Case Reports: 2019 Vol: 25 Issue: 2
Zulkifli, Unissula - Sultan Agung Islamic University
Sri Wahyuni Ratnasari- Unissula - Sultan Agung Islamic University
Arini Novandalina- Unissula - Sultan Agung Islamic University
Derita Perhatian- Unissula - Sultan Agung Islamic University
This study aims to determine the level of confidence of Gayo students overseas in solving their study problems, which will improve the quality of science, with the hope that Gayo Students can improve academic performance. The sample in this study, referring to the opinion (Hair, Joseph et al. 1992) the number of samples is an indicator multiplied by 5 to 10 or a minimum of 100 respondents. This study has 11 (Eleven) indicators multiplied by 10 respondents in this study as many as 110 respondents. Data collection in this study uses online questionnaires (Google Form) which will later be disseminated to gayo student communities to be carried out to fill the coensioner. the results of this study indicate that the higher a person's self-confidence will be able to improve his academic performance, then the good quality of knowledge derived from high self-confidence will be able to improve academic achievement.
Self Effecacy, Quality of Knowledge, Academic Achievement Students.
Merantau is one of the social activities in Indonesian society. Where the tradition of wandering has become part of a lifestyle that has been carried out for years (Salim, 2015) defines wandering as going from one region to another, which is done individually to find wealth, knowledge, skills to return to the area of origin. The essence of migrating is a process that is better than before. Wandering is often done by young people with reasons for education and looking for work.
One of the strongest reasons that underlie migrants and young women is to take education outside their home areas and leave their home villages to improve the quality of life for the better. And this is often found in various regions, especially the Gayo area. The problem of education which is still a fundamental problem is the low quality of education in the quality order in the Gayo area. And the limited educational facilities such as the infrastructure of teaching staff and the number of universities that are still lacking in the Gayo area. A number of Penomena is what drives students, especially young men and women from Gayo to take education outside the region, so the choice to migrate one is to improve knowledge and become a necessity that must be taken so that young men and women are not out of date.
New students, most of whom are fresh graduates (fresh graduates), grow and are accustomed to high school academic culture. When entering the world of lectures or in college, as new students, individuals certainly do not know the system and the learning process, and know the facilities and infrastructure used to support the teaching and learning process at the college. And especially for migrant students from Gayo, in addition to language barriers, ways of learning that seem far different and lag behind in the big city area are the places for the learning process of migrant Gayo students. Most of them are in several cities in Java, North Sumatra and Banda Aceh City. During the process of education, students are given special attention, especially Gayo nomads will continue to improve self-maturity, self-adjustment and self-acceptance to achieve the desired success of each individual. Most students of Gayo nomads are faced with various changes and differences in various aspects of life that exist in the surrounding environment. Gayo students must be more willing to learn to adapt so they can adapt to the new environment (big city environment). One of them is when entering college, of course there are very many changes experienced by migrant students, especially from Gayo, such as lifestyle, social interaction, demands to live independently and have a sense of responsibility for the actions to be taken.
In addition to adjusting to the environment of overseas students, especially from Gayo, they must also adjust themselves well, especially in the academic field. Overseas students who have good adaptation in the academic field will be able to overcome various kinds of conflicts or problems in academics so that they can achieve high academic achievement. This is in line with the results of the study (Stajkovic, et al., 2018); (Hutomo, 2017); (Rustanto, 2016); (Arifin, et al., 2016); (Karthigeyan & Nirmala 2016) show that there is a positive relationship between academic self-improvement and academic achievement. The higher the adjustment of overseas students, the higher academic achievement will be.
Next to the results of the Migdadi, et al. (2018) argue that the quality of knowledge comes from internal and external sources. So that it is expected that the quality of knowledge sourced from internal and external can improve achievement. The quality of knowledge originating from internal, external reflects the support of the environment and teaching staff, who are able to influence the level of academic achievement of students. This is in line with the research results of Warsito (2012) explaining that the teaching staff and student environment in the form of extracurricular activities can affect student academic achievement. Previous research conducted by Zubielqui, et al. (2018) shows that the transfer of knowledge from the external does not affect the quality of knowledge. The results of Dunbar's research, Dingel et al. (2018) showed that self efficacy had a positive effect on leadership achievement, but did not affect the performance of participants' followers. Based on this explanation, this study will contribute to fill the gap gap that was made by previous researchers.
Theoretical Framework and Development of Hypotheses
Self-Efficacy with Knowledge Quality and academic achievement
The view of the concept or theory of self efficacy developed by (Maddux, 1995) explains that self-efficacy is the relationship between personal competence, environmental adabtation and psychological maturity. Which aims to improve the quality of decisions, one's readiness to deal with problems and readiness to face challenges. Then research on self efficacy continues to grow in everyday life. According to Rustanto (2016) self efficacy is an individual subjective belief to be able to overcome individual problems, and be able to take actions to overcome them in order to achieve certain goals. The explanation illustrates that the thing that needs to be possessed by overseas students, especially Gayo students, is readiness and confidence in preparing assignments, which will improve the quality of decisions and readiness in dealing with problems overseas.
