Research Article: 2019 Vol: 22 Issue: 2
Álvaro Cairrão, Escola Superior de Ciências Empresariais (IPVC), Portugal
António Cardoso, University Fernando Pessoa (UFP), Portugal
Jorge Figueiredo, Lusiada University, Portugal
Manuel Pereira, Portucalense University, Portugal
Pedro Rodrigues, Lusiada University, Portugal
Elizabeth Freitas, University Fernando Pessoa, Portugal
This study applies a methodology to recognize and analyse an authentizotic organization environment’s and its relationship with turnover intention, organizational commitment, job performance and satisfaction in an Angolan organizationa working as a medical supply repository. Based upon the available theory on which was reflected about the organizations’ area and the characteristics of authentizotic organizations, the problem of knowledge that was behind this research was-What is the importance of an authentizotic environment in an organization working as a medical supply repository and its relation with the intention of turnover, organizational commitment, professional performance and employees’ satisfaction? In order to understand an authentizotic environment organization we have used a scale with the following dimensions: commitment, performance, satisfaction and turnover intention. In academic perspective, this work contributes to a better understanding of the determinants of the authentizotic organizations management behaviour, and for the solidification of knowledge in the area. In a professional perspective, this work helps managers to operate more legitimate decisions from the perspective of creating value in organizations from the perspective of quality of authentizotic environment. Moreover, this pioneering study in Angola can contribute to the development of organizations in the area. The main objective of this research is to analyse the organization's authentizotic environment and its relation to turnover intention, organizational commitment, professional performance, employees’ satisfaction, and turnover intentions. The results pointed out that, generally speaking, the respondents are satisfied with the organization for which they work, at the same time that indicated that they are satisfied with the various dimensions of organizational climate.
Authentizotic, Satisfaction, Commitment, Performance, Turnover Intention.
Nowadays the world of organizations is exposed to a range of diverse inputs that influence its performance and its relationship within and outside the organization, and its surroundings (the external context of an organization that consists of a set of external influences impacting decisions and performances of the organization, in particular economic, technological, demographic, and governmental influences) and transactional (consisting of all agents and factors that affect directly the company or sector of activity in which it takes part, such as customers, competitors, suppliers, stakeholders, among others) (Freire, 1997; Grant, 1998; Santos, 2008).
In this context of rapid and continuous changes, the organizations must be able to adapt and reinvent themselves to deal with this new reality. Today it is widely accepted that organizations must understand the evolution of the context in which they take part, however, the concern with its internal environment becomes evident, since it is part of the key to success of any organization. Then, the process of strategic management of the employees/collaborators is also a critical factor for the success of any organization (Martins, 2010). Authentizotic climates in organizations are the result of management attitudes towards a set of dimensions related to human resources and to its satisfaction, as well as commitment and determination of their levels of performance. Bennis (1999) has shown that in successful companies, there is a significant impact of leadership on employees and the results obtained by the organizations. In fact, the leaders incorporate values and ideals of the organization and seek to mobilize all the human structure in sharing these ideals, with obvious reflections on organizational culture and the resulting earnings. If we add to this the possibility of leaders to promote authentizotic climates in the organizations, as Rego (2000a:2000b:2002), Vries (2001), Rego & Souto (2004) advocate, the possibility of success and of committed people within their organization is significantly higher.
There are authentizotic organizations which it is believed that are authentic and trustworthy. These are organizations that provide feelings of balance, personal achievement, competence, autonomy, initiative and positive meaning in the lives of their employees. It is in these organizations that the organizational culture is closely related with the values that become behaviours of joy, trust, candour, empowerment, respect, fairness, teamwork, accountability, continuous learning and openness to change (Vries, 2001). The concept of culture is particularly important in the context of the notion of top management, in order to make strategic decisions and that might influence the entire organization. Nevertheless, the authentizotic environment within the organizations is a reality not enough studied, particularly in Angola. Because of this, the theme of this research is the authentizotic culture of the organizations. This study will discover if there is a relationship between the authentizotic climate of the organization of the study, and the intent of turnover, organizational commitment, job performance and satisfaction in an attempt to present another contribution in this scientific area, in particular in the perspective of an organization in Angola.
Organizations and groups exist because there are people. And it is because they relate between themselves that there is a “... field [that] involves all activities taking place in a given unit of time. There is, for example, the thoughts, the desires, the commitments or the results achieved, in a physical and psychological field” (Laneiro, 2011).
Lewin (2008) also refers to the existence of this area or field to a group or institution with the same meaning that there is in the individual space of life of individual psychology. In this perspective, the field is the system in which organizations interact and work these days, which is extremely complex and requires adaptability. The more complex the environment of the organizations is, the more fragile it may become, as it requires more and more to those involved, especially the collaborators in the organizational practices (Csikszentmihalyi, 2004). According to what was mentioned above, the organizational psychology is an applied science that derives from psychology, and studies human behaviour in the world of work, at the individual, group or organizational level. Psychological Studies done at work and in the organizations, aim to describe and explain this kind of conducts, and solve practical problems in organizational context. In this sense, the unhealthiness of organizations goes through the quality of work relations, with regard to their social processes, organizational climate, power, leadership, performance, and other variables that help to understand organizations. The psychology of the organizations has a fairly broad approach and goes beyond the employee, that is, it cares about everything that relates to organizational universe (Peiró & Prieto, 1996).
