Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 5

Deconstructing Persfective On Contemporary Notion of Food Security: A Critical Systemic Praxis

Riswanda, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa

M Dian Hikmawan, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa

Yeby Ma’asan Mayrudin, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa

Bayu Nurrohman, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa

Ika Arinia Indriyany, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa

Citation: Riswanda, Hikmawan, M.D., Mayrudin, Y.M., Nurrohman, B., & Indriyany, I.A. (2021). Deconstructing persfective on contemporary notion of food security: a critical systemic praxis. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (AEJ), 27(5), 1-17.


This study was conducted to determine the Academic-Government-Business-Community Collaboration Partnership Model in the field of Development of Local Food Innovation for Honey Bee Cultivation in Lebak Regency in supporting Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University (UNTIRTA) as the Center of Food Security in Banten Province and realizing the mandate of the Ministry of Education and Culture. Indonesian Culture to UNTIRTA as a center for food security. In responding to the challenges of food security and coherence between the UNTIRTA campus and the problems in Banten, this research has an important role in contributing to food security. With descriptive qualitative research methods and Collaborative Governance approach. 'Collaborative governance' and 'public entrepreneurship' approaches are adopted in explaining the dynamics of technological innovation development, changes in socio-political values and their influence on government-business-public relations. This research is also an effort to build a model to see how UNTIRTA's role creatively initiates, facilitates and becomes a pendulum catalyst for the government's strategic role as an architect of growth as well as a protector of society against various interests from the tendency of business exploitation. This research is expected to be able to provide scientific contributions in the study of collaborative partnership governance, especially parties such as Academics-Government-Business-Community in the field of Development of Local Food Innovations for Honey Bee Cultivation in Lebak Regency in supporting UNTIRTA as the Center of Food Security in Banten Province.


Collaborative Governance, Local Food, Integrated Smart Campus.


Indonesian farmers are mostly grouped as small farmers (Rochman, 2015). Most of them only have 0.2 hectares of arable land, do not have access to financial institutions, and low yields due to frequent pest and disease disturbances (Saputra, 2018). In addition, the cultivation pattern with the concept of working on land, makes agricultural products divided into two even though the results are small. As a result, generally poor Indonesian farmers are unable to meet the needs of life and their families. The average income of farmers per month does not exceed IDR 600,000 or even less (Yulida, 2012). Most of this income is generated from the labor services they perform in the agricultural world, not from selling the cultivated agricultural products. Data from the Central Statistics Agency for Pandeglang Regency and Lebak Regency states that the majority of people in Pandeglang Regency and Lebak Regency make a living as farmers and fishermen (BPS Banten Province, 2020). In general, in Banten Province in 2020, the average income of farmers aged 20-24 years increased to Rp.74,043. Meanwhile, the farmer's exchange rate is 102.27 BPS Provinsi Banten. (2020).

Honey bee cultivation is one of the non-land-based business activities, so it does not become a competitor for agricultural businesses in general. Beekeeping even plays a role in optimizing natural resources through the use of nectar and pollen, which are two plant products that will mostly be wasted if they are not used to feed honey bees (Sebayang et al., 2017). Thus, beekeeping is a type of activity that can provide added value to plant cultivation. The development of beekeeping is considered important considering that Indonesia has enormous potential in this field. Indonesia's natural conditions and climatic conditions are very supportive for bee cultivation, such as the availability of bee forage throughout the year and various types of honey bees; In addition, the community, traditionally, is familiar with beekeeping (Herliana, 2020)

Over time, since the 2000s, after socialization from the government regarding the benefits of Trigona bee honey, many people have cultivated it. Make nest-shaped boxes made of albasiah wood or other wood and arrange them around the house where you live. As well as harvesting honey and propolis at a certain time to be sold to a number of collectors who come? This encourages a number of other communities to participate in cultivation. And it continues to spread to a number of other sub-district residents so that there are more and more trigona bee cultivators. However, because the market is still limited, the honey or propolis produced has not become the main source of income for farmers. In fact, honey and propolis are health products that are very expensive on the market.

Participatory community empowerment is important to do (Adenansi et al., 2015). In the case of farmers' villages and honey bee activists, this can be done through the establishment of a honey village and the socialization of honey ambassadors. Kampung Madu is one of the breakthrough centers of honey where all honey processing is carried out (Savitri et al., 2020). One of them can be done by encouraging the economic empowerment of entrepreneurial partnerships between traditional rural communities, the business sector, the public sector, and the education sector (Samadara, 2016). Pandeglang and Lebak districts have more agricultural and mountainous areas than other districts/cities in Banten. Thus, the diversity of businesses in the field of agribusiness is more developed which is supported by nature and a conducive environment.

The Central Statistics Agency (Badan Pusat Statistik/BPS) of Pandeglang does not record honey production data. Meanwhile, the Pandeglang Environment and Forestry Service (Dinas Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan/DLHK) classifies honey as a non-timber forest product. The honey harvested by the residents is branded “Madu Odeng” and sold to various places. Even the Koperasi Hanjuang sold it regularly to cosmetic companies. As for Trigona bee honey, it is mostly cultivated by a number of people who live close to the mountains. Or in rural areas and villages that are still sustainable. Trigona bees are cultivated around residential houses by hanging care boxes arbitrarily near the roof. Or people don't care about it intentionally, but the bees nest in bamboo holes or other gaps around the house. Usually, it will be harvested when the honey is needed. As long as it is not needed, Trigona bees stay nesting in the hole without being disturbed at all.

