Research Article: 2019 Vol: 23 Issue: 2
Andrii P. Makarenko, Zaporizhzhya National University
Zoia M. Levchenko, Poltava State Agrarian Academy
Tetiana B. Priydak, Poltava State Agrarian Academy
Olha V. Leha, Poltava State Agrarian Academy
Liudmyla V. Yaloveha, Poltava State Agrarian Academy
A balanced system of indicators, which involves work on key performance indicators (KPIs) is an important tool for timely and qualitative information provision of different levels of governance. During the study of the specifics' usage of KPI by restaurant enterprises, the role of accounting and analytical support when working with the KPI has been determined; a list of KPIs, which are adapted to the needs of the network of roadside restaurants was formed; coding, which makes it possible to adjust the relationship between strategic goals and indicators, to bind the indicator to several strategic goals simultaneously, and also to use it in the future with the preservation of the history of previous communications, which allows to receive additional analytical information for the previous periods has been proposed; features of KPI revision and their values in conditions of unstable economy has been determined; the procedure for checking the presence of weak links in the information provision of the KPI calculation has been proposed. The use of the KPI system, which is adapted to the restaurant business, taking into account the proposed improvements in terms of the organizational and methodological approach, will provide the appropriate level of information support in the processes of strategic development management.
Key Performance Indicators, Accounting and Analytical System, Restaurant Enterprises, Strategies, Internal Management Reporting.
The current stage of the world economy’s development is closely linked to the dynamic processes of market transformations. In these processes the introduction of the latest technologies and modern approaches in the field of information management system can be seen very often. In accordance with modern principles of business management, information provision is intended to accompany management processes primarily of a strategic nature.
Implementation of any concept of strategic development requires a relevant information base, which puts new tasks and requirements in the formation of a system of accounting and analytical support. An analysis of the functioning of the system of accounting and analytical support at the enterprises of the restaurant industry allows us to conclude that it is extremely low focused on the development and adoption of strategic decisions that negatively affects the effective use of existing strategic management tools and actualizes research on the development of conceptual foundations of accounting and analytical support in management of strategic development at the enterprises in this sphere.
Highly estimating the contribution of scientists to the research of the organization of analytical work at the enterprise, we note, however, that the change in the scale and types of activities, forms of organization and conduct of business, requires further research in this area. In particular, the issue of the introduction of the regulated rules of analytics at the managerial level, which takes into account the peculiarities of business processes of the enterprise, remains undeveloped (Drobyazko, 2018).
Investigations of analytical work of enterprises allow stating that:
The conduct of analytics at enterprises went beyond analytical units (Akkermans & Van Oorschot, 2018).
The decentralized form of economic analysis in enterprises has led to an increase in the volume and speed of management information (Cooper et al. 2017);
The lack of rules for the formation and movement of analytical information, generated by different departments, often leads to decisions based on distorted or incomplete information (Drobyazko et al., 2019).
The increase in the number of indicators, and calculations does not always have a qualitative effect on the management processes (Hilorme et al., 2019);
Having the theoretical basis for calculating certain indicators, departmental employees (other than analytical ones) often do not take into account peculiarities of activity in a particular industry, as well as software peculiarities and the order of data generation and data receipt (Hu et al., 2017).
The provisions on analytical work should fulfill the following tasks: establishing a relationship between the enterprise strategy and the analytics that is conducted for information provision of managerial decisions (Honggowati et al., 2017); outlining the sources of information used for analytics; development and approvement the policy of access to the accounting and analytical data contained in the systems; outlining of the factors that may have an impact on the information, obtained from accounting and analytical systems (Xia et al., 2017); determination of the level of liability for errors in the data of accounting and analytical systems; definition of the degree of employees’ responsibility and their managers for providing incorrect accounting and analytical information (Hilorme et al., 2019).
Implementation of the above-mentioned tasks will give the opportunity to improve the quality of analytical information that is necessary for the adoption of management decisions aimed at achieving the strategic goals of the enterprise (Garbowski et al., 2019).
To achieve the set out goals and to implement the objectives, a set of general and special methods has been used: dialectical method of knowledge to clarify the concept of enterprise development; historical approach, methods of economic and statistical analysis, survey and compilation to analyze the dynamics of development and factors of restaurant industry's transformation; methods of systematic and structural analysis, induction and deduction, abstraction and analogy to show the relationship of accounting and analytical support and business development strategies of restaurant industry; methods of operational and strategic analysis to assess the possibility of adaptation to the needs of the industry's modern cost accounting systems; system approach; tabular method for the visual display of materials and schematic representation of a number of theoretical positions of work.
