Research Article: 2017 Vol: 20 Issue: 3
Aleksandra Kulagina, Kozma Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University (Minin University)
Viktor Trofimov, Kozma Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University (Minin University)
Mariya Shcherbakova, Kozma Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University (Minin University)
Svetlana Yakovleva, Kozma Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University (Minin University)
The present study presents and discusses the process of creating a "Pedagogical Support Model for the formation of design-students creativity" based on general-theoretical approaches and specific concepts of enriching practice-oriented education, concentrated and frame approaches. The component connections of pedagogical support, including groups of pedagogical conditions, overall educational process subjects functions are discussed, result prediction of teacher's activity in design-students creativity formation process optimization are made.
Pedagogical Support, Creativity Formation, Design Students, Educational Process.
Changed situation of the domestic education dictates new requirements for the content and quality of students' education in higher educational institutions. Nowadays, it is insufficient any more for students to have only the necessary scope of special knowledge, the development of such personal abilities as creativity, creative potential and individuality becomes essential.
The need to address the problem of personality’s creative development is very important, as it allows to the specialist in our difficult time to engage in self-realization and self-improving, "to be the subject of his life". Currently, there has been observed some scarcity of experimental and theoretical developments on the subject of creativity and individual’s creative potential, nevertheless scientific research are actively conducted in Russia and abroad.
It is pretty obvious that in order to realize the goal of the creative development of a future specialist, it is necessary to create certain pedagogical conditions. The public practice request of solving this problem is essential and it concerns the development of a systematic approach to the formation of future designer’s creativity while his/her studying at the university. Therefore, the present study was aimed to present and discuss the process of creating a "Pedagogical Support Model for development and promotion of creativity in students studying designing. It is based on general-theoretical approaches and specific concepts of enriching practice-oriented education, concentrated and frame approaches.
Some researchers assume that the study of creativity should move in two directions: 1) When creative people are adapters and 2) when creative people are innovators. Adapters generate ideas within the context of the existing paradigm, improving the world around them. Innovators do everything in a new way, they break the established paradigms.
The problem of personal fulfilment is a hidden ability that can reveal itself under certain conditions. Often, while studying the problem of the development of creativity, researchers consider this as related problem. Given this, it is necessary to consider individual`s creative potential as a kind of reserve of ideas and hidden opportunities that can be realized under certain conditions.
Intensive formation and development of creative potential is carried out during education in a university of creative orientation, when students-designers receive a certain stock of professional knowledge, skills and abilities, develop creative abilities and self-define professionally. In the modern higher vocational education, the training of a specialist is focused, first of all, on the personality of the future designer.
Creativity in design is impossible without self-expression and an individual view of the solution of the problem; ability to detect set and solve problems. In design viability and usefulness of the created product or the proposed solution are important in the first place, not only their aesthetic characteristics (Aboimova &Trofimov, 2014).
The strategy for the development of Russian higher education is based on the training of highly competent specialists who can show creative abilities and mobilize personal qualities. A changing system of values in our society requires new methodological and conceptual justification of the pedagogical conditions for the competent development of future specialists.
The thesis about need for individual approach to the training of each individual specialist, which in its turn causes the development and approbation of pedagogical conditions for the development of creativity of the design student becomes up-to-day and timely. Excluding the mass character of modern educational technologies, we are talking about individual educational programs of university training.
Future specialist`s training in the university and the development of his/her creativity should be based on the system of pedagogical support, which includes such methods, forms, technologies that work harmoniously within the context of individual and group work with students.
Innovative processes in the educational institution can act in the form of a pedagogical support system based on personality-centred education, on the principles of humanistic pedagogy. Pedagogical support regards as a complex, systemic activity of all subjects of the educational process focused on the development of the future professional in the working field.
The concept proposed by Manuzina (2011), defines the system of university teacher`s professional activity as one that is aimed at actualizing the student's creativity in the design educational process through the creation of certain pedagogical conditions (Manuzina, 2011). American psychologist and teacher, specialist in the field of study of cognitive processes Bruner (1960) is an author of the concept, which was holding the leading methodological position of studying the problems of creativity in design students (Bruner, 1960).
