Research Article: 2019 Vol: 22 Issue: 6
Tat’yana Avdeeva, State University Humanities and Technology
Taliat Bielialov, Kyiv National University of Technology and Design
Tatyana Kukhar, Academy of the State Penitentiary Service
Olena Nyzovets, Academy of the State Penitentiary Service
Serhii Danyliuk, Central Research Institute of the Armed Forces of Ukraine
Citation Information: Avdeeva, T., Bielialov, T., Kukhar, T., Nyzovets, O., & Danyliuk, S. (2019). Communication resource of technologies of entrepreneurship education. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 22(6).
The article identifies promising factors for the use of a communication resource (CR) in the entrepreneurship education technology (EET). The algorithm and the system of using the communication resource in educational activities were substantiated and the criteria-diagnostic apparatus for evaluating the efficiency of using the spectrum of the communication resource in the entrepreneurship education was developed.
Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurial Activity, Criterion-Diagnostic Apparatus, Communication Resource, Algorithm of Educational Process.
The use of a communication resource in the entrepreneurship education technology should be based not only on the art of doing business, but also be based on the scientific principles of combining educational technology and business environment. It is the studies of these components that have received rapid development in recent years. An important aspect of using a communication resource is the creation of a supporting model for its effective combination with EET and the qualitative factor of both components.
However, it should be noted that the modeling of the use of a communication resource in the EET remains poorly studied with the lack of theoretical processing of its fundamentals, providing the necessary scientific and methodological justification, determining the methodological focus on the final result, taking into account the organizational conditions for the effective functioning of EET in a business environment.
As the most effective means of optimizing educational activity its communication resource is recognized as a systemic factor combining scientific knowledge, goals and functions of entrepreneurship development. The conceptual provisions of the functioning of educational processes are considered in the works of (Akpan, 2011; Johnston & Caldwell, 2001). The study of (Peretomode, 2012) is devoted to the issue of technologization of educational activities. The most generalized works in which technologies of business education analyzed and described in detail are works of (Boulanger et al., 2015; Judson et al., 2009; Drobyazko et al., 2019a, 2019b).
Today, there are many methods for building various models and special algorithms for solving problems of entrepreneurship development. They demonstrate a gradual process of modeling and developing the business environment and filling it with an educational resource in the following sequence: a real entrepreneurial object-building a model of its operation-studying properties and options for solving problems-building algorithms for solving problems through educational technologies-educational activities and development. In our case, the development of such a model in business takes place in three stages. At the first stage, the development of local business valuation methods is carried out. Separate models and model subsystems were built: the structural components of the use of a communication resource, the structure of the educational process, scientific approaches to support EET, which are subsequently combined into a single educational and entrepreneurial system according to the goal (Makedon et al., 2019a).
At the second stage, the subsystems of the model are clarified and agreed upon, their interaction is checked, the sequence of use of a particular model is determined, and the main criteria for evaluating the use of a communication resource in the EET are determined (Stachowski, 2011). At this stage, an algorithm is developed for introducing the model into practice.
At the third stage, on the basis of the previous stages, the practical implementation of the model is carried out. The application conditions for the use of an optimal and balanced communication resource are: prediction and design of the educational process, taking into account its goals and objectives based on theory and practice; principles of its organization; use of the regulatory framework for assessing entrepreneurship education.
The communication resource is the leading tool for targeted and process changes in entrepreneurship education. That is why the quality of the functioning of each of the components of the educational process occurs through the use of the necessary elements of the communication resource. It seems appropriate to distinguish them in accordance with the structure of the educational process (Table 1).
|Table 1 Dialectic Correspondence Between the Technology of Entrepreneurship Education and Communication Resource|
|No||Structural Factors of EET||Executive elements of the communication resource|
|innovative CR||expert and advisory technologies||HR management technologies||strategic CR||Social and psychological technologies|
|2.||Attitude development factor||+||+||–||+||–|
|3.||Methodological support factor||+||+||+||+||–|
|4.||Scientific support factor||+||+||+||+||–|
The “+” sign indicates the expediency of using the executive elements of the communication resource in the EET. The “-” sign indicates the limited use of CR in a particular EET phase. However, it should be noted that the EET components directly proportional to each other. Therefore, there is no strict distinction and prohibition of using a certain CR in a certain EET phase. The use of CR in EET support is effective for a specific algorithm, which we offer in the following form (Figure 1).
Diagnostics and analysis of the situation based on the problem or the identification of educational conditions that have developed, justification for the use of CR
This stage includes, firstly, an awareness of the need to use CR, and secondly, the diagnostics and analysis of the EET itself. Making decisions about the use of CR begins with setting a specific goal for it and using tasks. The need to use CR is manifested in the form of an emerging problem or possibility. The problem arises when the obtained EET results do not correspond to the goals set, that is, some of its components require improvement. Possibility means that business leaders see the potential for improving EET, which allows better results of current goals. Awareness of the problem or possibility is the first step in the process of introducing CR into EET (Goodyear & Retalis, 2010).