The key problem, faced by enterprises in managing income, is the adjustment of such accounting and analytical support that would be in line with the company's development strategy, that would be flexible enough in the context of changing the strategy for the development of the entire business or its individual areas, and which would provide control over the received income and would be economically justified from the point of investing in the construction of such accounting and analytical support.
Formation and implementation of the restaurant industry's strategy requires appropriate information support. An important tool for timely and qualitative information provision of different levels of governance is a balanced system of indicators, which involves work according to key performance indicators (KPIs).
The need for analysis of non-financial indicators, such as the level of satisfaction of customers and employees, the quality of service, is due to the fact that these non-financial indicators have a significant impact on the market value of the enterprise.
As a result of the analysis of the investigated restaurant enterprises' activity, the author identified a number of problems observed in the choice of KPI and the organization of accounting and analytical support for their calculation: when choosing a KPI, the existing possibilities of accounting and analytical support are not taken into account; there is no methodology for assessing the weak links of the accounting and analytical system to ensure the calculation of the selected indicators; there are no certain principles and methodology for calculating indicators, especially for non-financial indicators; KPI reporting is not timely, which greatly reduces the value of the information received; considerable time is required to calculate the KPI (no high-quality automation is needed).
The combination of these problems requires a more in-depth study of the role of accounting and analytical support in the work on key performance indicators.
The role of accounting and analytical support when working with KPI is in the methodological and informational support of their application, which is realized by developing a list of indicators, determining the methodology for their calculation, taking into account weak links in the accounting and analytical system, and systematically providing relevant accounting and analytical information at different levels of management.
The preparation of information for strategic management should be as automated as possible, especially when it comes to medium-sized and large restaurant enterprises with a complex organizational structure. Otherwise, the speed and quality of the information provided may not meet the dynamic needs of management. Such automation can be carried out on the basis of the accounting and analytical program in a separate module or in a special program if the technical capabilities of the existing software do not allow this.
When choosing between the two above-mentioned options, in the absence of technical constraints, the first option should be preferred, since any synchronization of directories and the transfer of the required accounting and analytical data for calculation of the KPI is due to the risk of error and requires additional control procedures.
First of all, it is necessary to form the basis of the strategic objectives of the enterprise, with an indication of the term of validity, weight and the ability to track the changes introduced for such strategic goals (Table 1).
|Table 1: Database Of Strategic Goals Of The Enterprise, Their Changes and Importance (Author's Development)|
|12/1/2017||0001||Introducing new dishes to the menu||1/1/2020-1/1/2021||7%||Active|
|12/1/2017||0002||Increase the marginality of the existing menu of dishes and purchased goods||1/1/2020-1/1/2021||7%||Changed (01.06.2019)|
|12/1/2018||0003||Promotion of sales of dishes and purchased goods||1/1/2020-1/1/2021||5%||Not working (01.06.2019)|
|6/1/2019||0002||Increase the marginality of the existing menu of dishes and purchased goods||1/1/2020-1/1/2021||10%||Active|
Based on Table 1, an enterprise obtains information that is accumulated in a particular system and is the basis for further alignment between strategic goals and the KPI.
The next step is the selection of KPIs that will enable them to assess the implementation of strategic goals estimation. KPI indicators are derived from strategic maps, contrary to the view that this system of indicators is simply an autonomous system of internal reporting. However, it should be noted that mainly in the development of KPI in enterprises overemphasized attention to financial results as a measure of success is made, while profits are a result of a complex of interrelated actions in the projection of employee development, customer satisfaction and business process improvement.
Let's consider the order of selection and cascading of the KPI on the example of the network of road restaurant restaurants "Ala minute" and "Pasta mia". To do this, we will select the first-level strategic objectives and conduct a cascading of indicators to the level of management of the middle level.
Among the strategic objectives of the first order, the following were selected: increase marginality of the existing menu of dishes and purchased goods (U1); income growth by promoting sales of dishes and purchased goods (U2); increase brand popularity (U3); increase of profitability of existing restaurants of restaurant industry (U4); reduction of losses of nonprofitable objects (U5); reduction of central office expenses (U6); staff qualification upgrading (U7); opening of restaurant facilities of the existing format (U8) a project; opening of restaurants of a new format (U9) a project.
The list of indicators can be improved in the process of work and in establishing the information support, necessary for the calculation of certain indicators. However, frequent changes in indicators for different levels of management should be avoided.
It is worth noting that for enterprises, that initiate the process of strategic management using KPIs that make it possible to assess such management, it is not necessary at first stages to use a set of indicators that are not clear to managers and which are difficult to calculate and can not be implemented promptly for tracking the dynamics of their change. According to the author, the expansion of the list of indicators, the use of more informative non-financial indicators should be implemented gradually, with the improvement of the information base and appropriate explanations of the order of the impact of units on such indicators.
