Research Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 6
Faris Irshaid Al Karabsheh, Al- Balqa Applied University
Hanan Ahmad Qudah, Al- Balqa Applied University
Mhamoud Abedalfattah Alwashah, Al- Balqa Applied University
Mohammad Zakaria AlQudah, Al- Balqa Applied University
Citation Information: karabsheh FIA, Qudah HA., Alwashah MA., AlQudah MZ. (2021). The effect of increase in taxes on the profits of jordanian commercial banks and their financial sustainability listed on the ASE. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 25(4), 1-14.
The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of increased taxes on the profits of Jordanian commercial banks and their financial sustainability as listed on the ASE, as well as the applicability and reliability of this method in determining the impact of increased taxes on the profits of Jordanian commercial banks and forecasting these risks in financial sustainability. Banks operating in Jordan, by proposing a Design model for calculating the rise in taxes on Jordanian commercial banks' income. To determine and forecast the impact of Jordanian commercial banks' tax increases on their financial sustainability as reported on the ASE.
Taxes, Profits, Jordanian Commercial Banks, Financial Sustainability, ASE.
Due to its importance in supporting all hidden industries, banks may be found in each country in the globe. Banks differ according to their specializations and their aim to develop autonomous financing structures that meet the demands of both consumers and the state (Iordache et al., 2010). A bank is described as an institution that deals with debt or credit in relation to liquidity, safety, and profitability in the financial system. Savers and investors come together at banks, which mobilize funds and steer them to finance various economic sectors and manufacturing initiatives across the world (Kithinji, 2010).
By funding capital projects in both the public and private sectors, offering different banking services to other sectors, and also by using human resources in meetings as well as efficiently and effectively dispersing economic resources, banks also contribute to economic growth. They act as important channels for monetary policy, which has a bearing on the longevity and safety of money across all industries. As the backbone of a country's economy and the primary source of money for economic progress, the banking industry cannot exist without funding (Demirguc-Kunt, 2008).
As a consequence, economic and fiscal policies that can successfully sustain the pace of economic expansion are required. The banking industry has been negatively impacted by numerous variables and challenges as a result of the global financial crisis, which began in 2008 and continues to this day. Since the beginning of the financial crisis, the banking sector has been the topic of several arguments and explanations on how to put more taxes on the banking business, backed up by justifications for raising the tax in order to stabilize the state's financial system (Heipertz & Verdun, 2010). Banking has put a burden on banks, pushing them to fix their position by limiting banking and considerably boosting banking costs compared to prior years. Commercial banks are an essential and vital element of supporting the budget with big and timely income for the state due to their position in the financial system. This has a huge beneficial influence on the economy, but commercial banks remain at the top of the economy; so, this study to examine the impact of increasing tax rates on commercial bank profits and to know the negative impacts and identify the imbalance and try to fix and cure it (Allen & Carletti, 2010).
The notion of financial sustainability has been related to the concept of an interventionist state by analyzing the extent to which the state can carry out its responsibilities in light of government involvement in economic activity, and therefore its failure to do so indicates the government's current in effectiveness. Because of its dimensions related to the economic future, which we cannot look at individually but is part of a system of large countries that have been integrated to sustain economic prosperity, sustainable development and sustainability are among the most important issues around which the financial future of countries around the world is being transformed. (Akinbami, 2011).
Taxes on Jordan's banking sector are seen as a barrier to investment and a deterrent to both domestic and foreign capital, and the law's 35 percent increase in commercial bank taxes is one of the world's highest tax rates; it does not achieve justice and equality for commercial banks with other economic sectors, and the increase in taxes has significant negative consequences for the banking sector (Anholt, 2006). Raising the tax rate on banks by project is a huge tax burden that will have a considerable negative impact on bank activities and their ability to lend, as well as other important national economic initiatives. Bank tax rates are greater than those levied on other industries, such as telecommunications (24%), and other businesses (20%), and do not treat banks fairly. Companies' dedication to sustainability reporting helps to the state's financial stability at the macroeconomic level, such as higher government revenues, such as greater tax revenues connected to green economic activities, and lower expenses associated with public goods (Castel-Branco, 2014).
The problem of research is focused on answering the following questions:
1. Does the high tax rate affect the profits and economic growth of commercial banks?
2. Does the high tax rate on commercial bank profits affect the high interest rate on borrowers?
3. Does the high tax rate affect the profits of commercial banks on the weakness of domestic and foreign investment?
4. Does the high tax rate affect the profits of commercial banks on the efficiency and effectiveness of their performance?