The type of model, stages, principles and technologies of its construction are determined when modelling the pedagogical support system and also the specific features of the pedagogical support for the development of creativity among design students are described.
It is especially difficult to model social and pedagogical processes, since they are related to:
1. The multifactorial of socio-pedagogical phenomena and processes;
2. The presence of a subjective factor;
3. The conditions that determine socio-educational phenomena included qualitative features which are difficult to describe;
4. The maintenance of labour functions of the expert;
5. Knowledge, professional skills and skills of performing working practice.
When constructing models, rules, similarity or analogy, representation (substitution) and extrapolation (the possibility of distributing the obtained data to the object under study) should be observed.
Visual demonstration of the essence through models means the mental reproduction of certain phenomena that underwent considerable rework, transformation, were purificated from anything of minor importance or accidental, secondary, etc. (Shkil, 2013).
The proposed "Pedagogical support model for the design students creativity formation" consists of a number of important components. Pedagogy focuses on pedagogical support of the formation of students creativity, combines the self-realization of the teacher and his/her purposive participation in student`s change, in development of his/her creativity. This process, which is a specific process of cognition, must be managed by the teacher. This is the first feature of pedagogy-the teacher`s managerial role.
The second feature is characterized by the fact that students independently search for knowledge, skills and qualities, including situational, over-situational and creative activity (Novikov, 2010). On the one hand, students socialize entering into the professional environment and on the other hand, they actively realize their professional behavior. At the same time, the process of continuous professional self-development and self-improvement actively takes place (Sanzharevsky, 2013).
The third feature is that the teacher himself/herself also must constantly study. According to domestic scientists, the educational activity of students is always productive and innovative (Aboimova, Depsames, Serova, Shcherbakova & Yakovleva, 2016; Novikov, 2010; Shcherbakova, 2014). And their activity should be connected with the productive activity of the teacher (Novikov, 2010). Therefore, the constant self-development of the teacher is the following feature of pedagogy.
Self-development of a teacher is a significant process of personal and professional development, which contributes the formation of a certain style in professional activity, helps to understand student`s purpose essence in it in a reasonable way, helps to gain self-improvement and the formation of professionalism. The teacher of higher education should undergo programs of additional professional education, where modules that are focused on forming of teachers` creativity and their readiness for innovation can be introduced (Markova, 2014).
A set of pedagogical conditions, that is external circumstances and internal features of educational activity, ensure the integrity, purposefulness and effectiveness of pedagogical support for creativity formation of among design students. They include the following groups of conditions: Motivational, personnel, material and technical, content (information), scientific and methodological, regulatory and organizational, organizational.
According to this, the developed conditions are focused on forming of creative environment for the educational process. At the same time, the student`s entering to designer’s profession must be ensured through specialization classes-art school-bachelor's degree-master's degree-postgraduate education, that is, in the process of education levels. Creative teachers with a humanistic position and who own individual and group forms and methods of pedagogical support should be trained. Concentrated and frame construction of the educational process must be ensured. Functioning of the students' progress, monitoring system must be established, etc.
Pedagogical support is recommended to be implemented on the basis of the following principles of the organization of the educational process:
1. Meta-subjective integration of content;
2. Motivational and creative activity of students;
3. High level of project culture;
4. Creativity principle;
5. The principle of emotional creativity development (Novikov, 2010).
Thus, the model of pedagogical support of design students creativity formation, that is developed on the basis of general theoretical approaches and specific concepts of enriching practice-oriented learning, concentrated and frame approaches, allows to consider the interrelationships of the components of pedagogical support, including groups of pedagogical conditions, to determine the functions of subjects of a holistic educational process, to design complex of strategic tasks and to forecast activity results of teacher's ability to optimize the process of creativity formation among design students.
Aboimova, I.S., Depsames, L.P., Serova, O.V., Shcherbakova, M.V. & Yakovleva, S.I. (2016). Design education: Peculiarities of design students' creativity development. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(13), 6221-6225.