Author(s): Bataeva Patimat Sultanovna,Gachaev Ahmed Magomedovich,Uspaeva Milana Gumkievna,Chaplaev Hussein Gelanievich
Aim of the study: For many countries, support for innovation is an important part of national policy, as in post-industrial society, innovations based on scientific discoveries and new technologies are actively creating new industries and markets, and the associated business remains one of the most profitable economic activities. The production of scientific and technological knowledge is a similar process, but there is a wide range of differences in how discoveries and inventions are transformed at the national level into innovation, that is, a product with high economic value added. It depends on the institutional environment that is formed for the work of technology companies due to both historically established prerequisites and naturally popular practices, and purposeful attempts to form new rules of social interaction. Methodology: In the early 2000s, for the first time in the history of modern Russia at the political level, the decision to form a holistic policy to support innovation was ripe. The Central theme within the "course on innovation" was the topic of assistance in the transition from research and development to doing business on the basis of this work, that is, the issue of support for the commercialization of innovation and technological entrepreneurship. This assistance could range from financial subsidies and tax incentives to changes in educational standards and the image of entrepreneurship, as well as the transfer of knowledge and skills. Conclusion: In General, state support for the commercialization of innovations was stimulated from the outside, on a top-down basis. For it to start working, it was necessary to create new rules of interaction, which could be guided by different groups involved in the processes universities, research institutes, state corporations, regional and city administrations. These rules were formed at two levels: formal through targeted, but insufficiently systematic actions of the state to develop a legislative framework to stimulate the commercialization of innovations, and informal through the spontaneous emergence of working practices within professional communities and public authorities involved in the creation of innovations and involved in their support. An additional uncertainty was that the key concept of the new agenda was the extremely General concept of "innovation", which could be interpreted in different ways.