Psychological Insalubrity in organizations
The concept of psychological unhealthiness of the organizations proposed by Vries (2001) identifies that illnesses, poor performance and absenteeism report a dramatic story about the malfunctions generated by work. In many organizations, the balance was completely lost between personal life and the work promoting dysfunctional leadership, work overload, poor communication, lack of opportunities for career development, problems in performance evaluations and salaries, among other situations that may result in situations less positive in workers, with organizational and individual prejudice of the collaborators.
The construct validity of psychological sense of the work community was initially operated by Burroughs & Eby (1998) which identified nine dimensions, namely: emotional security; support from colleagues; guidance to the team; spiritual link; sense of belonging; tolerance of individual differences; good neighbourliness; and sense of collectivism and reflection. This construct anchors on the premise that the psychological well-being of workers is dependent from few factors such as the satisfaction of social needs, of meaning, of identity, of support and commitment (Rego, 2002). According to the author, employees who experience the psychological sense of the working community recognize that the organization meets the personal needs and family needs, providing a higher quality of life. So, in return they demonstrate commitment, loyalty and practice acts of organizational citizenship (Rego, 2002).
The organizational commitment is defined as the psychological bond that characterizes the connection between the individual and the organization and the reduction of the probability of him leaving it (Allen & Meyer 2000). The concept of organizational commitment is based on the evidence that factors such as the most relevant attitudes and behaviours, including attendance, intent to leave the organization, the effective abandonment, punctuality, attitudes in the face of change, individual performance, behaviours in the face of change, individual performance, behaviours of citizenship, behaviours of negligence and organizational performance (Allen & Meyer, 1996:2000; Meyer, 1997; Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001; Rego & Souto, 2004).
That way, most of the studies recognize the reasons by which individuals develop their psychological bond. Still, the interpretation of the consequences and antecedents may only be effective after being understood the multidimensionality (Allen & Meyer, 1990:2000; Meyer, 1997), that is, the greater the psychological unhealthiness the less committed are the collaborators, and this situation will eventually influence the well-being beyond the organization. The unhealthiness of organizational cultures represents the trigger of negativity in individuals, and the lack of ethics and legal non-compliance, the pay gap between the management and collaborators, underpaid work, among others, are factors which lead to the loss of motivation and low performance, which consequently leads to negativity, and sometimes to leave the organization. In this sense we can observe that the psychological wellbeing matches people with positive attitudes who have also the ability to handle stressful situations, which are motivated, capable of achieving goals, and so obtain, most likely, personal and professional success. Social well-being is related to the quality and recurrence of the networks of social relations of each individual (within and outside the organization).
As opposed to the concept of organizational unhealthiness comes the concept of: authentizotic organizations. Vries (2001) argues that in these organizations the organizational culture consists of values that translate into behaviours of “... joy, confidence, candour, empowerment, respect for the individual, fairness, teamwork, innovation, customer orientation, accountability, continuous learning and openness to change”.
A good workplace is a place where employees trust the people they work for and feel well in working with each other. The cultures of these organizations are based on values that translate into specific forms of behaviours which according to Vries (2001) represent the confidence, joy, honesty, respect for the individual, fairness, teamwork and innovation.
Humanized organizations is an expression used to describe organizations that in addition to being focused on preserving the environment, promote the improvement of the quality of life and work, aimed at the construction of more democratic and fair relations, mitigate the inequalities and differences of race, sex or creed, in addition to contributing to the development of the people under the physical, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual aspects.
The psychological sense of the working community is characterized by the existence of a strong emotional security (people feel safe to: share their successes, strengths, weaknesses and limitations with other organizational members, ask for help, share information, share difficult emotions); support from colleagues (collaborators can talk with colleagues and feel committed to help; the team orientation (the organization cares to hear and discuss how the groups work); it is discussed how communication takes place; there is a sense of community, a common purpose; the conflicts and differences are managed with the observance of rules; there may be a spiritual bond (people feel safe to share their spiritual beliefs with others without the feeling of discomfort when they discuss spiritual themes); sense of belonging (people value the belonging to the organization and project in it feelings of loyalty, and if possible, they can participate in the organization's capital); There is tolerance of individual differences (the feelings of others are respected and the differences and conflicts are managed in open mode, with great respect for individual differences); neighbourhood policy (people can expect help and advice from other collaborators, it may even exist trade of favors and they are zealous with each other); collective sense (people like to feel they belong to a collective, and that they agree with others regarding the most important things in life, that is, the sense of “we” is strong since they feel the successes of the organization resulting from the contribution of all); There is time for reflection and time to deal with problems potentially causing conflict (Rego, 2004).
