrad consisted of 16 people or 3.8 percent.

In terms of caring for dogs, 173 or 41.1 percent of owners care for 2 dogs. 173 people or 41.1 percent care for 1 dog, 113 people or 27.8 percent of owners care for 3 dogs, and 17 people or 4 percent care for 4 dogs. Moreover, people who have the experience of caring for a sick dog that require food restriction accounted for 74 percent or 311 people in both long and short term. While 26 percent of the owner have not had experience in controlling their dog’s diet.

Finding Factors That Correlate with Intention in Buying Dog’s Food Flavoring Agent

The average intention in buying a dog’s food flavoring agent in dogs that could eat normally to diversify the food flavor is at 3.66 with the standard deviation at 2.10. The average intention rises immediately when dogs consume lower than their usual amount with the average at 5.90 and standard deviation at 1.10. Considering the composition of the sample group that has a high intention to buy, which the score is at 6 and 9, are 27.6 percent in groups that dog consume normally and 76.6 percent in the group that their dogs consume lower than normal. This shows the opportunity in owners that have dogs that consume lower than their normal amount. However, there are opportunities in 1 of 4 owners with dogs that consume their normal amount as well.

Finding a correlation between the psychological factor and intention to buy flavoring agents for dogs found that attitude toward dog does not correlate with the intention to buy flavoring agents in both dogs that consume normal amount and consume in a lower amount evaluated from Templer Pet Attitude Scale (H1) with significantly lower than 0.05.

Considering the scenario that dogs consume a normal amount, factors that are correlated to intention to buys flavoring agents are frequency of the behavior in changing dog food flavor (H2), self-centric view (H3b) (Think that dogs deserve to get a various flavor of food and picking the flavor that they think the dog would like), and dog-centric view (H3c) (feed them food that the dog seems to like and change the food immediately if the dog seems to be bored or eat less) with a positive correlation coefficient of 0.126, 0.122 and 0.143, respectively.

In the scenario that dog consumes a lower amount, factors that correlate with the intention to buy flavoring agent are unsure in one’s knowledge in flavoring the food (H3a), self-centric view (H3b) dog-centric view (H3c), social norms in following the veterinarian advice (H4a), and ability to control the resulting from adding the flavoring agents (H5) (change the nutritional value and easier to spoil in room temperature). The correlation coefficient is positive at 0.130, 0.110, 0.164, 0.261 and 0.182, respectively. The correlation coefficient is greatest in following the veterinarian advice, shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Correlation Between Consumer’s Psychological Factor and Intention to buy Flavoring Agents for Dogs’ Food
Variables’ correlation Intention to buy when dog consume normally Intention to buy when dog consume in a lower amount
Psychological factors in consumers p-value Rs p-value Rs
H1. Templer Pet Attitude Scale 0.353 -0.045 0.146 -0.071
H2. Frequency of behavior in changing dog food flavor 0.01 0.126** 0.104 -0.079
H3. Attitude toward dog food flavoring agents        
H3a Unsure in one’s knowledge 0.333 0.047 0.007 0.130**
H3b Self-centric view 0.013 0.122* 0.025 0.110*
H3c Dog centric view 0.003 0.143** 0.001 0.164**
H4. Social norms        
H4a Follow the veterinarian advice 0.704 -0.019 0 0.261**
H4b Take other dog owners’ advice 0.9 0.083 0.122 -0.076
H5. Ability to control 0.244 0.057 0 0.182**
** Correlation coefficient is lesser than 0.01.
* Correlation coefficient is lesser than 0.05.
Source: Parkprasert et al.

Finding a correlation between properties and intention to buy shows that dogs that consume a normal amount of food, properties of flavoring agent would have a significantly lower than 0.05. The factors include the various selection of flavors to choose from despite using the same dry dog food (H6a), does not change or affect the nutritional value (H6b), does not change the moisture level of the food, and could keep in room temperature without spoilage (H6c), guaranteed to be safe by research even for dogs with chronic diseases (H6d) and helps dog eat better (H6e) with positive correlation coefficient at 0.132, 0.136, 0.191 and 0.148 respectively.