5. Does the high tax rate on commercial bank profits affect the bank's financial sustainability?
Before delving into these issues, regardless of whether they have had a positive or negative impact on the banking sector in particular, as well as the Jordanian economy and institutions in general, it is necessary to first establish whether they have had a positive or negative impact on the banking sector. The researchers emphasize that the theoretical framework will be used to address all of these issues. The government has a history of raising banking taxes, but how has this affected bank earnings, and what occurred to the Jordanian banking system following that increase?
Because its purpose is to anticipate the organization's stability, financial sustainability evaluation is a priority trend for financial analysis. As a result, it will be a precondition for the absence of financial difficulties in future periods. The banking industry in Jordan is one of the country's key foundations and vital industries, and it has a significant economic impact on Jordanian society, emphasizing the necessity of research into the effects of higher taxes on bank earnings. Jordan and investment promotion necessitate encouraging and stimulating foundations as well as laws (Van Greuning & Bratanovic, 2020).
This significance is underlined in the accomplishment of a number of goals, the most no table of which were:
1. Understanding how the corporate gains tax affects Jordanian merchant banks.
2. The influence of the tax rate on economic growth.
3. To demonstrate the high tax rate and how it impacts the attraction of domestic and foreign investors.
4. To demonstrate the impact of taxes on society, borrowers, and businesses.
5. To demonstrate the impact of high tax rates on bank earnings and the efficiency of banking operations.
6. Changing present policies, whether by increasing or decreasing spending or income, to guarantee that the state's financial viability is maintained.
1. There is no statistically significant link between commercial bank earnings and high tax rates.
2. There is no statistically significant link between high tax rates and the attraction of domestic and international investors.
3. There is no statistically significant link between tax increases and their societal consequences.
4. There is no statistically significant link between high tax rates on commercial bank earnings and their performance.
5. The high tax rates on bank earnings have no statistically significant influence on their financial viability.
According to Kiganda (2014), the purpose of the study was to determine the impact of the amendment of the income tax law 2014 on banks, individuals, and the national economy, as well as the negative impact on Jordan's important banking sector. The most important findings were that the tax rates imposed on the Jordanian banking sector were equal to other sectors. The study was conducted by Boscáa et al. (2019) to demonstrate the economic effects of increasing the tax on the banking sector in the European Union. The study's most important findings revealed that imposing three additional taxes on the European banking sector causes banks to reduce their capital, reduce the volume of deposits and credits, and increase interest rates. For the purpose of levying taxes on the banking industry.
Elena Konvisarova (2016) conducted a study to compare the taxation of commercial bank profits in Russia and developed countries around the world. The most important finding was that the tax rates imposed in Russia are high, but they are lower than in other countries, and it was recommended to improve tax policy in the banking sector and credit business members. John Gallemore's work (2017) The relationship between taxes imposed and the results of commercial banks was examined through lending, liquidity, profits, leverage, and taxation. The findings revealed that changes in income tax rates have an impact on the bank's activities in the medium and long term, as well as on specific types of banks, particularly during economic downturns.
According to Al-Hamdani (2019), the banking sector is currently facing major challenges as a result of intense competition in the financial environment, which forces banks to constantly seek financial sustainability, which requires them to increase capital, which gives banks a greater ability to grant credit during crises, and the study focused on capital control from this perspective. The study came to several conclusions, the most important of which is that banks that rely on traditional deposits as a source of financing are more stable and have the ability to sustain and compete in credit grants in crisis against banks that rely on other sources of financing, such as borrowing, because borrowing money fades quickly when markets are under pressure and crises, implying that lenders will refrain from granting new loans. The research ended with a number of suggestions, including the necessity to create models to evaluate capital adequacy in order to comply with the Basel Committee's judgments.
In most nations, the notion of commercial banks and taxation, as well as related topics, has attracted the attention of academics, thinkers, and authors, resulting in a large body of prior theoretical literature. In this part of the research, we'll look at some of the issues that Jordanian commercial banks are dealing with (Harris, 2003). The contemporary state has numerous responsibilities or tasks in delivering the public services required to meet society's basic requirements. To commit to and continue to offer these services, the state has to find a method to adapt to the nature of the services. It is imperative that no citizen be denied access to it. It's not a question of whether he contributed to its adaption or not; it's a question of not equating the degree of usage with the quantity of contribution (Bowen, 2013).