The challenge of the organizations is to create healthy spaces for the individuals who work in them. Vries (2001) states that organizations should try to respond to the need of satisfying three designs: professional achievement, personal/family achievement and organizational performance, so that there is a genuine balance between the personal and organizational life, and yet, probably, a high performance. In this sense, authentizotic organizations must be perceived by individuals as good places to work (Rego, 2004).
Authentizotic is a neologism, resulting from the combination of two Greek words, authenteekos (authentic) and zoteekos (essential for life), which has been studied mainly by Vries (2001) and Rego (2004). Authentizotic organizations are organizations where people enjoy participating, actively, in the advancement of the organization through their work. All in all, the authentizotic organizations are the ones that help their employees to establish a work family balance. In this sense, all organizations only have to gain by creating authentizotic climates. The investment made by the organizations to improve the relationships between people will be sooner rather than later, recovered with obvious economic efficiency gains, lifting the level of social responsibility of the organizations and of people’s happiness.
Then the dimensions studied in the organization of this study will be presented, in order to understand the relationship between the authentizotic climate and other variables.
There is a set of variables that the literature refers to as possibilities to measure the authentizotic climate of an organization. Among them, the ones who seem more legitimate were the following: Performance; Commitment; Satisfaction; and Intention to Turnover.
The professional performance is a needed variable to measure the effectiveness of production and work in any organization. The problem of performance is its evaluation format. From the perspective of Almeida (1996) performance evaluation can be defined as a process by which an organization measures the efficiency and effectiveness of its employees. In general, the process serves as a tool of audit and of control of the contribution to the objectives and/or results of the organizational participants. It is important for the manager to know the reality that generates (physical, but also human) as well as for the employee, who has the opportunity to be recognized by his performance and feel motivated and committed to the mission and organizational objectives, which is to be expected in an authentizotic organization.
Another variable is the commitment or involvement with the organization that has been the subject of several research studies as the key to success and competitiveness of organizations. The commitment represents a fundamental factor to meet the current challenges of organizations. The professional commitment is seen by Aranya & Ferris (1983) and Morrow & Wirth (1989) as the relative intensity of identification and involvement in a particular profession. This commitment brings forth the belief and acceptance of the objectives and values of the profession, the readiness to make an effort on behalf of the same and the will to continue to exercise the profession with proficiency. The commitment leads to an energetic behavior from the workers in connection with the work, and the result of synergy is beneficial to the organization and to the individual.
The job satisfaction is the main variable of the organizational theory. For this reason, it is one of the most studied variables by organizational social psychology, due to the great importance of its consequences, both for the individual, as well as for the organization. According to research done by Judge & Ilies (2004) about job satisfaction, people who tend to be positive and cheerful longer, in fact, tend to show higher production at work. More than those who tend to be dark and negative. According to the authors, the satisfaction depends mainly on the game between the results of individual value in jobs and the perception about the availability of such results, especially for those aspects of work that are highly valued.
The job satisfaction is a variable that can strongly influence the functioning of the organization and can contribute positively to the increase in productivity (Alcobia, 2001), the opposite is also true. The job satisfaction is a phenomenon hard to define and represents a subjective state that is specific to each individual, because each person reacts and values different aspects; nevertheless, it becomes essential for the management of the organizations to deal with these subjectivities, in order to make better decisions. The current situation of society has had as consequences the development of significant organizational problems such as the dissatisfaction at work, absenteeism and reinforces the importance of abandonment in organizations. In this sense, the turnover intent is designated as the will of the employees to leave organizations where they work, and this intention is a precursor of real turnover (Carmeli & Weisberg, 2006).
For Researcher the intention to leave brings about the subjective probability of leaving the organization in the near future, which can be influenced by a number of factors of the organizational environment, from interpersonal relationships, salary, decrease of commitment in the performance of functions or for reasons external to the organization. According to the author, there is a relationship between the perception of organizational climate, well-being and commitment with the intentions of leaving, which in authentizotic situations are not the case.
Taking as a starting point the research question: What is the importance of an authentizotic environment in a medical supply repository organization and its relation with the intention of turnover, the organizational commitment, the professional performance and employees’ satisfaction?
To respond to this problem, we developed the following questions: Is there an authentizotic climate in the organization under study. What are the characteristics of the authentizotic climate that are best evaluated? Are employees engaged with the organization? Is the workers' performance satisfactory? Do collaborators wish to stay or leave the organization? Are employees satisfied with their work and with the company?
The main objective of this research is to analyse the organization's authentizotic environment and its relation with turnover intention, organizational commitment, professional performance and employees’ satisfaction.
From this global view, the following specific objectives emerge and will guide the research and the study to be carried out:
1. Describe the organizational environmental of the company taking into account the six characteristics of the authentic climate (camaraderie, credibility and trust from the superiors, great communication level with superiors, opportunities of personal development, equity and fairness.
2. Analyse the impact of the company's organizational climate on the performance of employees.
3. Analyse the organizational climate of the company and their relationship with satisfaction.
4. Describe the organization's existing turnover intent.
5. Analyse the relationship between the organizational climate of the company according and the “turnover intention”.
6. Analyse the impact of the company's organizational climate on employee satisfaction.
This research uses the quantitative method since it is seeking not only to understand the problem, but also to quantify it, using the questionnaire as an instrument of research. This is a descriptive research, intended to describe the features or functions of an organization, make associations between variables, showing a clear statement of the problem and detailed information needs (Malhotra, 2005).