If dogs consume a lower amount property of the flavoring agent would have significantly lower than 0.05. There are similarities in the dog that consume normally, which are various selection of flavors to choose from despite using the same dry dog food (H6a), does not change or affect the nutritional value (H6b), guaranteed to be safe by research (H6d), and helps dog eat better (H6e) with a positive correlation coefficient at 0.108, 0.215, 0.236 and 0.208, respectively. There are two additional properties that were found, which are products from the natural product without any artificial ingredient (H6f), and flavoring agents are easy to use (H6g) with a positive correlation coefficient at 0.174 and 0.263, as shown in Table 2.

Table 2 Correlation Between Properties of Flavoring Agent and Intention to Buy Flavoring Agents for Dogs’ Food
Variables’ correlation Intention to buy when dog consume normally   Intention to buy when dog consume in a lower amount  
Properties of flavoring agent p-value Rs p-value Rs
H6a Various selection of flavors to choose from, despite using the same dry dog food. 0.007 0.132** 0.026 0.108*
H6b Does not change or effect the nutritional value 0.005 0.136** 0 0.215**
H6c Does not change the moisture level of the food and could keep in room temperature without spoilage        
H6d Guarantee to be safe by research even for dogs with chronic diseases. 0.025 0.109* 0 0.236**
H6e Help dogs to consume enough food to meet their daily requirement. 0.002 0.148** 0 0.208**
H6f Produce from natural product without any artificial ingredient 0.772 0.017 0 0.174**
H6g Flavoring agents is easy to use 0.096 0.081 0 0.263**
** Correlation coefficient is lesser than 0.01.
* Correlation coefficient is lesser than 0.05.
Source: Parkprasert et al.

Discussion and Conclusion

Psychological Factors That Affect Intention to Buy

This study did not find a correlation between attitude towards pets with the intention to buy flavoring agents, in both dogs that consume a normal amount of food and dog that consume a lower amount of food. In contrary to previous research that found a correlation between attitude towards pet with purchase of health products for dogs (Tesfom & Birch, 2010). The setting target group should use other criteria instead of attitudes toward pets setting target group. This study found that owners who previously change dogs’ food flavor regularly are likely to buy products that use a large number of flavoring agents. However, this group that gave 5 to 7 scores accounted for 15 percent out of the whole sample group. In agreement with Nielsen's survey in America and Italy found that dog owners purchase only a few varieties of dog food flavor (The Nielsen Company, 2016).

Considering the attitude that sees dog food flavor as important, the finding suggests that the self-centric view factor and dog-centric view factor have a correlation with the intention to buy, in both dogs that consume the normal amount and dogs that consume a lower amount. Similarly in a study that was done in the past year, the study shows that belief of dad and mom, the acknowledgment of new food, and fondness for food with the child’s eating behavior affect dad and mom feeding behavior (Wolstenholme et al., 2020). Psychological factors that have a correlation with the intention to buy only in dogs that consume lower amounts but, do not have a correlation with dogs that consume a normal amount.

There are 3 psychological factors that correlate with dogs that consume in a lower amount. The first factor is the attitude towards the importance of flavor in terms of unsureness of one’s knowledge about the flavoring agent in the types of flavoring agents, amount of the flavoring agents, and frequency of use. The second factor is the importance of social norms by following the advice of a veterinarian. The last factor is the ability to control nutritional value and food spoilage that was mixed with flavoring agents. The psychological factors that have the highest correlation coefficient were following veterinarians with a correlation coefficient at 0.261. The finding also found that what flavoring agent companies should focus on is to educate dog owners. The veterinarian has an important role, which is in agreement with research that was done in America. The research found that veterinarian advice to the dog owner that came for yearly health check-up about protection from Heartworm, ticks, and dog flea as a result, the number of dog owners who gave protection for their dogs increased from 50% to 85% in just one year (Gates & Nolan, 2010).