Although this state has the capacity, authority, and masters to manage and collect the funds it requires to carry out these services, it has decided to limit funds from individuals, natural persons, and people willingly or unwillingly, even if there is a lack of acceptance or satisfaction on the part of these financiers, because the marginal state has found many sources of funding (Bemelmans-Videc et al., 2017). The evolution of taxation coincided with the emergence of the state. It has evolved from a simple source of funding or revenue to a financial policy instrument for the exploration of a wide range of economic, social, and political objectives. After the state's expanded role and effective and direct participation in economic life, the importance of taxes has emerged economically, socially, and politically (Brautigam et al., 2008).
Commercial bank earnings are one of Jordan's oldest and most significant kinds of direct taxation. It is also the most significant and greatest source of revenue. Their revenues account for the majority (percentage) of overall direct taxes, which provide significant funding for the state's general budget. This tax is also one of the most significant in terms of its influence on economic activity. It's a way of boosting national income and wealth while also encouraging investment (Alsharari, 2019). Jordan is a growing country that has seen rapid growth in recent years, notably in the economic sector. The Jordanian banking industry, on the other hand, has seen a qualitative transformation, making it the dominant sector. This improvement has been accompanied by a rise in several indices that have suggested the sector's growth (Qudah, 2021).
Despite Jordan's relatively brief history in the banking business as compared to other countries across the world and Arab countries in particular, The Jordanian banking industry, on the other hand, is undergoing constant quantitative development, which is being followed by rapid qualitative development, whether at the level of functioning institution variety. Alternatively, consider the breadth of business and services offered by banks. Alternatively, it might be at the level of technical processes used in its operations, or at the level of quality and service offered to consumers. The banking sector's role in the Jordanian economy has also grown. In 2020, GDP at market prices climbed to 89 percent. In 2021, it increased to 89 percent (Al-Sukkar, 2005).
Taxation is a broad term that encompasses a variety of ideas. These definitions have developed through time, and tax is typically seen to be an obligatory private sector deduction to help the government. To a modern notion that I define as a legal obligation owed to a private sector organization. To supply the state's treasury with the cash required for different development initiatives (Lake, 2010). There is a distinction between old and modern notions, notwithstanding their compatibility. The aim of the tax was shortened as state assistance in the first notion, whereas the second concept was fair to the state. He established tax collecting goals. These are development objectives (Balint, 2016).
The tax may already be characterized as a form of financial return in which governments impose obligatory amounts of money on taxpayers free of charge in order to accomplish social justice and development initiatives. With decision-making authority delegated to management by shareholders, management can take advantage of both the flexibility and ambiguity of accounting standards, resulting in a variety of accounting options for the company, and managers may have a strong incentive to choose accounting methods and alternatives that maximize their personal benefit through the so-called profit management practice. The Agency's idea of probable conflicts of interest, which result in the administration maximizing its advantage at the expense of other stakeholders, exemplified this (Hall & Lerner, 2010).
To forecast earnings, look at the profitability of the business. As a result, the ideas of profitability and profitability are intertwined, with one assisting in the estimation of the other's worth. This explains why company executives are so concerned with raising profits, as earnings are the most significant indicator of the facility's added value. In reality, there has been a profit exercise to see if Jordanian commercial banks are growing earnings, and the research will look at how rising profits influence banks (Abdo & Al-Qudah, 2021).
Commercial banks are currently focusing heavily on their financial sustainability, which entails maintaining the bank's resources, assets, and funds, which are one of society's resources in general and in the long run, because the concept of corporate sustainability has become necessary, and because the company's long-term survival and continuity is no longer solely dependent on its profitability. Through sustainability reports and financial reports, economic and governance indicators that help to decision-making and strategic planning are provided (Abdo & Al-Qudah2021). It has been discovered that the Jordanian banking sector faces some challenges, the most significant of which is the increase in and high tax rates on commercial bank profits, which has had a number of negative consequences, including low profit distribution to investors, which has led to the flight of analyst investors and foreigners to other sectors and countries that have attracted them. As a result, there was a rise in poverty, unemployment, and inability to pay, as well as a stumbling block. Where it impacts the existence of negative habits in society, and the impact of high tax rates on commercial bank performance in terms of increased profitability and incapacity to keep up with other sectors of labor, and there are several issues left by Jordanian commercial banks' high tax rates (Srairi, 2010).