The entrepreneur who decided to introduce CR in the EET chooses the appropriate alternative from a number of options. The best option is the one that allows you to achieve results, according to the goals and values of EET using the least amount of resources, with the least risk and uncertainty. The use of CR is transferred from the plane of abstract inference to the plane of professional reality.
Tracking (analysis, monitoring) of the CR process and results
Further analysis and control of the use of CR in EET will make sure that this technology will lead to an effective result that will meet the goal and objectives that determined its choice.
Making a decision (assessment) on the extension of the use of management technology or termination of work on it
At the assessment stage, the manager must analyze the information on the effective use of this CR in achieving the EET goals. If the result is unsuccessful, then you need to conduct a new analysis of the problem, an assessment of the options and the choice of a new CR. This is how many big problems are solved: various options are consistently introduced, each of which helps to improve the situation. In this case, the feedback is significant, according to which the EET receives signals about the need to adopt new types of CR.
Recommendations for the use of CR
After using a CR, an entrepreneur can provide recommendations on its use and indicate its particular use in a particular situation.
Summing up and analysis of the results of the use of CR in EET
When summing up the results of using CR in EET, an entrepreneur should pay attention to the purposefulness of CR and the situational nature of CR (its use should take into account organizational conditions, the needs for its change). Thus, a toolkit for assessing the state of an object is created, called the factor-criterial model, or a qualimetric model (standard). It gives an opportunity in quantitative measurement to reflect the degree of achievement of a certain quality state by an object of management. We see the algorithm for creating a qualimetric model (standard) of activity of each management structure in the following form (Lefebvre, 2013):
1. On the basis of the general structure of activity, the characteristic indicators of this activity are determined, which form the basis of the model.
2. By decomposing the general goals of the activity, the factors of this activity (direction) are established.
3. By decomposing each direction and defining partial goals of a particular management structure, first-order criteria are defined.
4. The second order criteria are selected locally, revealing the requirements for each first order criterion.
5. The determination of the weight of each parameter, factor, first-order criterion is carried out by the method of expert evaluation or ranking (Delphi method).
6. Registration of the activity model (standard) in the form of individual cards. The main task of the factor-criterion (qualimetric) model for assessing the effectiveness of using CR in EET that we developed is to compare this model with the existing position of using CR and, on this basis, to obtain value judgments (quantitative description of object quality) (Spector, 2014).
Assessment was carried out by determining the level: high level-4 points, sufficient-3, medium-2, low-1 point. Each expert puts the corresponding score (Table 2).
|Table 2 Scoring System for Assessing the Criteria and Performance Indicators for Using CR In EET|
|Score||Value of the scoring system of criteria and performance indicators for using CR in managing EET|
|1 point||Performance indicators do not reflect the practical use of CR|
|2 points||Performance indicators fragmentarily reflect certain situations of practical use of CR|
|3 points||Performance indicators fully enough reflect the insignificant practical state of CR use|
|4 points||Performance indicators reflect in full the practical state of CR use|
Assessment of the use of a communication resource in EET at a practical level implies the determination of scientific and theoretical knowledge and the motivational level of the CR use manager. The main criteria for this stage are cognitiveness, motivation, existing skills. Defining factors are the totality of knowledge of the manager about the essence and specificity of the use of a communication resource, their types and characteristics. The cognitive criterion covers the result of the cognitive activity of the manager. It is characterized by the amount of knowledge on CR in EET (broadness, depth, and consistency), thinking style, formation of managerial skills and leadership skills (Post & Anderson, 2006). The presence of a knowledge system for managers on the use of CR in EET means self-determination in a given management spectrum.
They are based on the improvement of the criterion methodology for assessing the level of effectiveness of using CR in EET. The concept of effectiveness of using CR cannot be identified with the concept of effectiveness of using EET. An assessment of the implementation of CR in EET can occur at three levels: theoretical, methodical and procedural.
A system was proposed for using a communication resource in EET, which consists of 5 stages, based on EET functions: information and analytical stage of using a communication resource, motivational and target stage of using a communication resource, planning and prognostic stage, organizationally executive stage, control and regulatory stage. Each of the stages was disclosed in detail. The methodological support of the implementation of the model of using CT in EET was considered. It was determined that the main requirement for the methodological support for the implementation of the model is an orientation to the needs and possibilities of its practical use. The main methodological requirements, principles, objectives, criteria, functions of the methodological support of the implementation of a communication resource use model in the educational activities of business structures were covered.
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