Given the fact that the research focuses on the study of an organisation, it can be considered a case study (Bogdan & Biklen, 1994; Yin, 2005) that uses the tools to create descriptive data and record the way of thinking and the perceptions of the participants.
The case study is essentially characterized by the descriptive, inductive character and individual nature (Merriam, 1988). For Ludke & André (1986) the interest in the case study focuses primarily on what makes it unique and private, even if subsequently similarities are encountered with other cases or almost identical situations. The organisation under study was located in the city of Benguela in Angola, created at a time of civil conflict in the country with the support of Caritas. The organisation was created with the aim of supporting the most deprived population which, at that time used to go to offices and health centres of the churches. Later, this emergency project went through a period of development and has currently the legal form of a company that distributes pharmaceutical products to several provinces and municipalities and has 54 employees. The company has approved the study and the dissemination of the results, nevertheless required confidentiality regarding its name.
The sample of the study population was composed of 25 participants who develop activity in the organization, which represents 46.3% of it. Given that the research takes a descriptive design, having opted for the quantitative study, the selected method of collecting data was the self-administered and structured questionnaire (Pestana & Gageiro, 2004).
The dimensions that are object of measurement: authentizotic climate (six dimensions: Spirit of camaraderie, Credibility and Trust in the supervisor, open and honest Communication with the superior, Personal development opportunities, Equity/fairness, Conciliation work-family), commitment (affective, normative, instrumental), performance, intent to turnover and satisfaction (Table 1).
|Table 1: Dimensions|
|Authentizotic climate||Spirit of camaraderie||4|
|Credibility and Trust in the supervisor||3|
|Open and honest communication with the superior||3|
|Personal development opportunities||3|
|Conciliation work – family||4|
|Performance of employees||4|
|Intent to turnover||3|
|Satisfaction with the characteristics of the authentizotic climate||Spirit of camaraderie||1|
|Credibility and Trust in the supervisor||1|
|Open and honest communication with the superior||1|
|Personal development opportunities||1|
With respect to the Authentizotic climate the scale developed by Rego (2004) was utilized. To evaluate each of the six dimensions of the authentizotic climate the respondents replied in a Likert-type scale with six response options, where “1” meant “the statement is completely false” and “6” meant “the statement is completely true”.
To estimate the commitment, the scale of Organizational Commitment developed by Meyer & Allen (1997) and subsequently adopted in the studies of Rego & Souto (2004) was used, which identifies three categories: Affective Commitment; Instrumental Commitment; Normative Commitment. To evaluate each item respondents replied in a Likert-type scale of six points, where “1” meant “does not apply to me” and “6” meant “completely applies to me”.
With regard to the performance analysis we use the scale of Vandenabeele (2009). Respondents could evaluate each item through a Likert-type scale where “1” meant “strongly disagree” and “6” meant “totally agree”.
The intent to turnover was evaluated by taking into consideration the scale developed by Hang et al. (2007) and recently adopted by Costa (2015), consisting of 3 items. Respondents could evaluate each item through a five points Likert-type scale where “1” meant “strongly disagree” and “5” meant “totally agree”.
To assess the overall satisfaction and satisfaction with regard to the six categories of authentizotic climate, the scale in which respondents could evaluate each item through a five points Likert-type scale where “1” meant “strongly disagree” and “5” meant “totally agree” was put into practise.
The conceptual model proposed in this paper is composed of the following variables (Figure 1): Authentizotic climate, Commitment, Satisfaction, Performance of employees, and Turnover Intention.
After obtaining the authorization a questionnaire was administrated in the premises of the organization having been presented the objectives of the research, ensuring immediately the confidentiality of the data and the anonymity of respondents. The administration of the questionnaire took place at the end of the working hours, taking an average of 15 minutes to answer.
After collecting the data, the next phase of the research process was to analyse and interpret the information collected in order to find answers to the problem of the research and objectives previously defined.
For data analysis in the first place an univariate analysis of data, through descriptive statistics (frequency, means, minimum, maximum and standard deviation) was applied and, subsequently we crossed and correlated between variables, and also identify differences between groups (analysis of Chi-square and T-test) (Pestana & Gageiro, 2004).
Characterisation of the Sample
The sample is composed of 25 subjects, 18 of them being (72%) males and 7 (28%) females. The respondents’ age varies between 24 and 53 years, most of them belonging to the age scale of “24 to 31 years” (36%) and “40 to 47 years” of age (32%).
Most of the employees who participated in the study are single (56%). Nine of the respondents are married (36%) and we found one respondent who is in a “consensual union” and one “widower”. Twenty-three respondents have children (92%), most have more than four children (48%). The sample revealed to have a household with many elements (large families). In fact, 10 respondents have “4 to 6 elements” (40%) and 8 have “6+” elements (32%).