An important stage in the development of KPIs for an enterprise is checking the presence of weak links in the accounting and analytical program and other databases, where the information that is needed to calculate the KPI that can affect the speed of obtaining information and its quality is accumulated.
The report on the definition of weak links in obtaining accounting and analytical information and data from other sources when working under the KPI has the image, presented in the Table 2.
|Table 2: Report On The Definition Of Weak Links In Obtaining Accounting And Analytical Information And Data From Other Sources When Working Under The Kpi (Author's Development)|
|Indicator||Needed information||The accounting is conducted in the accounting and analytical system||Whether the information has been accumulated before||Established principles of information accumulation||The date of the calculation of the KPI does not precede the date of receipt of the data|
|Average losses due to simple equipment-related breakdowns per unit, US $||Static breakdowns||No||Yes||Yes||No|
|Estimated costs||No||No||No||Needs clarification|
|Weak links in obtaining data: 1. There are no principles for calculating losses associated with equipment breakdown. 2. There was no accumulation of information on such losses in previous periods. 3. There is no responsible person for conducting such calculations. 4. It is impossible at this stage to assess the time required for such calculations. Recommendations: Replace the indicator by the time the information is accumulated in accordance with certain principles and rules.|
|Average monthly income of 1 institution, that took time promotion, US dollars.||The amount of income||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Established promotional term||No||Yes||Yes||No|
|Weak links in obtaining data: Absent.|
|Share of profit from outbound servicing in the total profit of existing establishments, %||The income of institutions||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Profit from outbound service||Partially||Partially||Yes||No|
|Weak links in obtaining data: 1. Lack of analytics in the accounting system: records of incomes from outbound services are kept, but costs are accounted without the distribution of expenses within the institution and expenses incurred during outbound service. 2. Manual calculation takes a lot of time. Recommendations: set up cost accounting and outbound financial results during outbound services.|
In the report on weak links in obtaining the information necessary for the calculation of indicators, experts involved in the development and implementation of KPI should evaluate the possibility of using each of these indicators. If the receipt of data for the calculation of the indicator is associated with a significant expenditure of time and / or resources and the expected benefits from its use do not exceed the cost, then this indicator should be replaced. In addition, the task of experts is to assess the possibility of accumulation of information in the accounting-analytical program or other databases (if the accounting of such information was not carried out earlier).
Among the indicators, selected to assess the achievement of strategic goals, it is recommended to give priority to those who at the time of implementation of the work in the KPI do not require additional developments in the accounting and analytical program for their calculation, and information for the calculation of which was grouped and accumulated in previous periods, that is, already established principles of its accumulation, grouping and usage. This approach will reduce the likelihood of obtaining data of high probability or data that requires a lot of time for preparation.
The formation of managerial reports in the sections above is very informative, since it is not only answers the question of which indicators have been achieved but also reflects on which units the strategic goal was not achieved or which units affected its implementation. In this case, depending on the level of management, you can get grouped information or cascade, detailed to the last level of the KPI.
Summarizing the above-mentioned information, we can conclude: the development of a KPI system that meets the strategic goals of the enterprise and its organizational structure, takes into account the possibility of obtaining relevant, relatively accurate data for their calculation, will allow them to be effectively used in the process of strategic management. Using the author's proposed approach to assessing weak links in obtaining information for the calculation of KPI will give us an opportunity to avoid a situation where the calculation of indicators requires unreasonably long time and there are no principles for selecting information, set for each indicator, and therefore the resulting value may be different, depending on the approach of the one, who selects information and makes a calculation.
Garbowski ?., Drobyazko S., Matveeva V., Kyiashko O., Dmytrovska V. (2019). Financial Accounting of E-Business Enterprises. Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal, 23, (Special Issue 2), 2019.
Hilorme, T., Zamazii, O., Judina, O., Korolenko, R. & Melnikova, Yu. (2019). Formation of risk mitigating strategies for the implementation of projects of energy saving technologies. Academy of Strategic Management Journal. 18(3).
Honggowati, S., Rahmawati, R., Aryani, Y.A., & Probohudono, A.N. (2017). Corporate governance and strategic management accounting disclosure. Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management, 1(1), 23-30.
Xia, D., Yu, Q., Gao, Q., & Cheng, G. (2017). Sustainable technology selection decision-making model for enterprise in supply chain: Based on a modified strategic balanced scorecard. Journal of cleaner production, 141, 1337-1348.