The phrase "financial sustainability" was coined after the notion of "sustainable development," and it is one of the more recent concepts. According to economic unity theory, it is a study of how Unity works and how to regulate internal and external variables so that it may be sustained and successfully enhance wealth and resources (Wanner, 2015). When reviewing output, yearly production objectives or targets for quality improvement or cost reduction are a reasonable beginning point. Performance audits are done according to professional standards and principles of control, which provide the foundation for forming a regulatory opinion on tax hikes. It is feasible to gather criteria and benchmarks from objectives and indicators to build a fairly consistent framework of reference for evaluating the efficacy of a policy initiative. The demand for performance audits and new executive directives within international standards of sais is growing in order to address regulatory elements of relevance to corporations and banks, as well as to compare the real effect of operations to the target impact. Unlike compliance control, the performance auditor must verify not only whether the programs have been implemented according to plan, but also whether goals have been met and standards and indicators have been applied (Abdo & Al-Qudah, 2021).
Methodology is a way for arranging a variety of different and meaningful thoughts in order to discover the truth about this phenomenon (Anderson & Poole, 2019). In contrast to the descriptive and inferential approaches used in the study to determine the impact of higher taxes on the profits of commercial banks listed on the ASE, this approach is based on a precise and detailed interpretation of the problem by identifying its circumstances, components, and dimensions, characterizing relationships between them, and analyzing the results. Comprehensively. Its purpose is to share the facts or knowledge that has been gathered, as well as to aid in the reasonable prediction of the phenomenon's future and the provision of solutions and suggestions to address it (Sekaran & Bougie, 2020). The study community consisted of the 339 employees of the Internal Audit Department, the Compliance and Risk Department and the Credit Portfolio Department (339) within the General Administration of Jordan Commercial Banks listed on the ASE and (13) banks, and after identifying the study community, an electronic questionnaire was published through Google form in random sample style (Kumar, Ranjit, 2019), and after 21 days (210) questionnaires were answered all valid for statistical analysis purposes, and are represented by the study community according to the sample table developed by Sekaran and Bougie (2020).
Stability of the Study Tool
Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was relied upon to measure the stability of internal consistency of the study paragraphs and its results are shown in Table 1.
|Table 1 Cronbach Alpha Coefficient Value for Resolution Paragraphs|
The cronbach Alpha value for study tool paragraphs varied from (82.6 percent -89.3 percent) to 89.3 percent, as shown in Table 1. With a consistent 95.5 percent score) For all paragraphs, Sekaran & Bougie, 2020) have stated that the minimum stability factor (Cronbach Alpha) is (0.70), and that the closer the value is to (1) one or 100 percent, the higher the study tool's stability scores, so all internal consistency factors in the above table are an excellent indicator of the study tool's stability and reliability in statistical analysis.
Natural Distribution Test
Skewness has been extracted and this test is used to measure distribution symmetry, and the value outside the ±1 range indicates that the distribution is significantly skewed, and kurtosis is extracted, and the distribution is normal if the overspending value does not exceed ±1.96 (at 0.05) (Cooper & Schindler, 2014).
Based on the test data shown in Table 2, it is clear that the distribution of data was normal, as Skewness values did not fall outside the scope of ± 1) and Kurtosis (± 1.96) did not exceed the level (0.05).
|Table 2 Skewness & Kurtosis Natural Data Distribution|
Descriptive Statistics of the Paragraphs of the Study Tool
Calculation averages, standard deviations, rank, relative weight and approval score were calculated to determine the opinions of the sample members towards the study variables, and the relative approval score was determined according to the following equation: class length = upper alternative limit - minimum alternative/number of levels = 5-1/3 = 1.33 if the computational average falls between (1-2.33) is considered to be within the low level, If they range from (2.34-3.66) to the average level, and if they exceed (3.66) it is considered to be at a high level (Subedi, 2016). The results of the descriptive analysis of the study variables were as follows:
Description of the responses of the study sample members towards (high tax rates on the profits and capital of commercial banks). Table 3 shows the arithmetic average, standard deviation, relative weight, degree of approval and rank of the respondents' answers to (high tax rates on the profits and capital of Jordanian commercial banks) which were measured based on (8) paragraphs.