In terms of educational qualifications, the majority of respondents do not have higher education. Still, there is one respondent with a Master's degree (4%) and 7 with a Bachelor’s degree (28%). There are 7 respondents (28%) with the “Primary level–from 1st grade to 6th grade”, 6 (24%) with the “High School level–10th grade to 13th grade” and 4 (16%) with the “Junior High level-7th grade to 9th grade”.
The majority of respondents is in the organization for less than 10 years (80%), and 40% between 1 to 5 “years” and 40% between “6 to 10 years”. Only five employees (20%) is in the organization for “11 to 16” years. Eleven of the respondents (44%) already work there for “6 to 10 years” and only 3 (12%) are recent workers (between “1 to 5 years”). However, eleven of the respondents already work there for over 11 years (44%).
Analysis of the Authentizotic Behaviour of the Organisation
It should be noted that most items have higher values than the arithmetic mean, in particular the items 1-“people feel they are assigned important responsibilities” (M=5.40; SD=0.707), 18-“it is easy to talk to people in the upper levels” (M=5.44; SD=1.003), 5-“this organization helps people to conciliate work and family life” (M=5.28; SD=1.021), 21-“people feel they can develop their potential” (M=5.16; SD=1.028) and 3-“There is a great team spirit” (Table 2).
|Table 2 : Descriptive Analysis Of The Authentizotic Organizational Climate|
|V1. People feel they are assigned important responsibilities||4||6||6||5.40||0.707|
|V2. To make progress in your career, it is necessary to sacrifice family life||1||6||1||2.88||1.878|
|V3. There is a great team spirit||3||6||6||5.12||0.971|
|V4. People can put their creativity and imagination to the service of work and of the organisation||3||6||5||4.92||1.077|
|V5. This organisation helps people to conciliate work and family life||2||6||6||5.28||1.021|
|V6. The superiors comply with their promises||1||6||5||4.84||1.344|
|V7. People feel comfortable to show that they disagree with the opinions of their superiors||1||6||5||4.32||1.345|
|V8. When the results are good due to collaborators’ effort, the “rewards” (ie: recompenses and praises) are distributed only to a reduced number of leaders||1||6||6||3.96||1.904|
|V9. The organisation worries about people conciliating work and family||2||6||6||4.92||1.152|
|V10. People feel they can learn continuously||1||6||6||4.88||1.424|
|V11. The organisation creates conditions so people can follow up on their children’s education||1||6||5||3.96||1.645|
|V12. There is a family bond between the collaborators||3||6||4||4.68||0.900|
|V13. There is personal favouritism in promotions||1||6||1||2.68||1.994|
|V14. People feel discriminated against||1||6||1||2.72||2.031|
|V15. People worry about the well-being of others||2||6||4||4.60||1.190|
|V16. People trust their superiors||2||6||5||5.04||1.060|
|V17. People feel free to communicate in an honest and open manner with their superiors||3||6||4||4.68||0.802|
|V18. it is easy to talk to people in the upper levels||3||6||6||5.44||1.003|
|V19. The atmosphere at work is friendly||2||6||6||5.04||1.060|
|V20. People feel their superiors are honest||2||6||6||5.00||1.258|
|V21. People feel they can develop their potential||2||6||6||5.16||1.028|
On the contrary, there are three items under the average, such as items 13-“There are personal favouritism in promotions” (M=2.68; SD=1.994), 14“People feel discriminated against” (M=2.72; SD=2.031) and 2-“To make progress in your career, it is necessary to sacrifice family life” (M=2.88; SD=1.878); the first two items belong to the dimension “equity and fairness” and the last one to the dimension “Conciliation work/family”.
Respondents revealed that the organization where they work has authentizotic features, with all values higher than the mean, and as can be seen in the following table, the most expressive values are in the dimensions “Personal development opportunities” (M=5.1); “Credibility and Trust in the Supervisor” (M=4.9), “Spirit of camaraderie” (M=4.8) and “Honest and Open Communication with the superior” (M=4.8). The dimension “Equity/Fairness” has the lowest (M=3.1).
In order to assess the reliability of the various dimensions in analysis the alpha value of Cronbach's, being known in the literature as “analysis of the internal consistency of the scale” (Pestana & Gageiro, 2004) was calculated. It was found that the scale has a good internal consistency (Alpha=0.891).
To assess the quality of the correlations between variables the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test (KMO) was adopted, where we obtained a value of 0.612, which means a good correlation between variables. The Bartlett's sphericity test showed that the variables are significantly correlated (p=0.000).