According to research findings, the flavoring agents’ market for dog food is a solution to a problem for dog owners who want to alter the flavors of their dog's food on a regular basis unfortunately; they are unable to do so. In the case of a dog owner who feeds a regular dog food for the healthy dog but wants to change the scent of their food because the regular dog food is still not empty or it is not possible to change the type of food given to the dog in circumstances in which the unhealthy dog must control a long-term food restriction, such as kidney disease or diabetes. In terms of marketing, companies could market in owner-centric views, such as offering a pleasant eating experience for the dog.

Companies could also market in a dog-centric way, for example, to appease a dog that is refusing to eat. And Veterinary hospitals are the finest place to offer flavoring agents since veterinarians are the educators and define the social norms for dog owners. And, according to marketing research, there is also another way of communicating with animal owners besides the physical store. Which can use online channels to spread word of mouth and provide accessibility. As a result, there are positively affecting the customer attitude (Jahan et al., 2020).

However, Traditional communication channels, including SMS from veterinary clinics, can be leveraged to reach out to the target group as well. The text must not be too long and delivered at a proper time (Khalil et al., 2020). In addition to customer satisfaction and building trust in a product is another important thing that will lead to strength the relationship and ultimately build customer loyalty to the product (Hossain et al., 2019).

Product Properties Affect the Intention to Buy

Product properties are another important factor that affects intention to buy flavoring agents that could be divided into two scenarios. The scenarios when the dog consumes their normal amount and when the dog consumes in a lower amount. In the scenarios that dogs consume a normal amount of food, the properties of flavoring agents correlate with the intention to buy help dogs to eat better, does not change the moisture level, and the various option of flavors. These 3 properties are properties that could be found in the existing product.

Existing products come in liquid forms, such as gravy and fish oil, and in powder form that is harder to spoil at room temperatures, such as cheese powder and egg powder. There is a property that increases intention to buy that existing product could not fulfill, which is a flavoring agent that does not change the nutritional value of a dog’s food. The existing products are made mainly of proteins and fats, which directly affect the nutritional value. While in the study on herb use for human consumption, the herb is added for health purposes (Szűcs, 2018). Another property is a flavoring agent that has been validated by research to be safe. This agrees with research finding that owner’s think that it is important that monosodium glutamate is validated (Zhu, 2020).

Comparing properties of products correlation to intention to buy flavoring agents in dogs that consume in a lower amount to the dog that consume a normal amount found that property of not changing the nutritional value, validated by research to be safe and help dogs eat better found to have higher correlation coefficient. Moreover, there was an additional factor was found, which is a natural ingredient. This agrees with the previous research that found that owners see the importance of choosing the product for their dog and the product needs to be easy to use, in agreement with TAM (Vinassa, 2020; Davis, 1989).

From this research result, it could be concluded that existing flavoring agent’s product could increase their sale value by introducing new flavors. Moreover, changing converting liquid to powder form would make the product easier to use for consumers and solve the problem in Thailand that wet and moist foods easily spoil at room temperature.

Along with helping dogs to eat more food, especially for dogs that eat in a lower amount. This would cause the owner to re-purchase the product. Brand the product as a product that would help the dog eats, when the dog is eating fewer foods. The packaging should contain information regarding guarantee or validation in safety.

The packaging should also represent that the product is made from natural ingredients, and it should be easy to use to help increase the sales number. Furthermore, based on previous market research. To achieve business sustainability, products should focus on establishing brand equity through brand image and brand loyalty (Hossain et al., 2020) to Corporate Social Responsibility (Hossain et al., 2019).


This is primary research on the dog food flavoring products’ markets, which have experienced exponential growth within these 5 years, to further understand this huge market. This research elaborates on the social science aspect of the market regarding the in-depth attitudes toward dogs such as Anthropomorphism. Finding additional psychological factors that affect intention to buy and use dog’s food flavoring agents and research specific target groups, such as the owner of dogs with kidney disease that has a lifelong dietary restriction that has limitation in food selections. Further research could elaborate on a scientific aspect, for example researching for natural flavoring agents to make the food more appetizing to dogs and does not change the nutritional value that the owner could mix by themselves at home. This is to further develop a flavoring agent that meets consumer needs that are currently unfulfilled by existing products.

End Notes



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