|Table 3 Arithmetic Average, Standard Deviation, Rank, Relative Weight and Degree of Approval for the First Hypothesis Paragraphs|
|P No.||Paragraph||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||Weight%||Agreement degree||Rank|
|1||The high and increased tax rate on profits does not affect commercial banks and their capital||1.92||0.625||38.4||Low||5|
|2||High tax rates do not reduce the profit rate of Jordanian commercial banks||1.95||0.679||39||Low||4|
|3||High tax rates have no negative impact on increasing commercial bank profits||1.86||0.591||37.2||Low||8|
|4||Profits fall sharply and urgently if tax rates increase||2||0.645||40||Low||1|
|5||High tax rates do not contribute to the value-added reduction of commercial banks||1.86||0.522||37.2||Low||7|
|6||High tax rates on commercial bank profits do not affect the value of the bank's stock||1.97||0.565||39.4||Low||3|
|7||High tax rates do not distort the information and data issued by the Bank to its users in the event of a tax increase||1.98||0.562||39.6||Low||2|
|8||High tax rates do not lead to a decrease in the capital adequacy ratio of the banking sector, resulting in lower profits||1.9||0.503||38||Low||6|
Table 3 notes that the overall index achieved a mathematical average (1.93), with a standard deviation of (0.396), indicating that the trends of the study sample members are negative towards (high tax rates on the profits and capital of Jordanian commercial banks) that came within the low level. Paragraph (4), which states that "profits fall sharply and urgently in the event of an increase in tax rates", achieved first place with a mathematical average (2), a standard deviation (0.645) and a low score, while paragraph (3) achieved the last place, which states that "high tax rates have no negative impact on increasing the profit rates of commercial banks" with an average account (1.86) and a standard deviation (0.591) and a low score.
Description of the responses of the study sample members towards (high tax rates to attract domestic and foreign investors). Table 4 shows the arithmetic middle, standard deviation, relative weight, degree of approval and rank of the respondents' answers to (high tax rates on attracting domestic and foreign investors) which were measured based on (8) paragraph.
|Table 4 Arithmetic Average, Standard Deviation, Rank, Relative weight and Degree of Approval for Second Hypothesis Paragraphs|
|P No.||Paragraph||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||Weight%||Agreement degree||Rank|
|1||High tax rates attract domestic and foreign investors to invest in Jordanian commercial banks||1.87||0.543||37.4||Low||4|
|2||High tax rates do not affect the reduction in the profit rate provided to investors||2.12||0.652||42.4||Low||1|
|3||High tax rates do not contribute to the flight of domestic and foreign investors from the Jordanian banking sector||1.66||0.638||33.2||Low||5|
|4||Higher tax rates are not low per share of profits.||1.54||0.627||30.8||Low||7|
|5||High tax rates do not affect increased bank business risk||1.5||0.597||30||Low||8|
|6||Increased tax rates do not affect the reduction in the proportion of capital invested in it||1.63||0.66||32.6||Low||6|
|7||Reduced tax credits for individuals and investors do not displace them||1.95||0.65||39||Low||2|
|8||Amending the Bank Profits Tax Act does not affect individuals and the national economy||1.91||0.541||38.2||Low||3|
Table 4 notes that the overall index achieved a mathematical average (1.77), with a standard deviation of (0.433), indicating that the trends of the study sample members are negative towards (high tax rates to attract analyst and foreign investors) which came within the low level. Paragraph (2), which states that "high tax rates do not affect the reduction of the profit rate provided to investors" achieved first place with an average account (2.12), a standard deviation (0.652) and a low score, while paragraph (5) achieved the last place, which states that "high tax rates do not affect increased bank business risk" with an average account (1.50) and a standard deviation (0.597) and a low score.
Description of the responses of the study sample members towards (increasing taxes on society).
Table 5 notes that the overall index achieved a mathematical average (1.85), with a standard deviation of (0.488), indicating that the trends of the study sample members were negative towards (increased taxes on society) which came within the low level. Paragraph 6, which states that "the decline in the movement of markets, banks and borrowing is not the result of higher tax rates" achieved first place with an average account (1.96), a standard deviation (0.677) and a low degree, while Paragraph (2) ranked last, which states that "the rise and increase in bank tax rates does not significantly affect the decline in disposable income of individuals" with an average account (1.75), a standard deviation (0.638) and a low score.