Taking into account the table below, all respondents (25) responded to all the issues, and all items have a maximum value (6), but two items (1, 10) have a minimum value of “3” and three items have minimum value of “2” (Table 3).
|Table 3 :Commitment Descriptive Analysis|
|1. I feel that there is a strong emotional bond between me and my organisation||3||6||6||5.40||0.957|
|2. I am proud to say to other people that I am part of this organisation||2||6||6||5.32||1.145|
|3. I feel that I belong to “the family” of my organisation||2||6||5||4.56||1.261|
|4. I care about the fate of my organisation||3||6||6||5.24||0.926|
|5. I would not leave my organisation at this moment because I feel responsible for the people who work here||1||6||6||4.16||1.700|
|6. Even if it was more advantageous, I feel that I should not leave my organisation now||1||6||1||2.76||1.899|
|7. I feel that if I was offered a better job, it would not be fair to leave my organisation||1||6||1||2.88||1.922|
|8. I stay in my organisation because I feel there are little opportunities in other organisations||1||6||1||2.84||1.864|
|9. I keep working for this organisation because if I left I would have to make big personal sacrifices||1||6||1||2.88||1.878|
|10. I keep working for this organisation because I feel that I could not easily find another job in another organisation||2||6||6||5.24||1.300|
|11. I feel that I have little job opportunities if I leave organisation||1||6||2||3.24||1.763|
Most items have values greater than the arithmetic mean (table), in particular the items 1-“I feel that there is a strong emotional bond between me and my organisation” (M=5.40; SD=0.957), 2-“I am proud to say to other people that I am part of this organisation” (M=5.32; SD=1.145) and, with equal mean values, items 4-“I care about the fate of my organisation” (M=5.24; SD = 0.926) and item 10-“I keep working for this organization because I feel that I could not easily find another job in another organisation” (M=5.24; SD=1.300). However, we note that there are four items with inferior values under the arithmetic mean. It is the case of item 6-“Even if it was more advantageous, I feel that I should not leave my organisation now” (M=2.76; SD=1.899), item 8-“I stay in my organisation because I feel there are little opportunities in other organisations” (M=2.84; SD=1.864) item 7-“I feel that if I was offered a better job, it would not be fair to leave my organisation” (M=2.88; SD=1.922) and item 9-“I keep working for this organisation because if I left I would have to make big personal sacrifices” (M=2.88; SD=1.878).The analysis of the reliability for the entire scale was of 0.823, and therefore can be considered a good result (Pestana & Gageiro, 2004).
The analysis of “Performance” consisted of four items, showing all values higher than average, with the exception of item 3-“On average, I work more than my colleagues” (M=2.28; SD=1.487). Thus, the item 2-“In my opinion, I contribute to the success of my organisation” presents the highest mean (M=4.64; SD=0.638), followed by the item 4-“I consider that I am having a good performance in this organisation” (M=4.56; SD=0.712) and item 1-“I think I am a good worker” (M=4.24; SD=0.970) (Table 4).
|Table 4: Performance Descriptive Analysis|
|V1. I am a good worker||1||5||5||4.24||0.970|
|V2. In my opinion, I contribute to the success of my organisation||3||5||5||4.64||0.638|
|V3. On average, I work more than my colleagues||1||5||1||2.28||1.487|
|V4. I consider that I am having a good performance in this organisation||3||5||5||4.56||0.712|
Intent to Turnover Analysis
All items feature inferior values to the arithmetic mean, which means that the respondents have no intention of leaving the organisation (low intention to turnover), this is proven by the data obtained on each item: “I am actively looking for alternatives to leave this organisation” (M=1.52; SD=0.872); in item 1-“as soon as possible I intend to leave this organisation” (M=1.48; SD=0.714) and in item 3-“I often think of leaving this organisation” (M=1.24; SD=0.436) (Table 5).
|Table 5 : Descriptive Analysis Of Intent To Turnover|
|V1. As soon as possible I intend to leave this organisation||1||3||1||1.48||0.714|
|V2. I am actively looking for alternatives to leave this organisation||1||4||1||1.52||0.872|
|V3. I often think of leaving this organisation||1||2||1||1.24||0.436|
The respondents revealed that generally they were satisfied with the organisation (M=3.84; SD=0.898). Similarly, respondents indicated that they are satisfied with the various dimensions of the organizational climate. So, the satisfaction with Communication with an hierarchical superior (M=3.84; SD=0.987), the satisfaction with the Credibility and Trust in the supervisor (M=3.76; SD=0.979), the satisfaction with Conciliation work-family (M=3.60; SD=0.913), the satisfaction with Personal development opportunities (M=3.56; SD=1.083), the satisfaction with the “spirit of camaraderie” (M=3.48; SD=1.046) and the satisfaction with the Equity and Fairness (M=3.48; SD=1.085) are all positive (Table 6).
|Table 6: Satisfaction Descriptive Analysis|
|Spirit of camaraderie||2||5||3||3.48||1.046|
|Credibility and Trust in the supervisor||2||5||3||3.76||0.970|
|Communication with a hierarchical superior||2||5||3||3.84||0.987|
|Personal Development Opportunities||1||5||3||3.56||1.083|
|Equity and Fairness||2||5||3||3.48||1.085|
Analysis of the Correlations between the Authentizotic Climate and Satisfaction
The analysis of the Pearson correlations between the various dimensions of the authentizotic climate and the satisfaction obtained 7 positive and significant correlations and only one negative correlation (Equity and fairness and communication satisfaction with the hierarchical superior (Pearson correlation=-0.452; p=0.023<0.05) (Table 7).