Research developed on self efficacy has been carried out. The study conducted by Rustanto (2016) formulated the self efficacy indicator consisting of the first Magnitude, namely the level of sensitivity to the task, Strength, that is individual belief and Generality of confidence in ability. Brown et al. (2016) added an indicator to measure self efficacy can be in the form of a person's belief in completing a task. Added by Vogel & Human-Vogel (2016) indicators of graduation in completing assignments, graduation scores, having formulas in answering questions, writing summaries of lessons, semester passing grades, preparation before conducting the learning process and completing assignments on time. Furthermore, according to Warsito (2012); The self efficacy indicator consists of resistance, internal control orientation and goal orientation.
According to Arifin, et al. (2016) academic achievement is the achievement of the results that have been done obtained through the learning process in a certain period of time, which is used as a measurement of achievement. Added by Karthigeyan & Nirmala (2016) academic achievement is the result of the achievement of a learning process. Karthigeyan & Nirmala (2016) explain the indicators that can be used to measure academic achievement are the results of academic achievement, personality attitudes in the academic process and achievement of external activities. Added by Cadoret, et al. (2018) that academic achievement can be seen from the ability to read situations and the ability to calculate situations. Based on this explanation, it can be concluded that self efficacy is in the form of individual readiness in completing the educational process based on strong beliefs, and having a vision and mission for the future. Will be able to influence academic performance, both academic achievement from values and social intraction. So that the hypothesis can be formulated in this research is.
Resource-based assets are intangible assets. According to (Barney 1991) the challenge in organizations is to maintain competitive advantage in a competitive manner. Add (Hunt & Morgan 1995) added that competitively competitive advantage consists of two micro and macro parts, micro consists of finance and performance, while the macro consists of quality, efficiency and innovation. According to (Srivastava, et al., 2001) Market-based intellectual assets can be seen from knowledge of internal and external, individual skills, intraorganizational relationships and the ability to process.
According to (Migdadi, et al., 2018) the quality of knowledge is divided into the first two parts of the quality of knowledge originating from the second personal quality of knowledge originating from the life process. Added by (Li, et al., 2012) the quality of knowledge is knowledge that can increase innovation and creativity that can benefit many people. Subsequent research conducted by (Widodo, et al., 2015) quality knowledge can be done by improving the quality of intrinsic knowledge, the quality of contextual knowledge and improving the quality of knowledge dynamically. Li's research, Tarafdar et al. (2012); Migdadi, et al. (2018) describes the indicators of the quality of knowledge consisting of intrinsic, representation, accessibility and contextual.
Furthermore, according to Vogel & Human (2016) explaining self afficacy is a person's belief in the learning process in solving obstacles faced. Furthermore, according to Maheswari & Ruban (2018) academic achievement is an adjustment process with an environment influenced by ability, talent and intelligence. Departing from this explanation, it can be concluded that the higher a person's beliefs in completing his task, it will improve the quality of one's knowledge. Thus academic achievement will also increase.
H1: The higher the Gayo Self Efficacy Gayo students, the better the academic achievement.
H2: The higher the self-efficacy of Gayo students who migrate the higher the quality of knowledge
H3: The quality of knowledge mediates self-efficacy towards achievement Gayo academic students who
Departing from the concept of research, and a comprehensive literature review, the measurement of variables used in this study can be formulated. Self effecaci is a process to convince yourself in achieving dreams, which will ultimately have a positive impact on one's future, measurement of this variable refers to opinions (Warsito, 2012); (Rustanto, 2016); (Brown, et al., 2016); (Vogel & Human 2016). quality of knowledge is knowledge that comes from internal and external sources to improve skills and knowledge, for gauges to refer to opinions (Widodo, 2011); (Li, et al., 2012; Migdadi, et al., 2018). Furthermore, student achievement is the achievement obtained from the education process, both formal and non-formal learning, for the estimator to refer to opinions (Karthigeyan & Nirmala 2016); (Cadoret, et al., 2018). Measurement of variables can be seen in Table 1.
|Table 1 Measurement Research|
|1. Confidence in completing tasks||111||1||10||7.45||2.935||-1.174||0.230|
|2. Self-confidence in ability||111||1||10||7.74||2.674||-1.345||0.230|
|3. Prepare yourself.||111||1||10||7.46||2.485||-1.126||0.230|
|4. Destination orientation||111||1||10||7.81||2.496||-1.387||0.230|
|Quality of knowledge|
|1. Academic Outcomes||111||1||10||7.53||2.592||-1.363||0.230|
|2. Personality attitude||111||1||10||8.24||2.141||-1.850||0.230|
|3. External activities||111||1||10||7.18||2.128||-1.028||0.230|
The role of self efficacy in improving the quality of knowledge and academic achievement of Gayo students is reflected in the measurements used in each variable. Of all the indicators used in this study show that the respondent's response to all the above indicators, 7.00 is also the standard error of all indicators of less than 0.5, so it can be concluded that the indicators in this study are feasible to use, in measuring student achievement.