|Table 5 Arithmetic Average, Standard Deviation, Rank, Relative Weight and Degree of Approval for the Third Hypothesis Paragraphs|
|P No.||Paragraph||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||Weight%||Agreement degree||Rank|
|1||High tax rates clearly have no negative impact on society and individuals||1.78||0.679||35.6||Low||6|
|2||Higher and higher bank tax rates do not significantly affect the decline in disposable income for individuals||1.75||0.638||35||Low||8|
|3||Higher tax rates do not increase borrowing interest rates and do not increase financing costs||1.78||0.636||35.6||Low||7|
|4||The loss and migration of competencies has nothing to do with the high tax burden.||1.92||0.655||38.4||Low||3|
|5||High tax rates do not reduce the ability to create jobs and increase unemployment||1.85||0.623||37||Low||5|
|6||The decline in the movement of markets, banks and borrowing is not the result of high tax rates||1.96||0.677||39.2||Low||1|
|7||High tax rates do not lead to a decline in consumer activity for individuals||1.92||0.64||38.4||Low||2|
|8||The increase does not contribute to higher tax rates on the quality of the banking work provided||1.89||0.639||37.8||Low||4|
Description of the responses of the survey sample members towards (high tax rates on the profits and performance of commercial banks). Table 6 shows the arithmetic middle, standard deviation, relative weight, degree of approval and rank of the respondents' answers to (high tax rates on the profits and performance of commercial banks) which were measured based on (7) paragraphs.
|Table 6 Arithmetic Average, Standard Deviation, Rank, Relative Weight and Degree of Approval for the Paragraphs of the Fourth Hypothesis|
|P No.||Paragraph||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||Weight%||Agreement degree||Rank|
|1||High tax rates help efficiently perform commercial banks||2.13||0.69||42.6||Low||2|
|2||Raising tax rates favors commercial banks in neighboring countries.||2.16||0.651||43.2||Low||1|
|3||High tax rates do not reduce the volume of rounded profits, which in turn is an obstacle to strengthening its capital bases||2.06||0.631||41.2||Low||4|
|4||High tax rates do not limit banks' ability to keep pace with developments and sustainable development with the regional banking sector||2.11||0.628||42.2||Low||3|
|5||High tax rates do not adversely affect the banking system's ability to take risks as a result of the trend of banks lending with higher returns||1.97||0.594||39.4||Low||5|
|6||High tax rates do not have a negative impact on the safety and durability of the Jordanian banking system||1.92||0.652||38.4||Low||6|
|7||High tax rates do not limit the Bank's ability to expand domestically and abroad||1.91||0.759||38.2||Low||7|
Table 6 notes that the overall index achieved a mathematical average (2.04), with a standard deviation of (0.501), indicating that the trends of the study sample members are negative towards (tax rates on commercial banks' profits and performance) that are at a low level. Paragraph (2), which states that "raising tax rates favours commercial banks' business activities in neighbouring countries", ranked first with an average account (2.16) and a standard deviation (0.651) and a low score, while Paragraph (7) ranked last, which states that "high tax rates do not limit the Bank's ability to expand domestically and abroad" with an average account (1.91), a standard deviation (0.759) and a low score.
Description of the responses of the study sample members towards (high tax rates on the bank's financial sustainability). Table 7 shows the arithmetic middle, standard deviation, relative weight, degree of approval and rank of the respondents' answers to (high tax rates on the bank's financial sustainability) measured based on (7) paragraphs.
|Table 7 Arithmetic Average, Standard Deviation, Rank, Relative Weight and Degree of Approval for the fifth Hypothesis Paragraphs|
|P No.||Paragraph||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||Weight%||Agreement degree||Rank|
|1||High tax rates on bank profits are not an indicator of their financial sustainability||1.99||0.685||39.8||Low||2|
|2||High tax rates in commercial banks boost investor confidence in investment, attract funds and financial sustainability||1.85||0.646||37||Low||6|
|3||Tax increases on commercial bank profits do not affect appropriate decisions that limit financial sustainability||1.84||0.651||36.8||Low||7|
|4||High tax rates do not affect the bank's overall performance and financial sustainability||2.01||0.66||40.2||Low||1|
|5||Increased taxes on bank profits do not affect increased risk of investment decisions and financial sustainability||1.89||0.608||37.8||Low||5|
|6||There are no measures to financially sustain banks if taxes on commercial bank profits are increased||1.9||0.595||38||Low||3|
|7||No disclosure of financial sustainability in the event of increased taxes on financial statements||1.89||0.564||37.8||Low||4|
Table 7 notes that the overall index achieved a mathematical average (1.91), with a standard deviation of (0.492), indicating that the trends of the study sample members are negative towards (the bank's financial sustainability tax rates) which were at the low level. Paragraph 4, which states that "high tax rates do not affect the bank's overall performance and financial sustainability", ranked first with an average account (2.01), a standard deviation (0.660) and a low score, while the paragraph achieved (3) The last place, which states that "tax increases on the profits of commercial banks do not affect appropriate decisions that limit financial sustainability" with an average account (1.84), a standard deviation (0.651) and a low degree.