|Table 7 : Correlations Between The Authentizotic Climate And Satisfaction|
|Spirit of camaraderie||Credibility and trust||Communication with a hierarchical superior||Personal development opportunities||Equity and fairness||Conciliation work-family|
|Satisfaction Spirit of camaraderie||Pearson correlation||0.445||0.433||0.446||0.032||-0.394||0.308|
|Satisfaction Credibility and Trust in the supervisor||Pearson correlation||0.378||0.370||0.293||-0.149||-0.355||0.212|
|Satisfaction Communication with a hierarchical superior||Pearson correlation||0.444||0.210||0.286||-0.107||-0.452||0.139|
|Satisfaction Personal Development Opportunities||Pearson correlation||0.139||0.127||0.046||-0.170||-0.293||-0.016|
|Satisfaction Equity and Fairness||Pearson correlation||0.501||0.567||0.335||-0.075||-0.180||0.322|
|Satisfaction Conciliation workfamily||Pearson correlation||0.500||0.264||0.280||-0.025||-0.370||0.137|
|General Satisfaction||Pearson correlation||0.358||0.267||0.160||-0.055||-0.299||0.122|
No significant correlations were found between the various dimensions of the authentizotic climate and the “overall satisfaction”, the “Credibility and Trust in the supervisor” satisfaction and “Personal development Opportunities” satisfaction. The “the spirit of camaraderie” satisfaction is positive and significantly correlated with the spirit of camaraderie (Pearson correlation=-0.445; p=0.026<0.05), with the Credibility (Pearson correlation=-0.433; p=0.031<0.05) and with the Communication (Pearson correlation=-0.446; p=0.025<0.05). The “satisfaction with communication with a hierarchical superior” is positive and significantly correlated with the “spirit of camaraderie” (Pearson correlation=-0.444; p=0.026<0.05) and negative and significantly with the Equity and Fairness (Pearson correlation=-0.452; p=0.023<0.05).
Analysis of Correlations between the Authentizotic Climate and Commitment, Performance and the Intent to Turnover
The effective Commitment is positive and significantly correlated with the Credibility (Pearson correlation=-0.447; p=0.025<0.05) and Communication (Pearson correlation=-0.444; p=0.026<0.05). Also, the normative Commitment is correlated positive and significantly with the Performance (Pearson correlation=-0.535; p=0.006<0.05). The Instrumental Commitment is positive and significantly correlated with Performance (Pearson correlation=0.537; p=0.006<0.05) and negatively correlated with the Equity and Fairness (Pearson correlation=0.574; p=0.003<0.05). The Performance is positive and significantly correlated with the Spirit of Camaraderie (Pearson correlation=0.428; p=0.033<0.05) and negatively with Equity and Fairness (Pearson correlation=-0.516; p=0.008<0.05). The Intent to Turnover does not present any significant correlation with these variables (Table 8).
|Table 8 : Correlations Between The Authentizotic Climate And Commitment, Performance And The Intent To Turnover|
|Spirit of camaraderie||Credibility and Trust||Communication with a hierarchical superior||Personal Development Opportunities||Equity and Fairness||Conciliation work-family||Perfrom
|Affective Commitment||Pearson correlation||0.221||0.447||0.444||0.166||0.141||0.178||-0.045||-0.166|
|Normative Commitment||Pearson correlation||0.322||0.241||0.133||0.192||-0.197||0.043||0.535||-0.039|
|Instrumental Commitment||Pearson correlation||0.351||0.161||0.272||-0.057||-0.574||0.103||0.537||0.050|
|Turnover Intention||Pearson correlation||0.152||-0.335||-0.101||0.098||-0.116||0.013||-0.068||1|
Analysis of Correlations between Satisfaction and Commitment, Performance and the Intent to Turnover
The overall satisfaction is positive and significantly correlated with the Instrumental Commitment (Pearson correlation=-0.399; p=0.048<0.05) and Performance (Pearson correlation=-0.520; p=0.008<0.05), but negatively with the intent to Turnover (Pearson correlation=-0.477; p=0.016<0.05). The Satisfaction with the spirit of camaraderie is positive and significantly correlated with the Affective commitment (Pearson correlation=0.423; p=0.035<0.05), with the Normative Commitment (Pearson correlation=-0.428; p=0.011<0.05) and with the Instrumental Commitment (Pearson correlation=0.642; p=0.001<0.05). Satisfaction with the Credibility and Trust in the supervisor is positive and significantly correlated with the Instrumental Commitment (Pearson correlation=0.633; p=0.01<0.05) and negatively with the intent to Turnover (Pearson correlation=-0.400; p=0.048<0.05). Satisfaction with Communication with a Superior is positive and significantly correlated with the Normative Commitment (Pearson correlation=0.473 p=0.017<0.05) and with the Instrumental Commitment (Pearson correlation=0.620; p=0.001<0.05). Satisfaction with Personal Development Opportunities is positively correlated with Performance (Pearson correlation=0.518; p=0.008<0.05) and negatively with the intent to Turnover (Pearson correlation=-0.508; p=0.010<0.05). Also, Conciliation Work-Family is positive and significantly correlated with the Instrumental Commitment (Pearson correlation=0.427; p=0.033<0.05) and Performance (Pearson correlation=0.520; p=0.008<0.05) (Table 9).