The population in this study were all Gayo students who took higher education abroad consisting of students who studied in Aceh Province, North Sumatra Province, West Sumatra Province, and Java Island. Determination of the number of samples in this study. referring to opinions (Hair et al., 1992) the number of samples is an indicator multiplied by 5 to 10 or a minimum of 100 respondents. This study has 11 (Eleven) indicators multiplied by 10 respondents in this study as many as 110 respondents. Data collection in this study uses questionnaires which are distributed online (Google Form). Data analysis using regression test. Respondents who participated included 63% of women and 37% of men.
Model testing carried out in this study consisted of the coefficient test terminated (R2), F test (simultaneous hypothesis test) and t test (Hypothesis test). Regression analysis is one of the methods used to articulate the results of a study (Hayes et al., 2017). In this study the hypothesis testing that has been proposed can be seen in Table 2.
|Table 2 Hasil Uji Regresi|
|Analysis Model||R2||Uji F||Uji t||Ket|
|Self efficacy à the quality of knowledge||0.592||159,254||0.000||0.772||0.619||0.000||Suport|
|Self-efficacyà Student Achievement||0.344||58,126||0.000||0.592||0.363||0.000||Suport|
|Quality of knowledge à Student Achievement||0.659||211,421||0.000||0.814||0.622||0.000||Suport|
The regression calculation results can be seen that the coefficient of determination (adjusted R2) obtained from the first regression test is 0.592, the second is 0.344 and the third is 0.659. This means that 59.2% of the variation in self-efficacy variables can be explained by the variable quality of knowledge, then 34.4% variation in the variable self-efficacy can be explained by variable academic achievement, and 65.9% variation in the variable quality of knowledge can be explained by variables academic achievement. While the rest is explained by other variables not submitted in this study. Testing the effect of independent variables together on the dependent variable is done using the F test. The results of statistical calculations show the value of the first test F count of=2159.254. The second test of F Calculate is=58.126 and the third test is=211.421. The results are larger than F table. Furthermore, the results of this analysis also show significant results of 0,000, then the significance value obtained is less than 0.05. Then it can be concluded that these results indicate that simultaneously the independent variable has an influence on the dependent variable. Furthermore, testing the effect of independent variables together on the dependent variable is done using the second F test. The results of statistical calculations show the value of F count=2427,131. This result is greater than F table, then the significant results are 0,000, then the significance value is smaller than 0.05 which has been determined, this result means that the independent variables simultaneously have an influence on performance. Test the hypothesis in the study tested the truth by using a partial test. Testing is done by looking at the significance level (p value) and comparing the significance level generated from the calculation with a value of α 0.05. If the significance value is smaller than the value of α 0.05 then the hypothesis is accepted, conversely if the significance level is greater than 0.05 then the hypothesis is rejected. Mediation test refers to opinion (Hayes, et al., 2017) seen from the value of beta, the results of the analysis of beta self efficacy on academic achievement is directly equal to, 592, while the quality of knowledge on academic achievement is 0.814, meaning the regression results indicate that self efecacy through the quality of knowledge on academic achievement is higher than directly, it illustrates that there is a mediating effect.
The results of the study about the effect of self efficacy on the quality of knowledge and academic achievement of overseas students. Can be described from the results of the analysis above, all three hypotheses proposed in this study are acceptable. First hypothesis The higher the Gayo Self Efficacy of students who migrate, the better their academic achievement. The results of this study indicate that the first hypothesis is accepted, it illustrates that overseas students who have great confidence in their achievement, will be able to improve their achievements, where students who migrate tend to burden to achieve high academic success, because there is a moral burden and social burden that every student wander must succeed. One that can be measured from the success of overseas students is their academic achievement, where academic value is a reflection of the success of the learning process (Karthigeyan & Nirmala 2016). The second hypothesis The higher the Gayo student self-efficacy that migrates, the higher the quality of knowledge. the results of the second hypothesis are accepted, the quality of knowledge is divided into the first two parts of the quality of knowledge originating from the second person the quality of knowledge originating from the life process (Migdadi et al., 2018) the quality of knowledge derived from learning processes can be increased through high confidence for overseas students. Because the essence of the teaching process is the cultivation of high self-confidence mentality and the development of good integrity, so that it will be able to improve the quality of knowledge. the quality of knowledge is reflected in the indicators of the quality of knowledge. The third hypothesis proposed in this study is the quality of knowledge mediates self-efficacy towards the academic achievements of Gayo Lues students who migrate. Based on the analysis that has been done that self-confidence will be able to improve academic achievement through the quality of knowledge. where students who have high confidence will be able to improve the quality of knowledge will further improve their academic performance.
The conclusions from the results of this study indicate that the higher a person's confidence will be able to improve his academic performance, then the good quality of knowledge derived from high self-confidence will be able to improve academic achievement.