Findings of the study hypotheses test. This part of the study aims to test the theories of the study, which were tested (One Sample T-Test) and the results were as shown in Table 8.
|Table 8 T-Test Results for Study Hypothyroid|
|Hypotheses||T calculated||T tabulated||T SIG||DF||HO|
Table 8 represents the results of the statistical test of the study hypothics and the results were as follows:
Findings of the first hypothesis: A statistically significant effect was shown at the level (0.05≥α) of higher tax rates on commercial bank profits with a value allowance (Sig=0.00) which is less than (0.05) Also, through the calculated and equal value (T) (39.178-) which is greater than its scheduled and equal value (1.96-) the negative value indicates that the opposite trend between high tax rates and the profits of commercial banks.
Findings of the second hypothesis: A statistically significant effect at the level (0.05≥α) of higher tax rates has been shown to attract domestic and foreign investors with a value allowance (Sig=0.00) which is less than (0.05) Also, through the calculated and equal value (T) (41.076-) which is greater than its scheduled and equal value (1.96-) the negative value indicates that the opposite trend between high tax rates and attracting domestic and foreign investors.
Findings of the third hypothesis: a statistically significant effect has been shown at the level (0.05≥α) of increasing taxes on society with a value allowance (Sig=0.00), which is less than (0.05) and also through the calculated and equal value (T) (33.992-) which is greater than its scheduled and equal value (1.96-) and the negative value indicates that the trend is reversible between tax increases and society.
Findings of the fourth hypothesis: A statistically significant effect was shown at the level (0.05≥α) of higher tax rates on the profits and performance of commercial banks with a value allowance (Sig=0.00) which is less than (0.05) Also, through the calculated and equal value (T) (27,809-) which is greater than its scheduled and equal value (1.96-) the negative value indicates that the opposite trend between high tax rates and current bank profits and performance.
Findings of the fifth hypothesis: A statistically significant effect has been shown at the level (0.05≥α) of higher tax rates on the financial sustainability of banks with a value allowance (Sig =0.00) which is less than (0.05) Also, through the calculated and equal value (T) (32,099-) which is greater than its scheduled and equal value (1.96-) the negative value indicates that the opposite trend between high tax rates and the financial sustainability of commercial banks.
Previous studies disagreed on the extent to which the criteria for the impact of increasing taxes on Jordanian commercial banks' earnings and the financial sustainability mentioned on the ASE might be abused, according to the research. International accounting standards are being implemented. This necessitates the use of a complete tax assessment technique in conjunction with the obligation method. This enables the use of accounting judgment’s and estimates to determine the degree of certainty with which the impact of increasing taxes on Jordanian commercial bank earnings and financial sustainability is reflected. There have also been a variety of viewpoints on the benefits and drawbacks of boosting taxes on banks’ profits, as well as its long-term viability.
Recommend the following Based on the results of our theoretical study
1. Researchers propose that training courses be established in order to immediately integrate financial and accounting personnel with the taxation system. Such that these courses increase the efficiency and understanding of cadres involved in tax matters
2. Escorting amendments required for the development of financial and accounting legalizations by staying up to date on all new changes in tax laws and their applications in businesses is a foreordained card with every update legalization and understanding of the mechanism for dealing with such legalizations.
3. Follow-up on the taxation system, including the direct connection of modifications and tax legalizations to the accounting system used in facilities, as well as training of cadre on how to deal with it.
4. The researcher additionally suggests that training programs and scientific symposia be established to aid in the development of financial and accounting cadre facilities that file tax returns.
5. The integration of taxation legalizations and modifications with a computerized taxation accounting system allows for a greater number of people to be covered by tax declarations and a wider range of services to be submitted by tax.
6. The adoption of a computerized taxation accounting system enables for more exact tax information to be obtained, which has a beneficial impact on facilities associated with tax departments.