|Table 9 :Correlations Between Satisfaction And Commitment, Performance And The Intent To Turnover|
|Affective commitment||Normative Commitment||Instrumental Commitment||Performance||Turnover intention|
|Satisfaction Spirit of camaraderie||Pearson correlation||0.423||0.428||0.642||0.388||-0.332|
|Satisfaction Credibility and Trust in the supervisor||Pearson correlation||-0.005||0.341||0.633||0.292||-0.400|
Communication with a hierarchical superior
|Satisfaction Personal Development Opportunities||Pearson correlation||-0.084||0.247||0.221||0.518||-0.452|
|Satisfaction Equity and Fairness||Pearson correlation||0.123||0.267||0.362||0.476||-0.508|
|Satisfaction Conciliation work family||Pearson correlation||0.216||0.179||0.427||0.456||-0.335|
|General Satisfaction||Pearson correlation||0.054||0.373||0.399||0.520||-0.477|
The results of the analysis are shown in Figure 2.
Regarding the Authentizotic Behavior of the Organization, in comparative terms, it is possible verify that the dimensions “Personal Development Opportunities” and “Conciliation work-family” present values of the Cronbach alpha lower than those obtained by Rego (2004) and Costa (2015). In terms of the remaining components (“Spirit of camaraderie”, “Credibility and Trust in the supervisor”, “Communication with a hierarchical superior” and “Equity and Fairness”), the results are similar to those identified in the literature (Rego, 2004).
The values obtained in the dimensions “Personal Development Opportunities” (M=5.1), “Credibility and Trust in the supervisor” (M=4.9), “Spirit of camaraderie” (M=4.8) and “Conciliation work-family” (M=4.2) are higher than the studies identified in the literature, with the exception of the dimension “Equity/fairness” where the value is lower (M=3.1), as can be seen in the following table (Table 10).
|Table 10 : Comparison With Previous Studies|
|Dimensions||Mean 2008||Mean 2012||Mean 2015||Mean Actual|
|Spirit of camaraderie||4.1||4||4.2||4.8|
|Credibility and Trust in the supervisor||4.2||4.1||4||4.9|
|Communication with a hierarchical superior||4.2||3.9||4||4.8|
|Personal Development Opportunities||4.3||4.2||4.2||5.1|
|Equity and Fairness||4.8||3.7||4.7||3.1|
Similarly, as in the previous studies (Rego, 2004; Almeida, 1996) the research revealed that the authentizzotic climate has a positive and significant impact on employee satisfaction.
In general, the results obtained on satisfaction, performance and turnover intention are in line with the existing literature, where satisfaction has a positive and significant impact on employee performance and organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen, 1997; Judge et al., 2004; Vandenabeele, 2009; Rego & Souto, 2004; Costa, 2015), but negatively in the intention of turnover (Carmeli & Weisberg, 2006). People who tend to be positive and cheerful longer, in fact, tend to show higher production at work, and contribute positively to the increase in productivity (Alcobia, 2001; Judge et al., 2004).
Taking into account the issues and objectives of the research, we believe that the survey found answers and allowed to respond to the objectives set.
The employees of the organization studied showed that it presents authentizotic features. From the six characteristics of the authentizotic climate, respondents valued the “Personal development opportunities”, the “Credibility and Trust in the supervisor”, the “Spirit of camaraderie” and “Honest and open Communication with the Superior”.
On the other hand, through the scale of assessment of “Commitment”, it was possible to determine that the employees feel involved and committed to the organisation. Taking into account the three dimensions of commitment, we can conclude that the most relevant values were obtained in the affective commitment, followed by the instrumental commitment and, finally, the normative commitment.
The study revealed that the respondents have no intention of leaving the organization (low intention to turnover). Respondents revealed that they are generally satisfied with the organisation for which they work, at the same time that indicated that they are satisfied with the various dimensions of the organizational climate.
In this way, the research not only responded to the issues raised but also fulfilled the objectives set. It should be noted that generally the Angolan citizens as well as the employees of the organisation studied, despite the guarantees of confidentiality and anonymity, look at this type of research with some distrust, fearing any negative consequence or even a penalty for their involvement, which may have influenced the genuineness of the information provided.
Aware of these limitations, some recommendations for future research may be suggested. First of all, to use a larger sample, trying to integrate into the study organizations from different business areas, dimensions and other provinces of Angola, or even make comparisons between Angolan and foreign organizations.
Since this is a one-time study, the results may change over time as a result of changes in the organizational policies of the institutions, so it would be interesting to follow its evolution over time.
Allen, N., & Meyer, J. (2000). Construct validation in organizational behavior research: The case of organizational commitment. In Goffin, R.D., & Helmes, E. (Eds.), Problems and Solutions in Human Assessment: Honoring Douglas N. Jackson at Seventy (pp. 285-314). Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic.
Vandenabeele, W. (2009). The mediating effect of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on self-reported performance: More robust evidence of the PSM performance relationship. Sage Publications, 75(1), 11-34.