One of the potentials that develops and relies on nature is honey bee cultivation. In the border area of ​​Ujung Kulon National Park (TNUK), Sumur District, there are forest bees or Apis dorsata which are cultivated by the local community. The potential, according to the DLHK of Pandeglang Regency, reaches 5,000 kg in a year (BPS Banten Province, 2020). Meanwhile, Lebak Regency also has good potential for honey bee cultivation. Cingagoler honey has even reached Italy to take part in the Selano del Gusto & Teraa Made exhibition. Cingagoler village, which is located in Panyaungan Village, has also begun to apply honey bee branding by painting residents' houses with pictures of honey bees. Another potential in Lebak Regency is also in Buwana Village because it has strategic land for honey bee cultivation and many people there are already interested in becoming honey bee breeders.

Honey bees with all their potential in Banten Province, especially in Lebak Regency, have so far been able to survive in their production and marketing. Although it has not been able to become one of the local foods that are busy being discussed, honey bee breeders are able to show their existence including in marketing that is carried out outside the region. This achievement is still dominated by the community movement that cares and is interested in honey bee cultivation. Meanwhile, the role of various sectors in supporting honey bee cultivation, including the government and the business sector, is still not optimal.

In order to answer a problem that we have found in the field, we are trying to find a tactical strategy on how the most likely way to be achieved by various parties in answering the problem and which is included in that scope through a partnership model of Academic-Government-Business-Collaboration. Community in the Development of Local Food Innovation for Honey Bee Cultivation in Lebak Regency. Our main target is the development of the potential for honey bee cultivation as one of the local foods in Banten Province.

The Academic-Government-Business-Community Collaboration Partnership Model in the Development of Local Food Innovation for Honey Bee Cultivation in Lebak Regency in Realizing the Integrated Smart Campus UNTIRTA is a synthesis of mapping strategic actors implementing the NAP (National Action Plan) for Food Security, including policy networks in the scope of governance and patterns cross-service institutional relationships. The study of the model is based on four main dimensions, namely 'innovation' in the way state institutions carry out their main tasks and functions; developing the 'capacity' of state institutions in capturing the opportunities of various conditional aspects (political, economic, social, cultural, defense, security) that exist; increase policy decision-making capacity in the face of limitations or obstacles; and willingness to take and measure risk. The four pillars can be broken down into six sub-dimensions, namely a review of the support and legitimacy of the NAP Food Security policy; harmonization of understanding of the strategic substance of Food Security by all relevant service agencies; review of existing budgeting patterns for Food Security programs; increasing the competence of the network of actors implementing Food Security in the regions.

The establishment of policy regulations in Banten Province that are re-socialized across OPDs is important considering: (a.) The “Power” of the National Food Security Council and potential handling efforts need to be stated in the form of regulations; (b.) The policy scope has been established by the National Food Security Council regarding the synergy of action steps across government institutions and community partnerships; (c.) Support the formation of the Regional Action Steps (a derivative of the National Action Steps) as program tracking and budgeting; (d.) If point 'c' is implemented as expected, elements of data availability, capacity of religious institutions and capacity of religious schools, early response at the kelurahan level and so on can be included in the draft regional budget; (e.) Sustainable outputs 'a' to 'd' regional head regulations as the scope of budgeting for programs supporting the National Food Security Strategy in the RPJMD / Medium Term OPD Renstra (strategic plan) and RKPD / Annual Renja (work plan).

The purpose of this study was to determine the Academic-Government-Business-Community Collaboration Partnership Model in the field of Development of Local Food Innovation for Honey Bee Cultivation in Pandeglang Regency in supporting UNTIRTA as the Center of Food Security in Banten Province and realizing the mandate of the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia to Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University (Untirta) as a center for food security. This research is expected to be able to provide scientific contributions in the study of collaborative partnership governance, especially parties such as Academics-Government-Business-Society in the field of Development of Local Food Innovations for Honey Bee Cultivation in Pandeglang Regency.

Literature Review

 From some literature on collaborative governance, it is interpreted as a joint effort between the private sector, the community and the government in achieving what is a common goal (Donahue & Zeckhauser, 2012). In an effort to understand collaborative governance, this research looks at how the Academic-Government-Business-Community Collaboration Partnership in the Development of Local Food Innovation for Honey Bee Cultivation in Pandeglang Regency in realizing the Integrated Smart and Green Campuss Untirta.

Responding to the mandate of the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture to Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University (Untirta) as a center for food security. This research makes the case that the issue of food security is systemic. This redefinition of terminology is vital (Riswanda et al., 2018). The interpretation of Food Security so far tends to be mono-disciplined. UNTIRTA's advocacy and educative role as a center for Food Security is to build multi-sectoral modeling and provide a multi-disciplinary study space. The high population causes its own problems in meeting the current community's food supply. The limitations of agricultural land, the high rate of land conversion, and the use of local food in Banten Province require the strengthening of food security based on a cross between social aspects, economic-political regulations in the implementation of development - in line with the strategic role of the National Food Security Council. The Center of Food Security with the Smart Green Campus program can formulate integrated policies and operational steps across sectors and across institutions of community components to produce a common reference model for the formation of Regional Action Plans in Banten Province.

In a study conducted by (Hikmawan et al., 2020), this research examines the pattern of collaboration between farmers, the government and the private sector in developing the agricultural industry in Banten. Especially in secondary crops and goat farming. In this research, many findings are produced, such as the collaboration model between farmers and the private sector is more likely to work well compared to government agencies. The number of government programs does not always guarantee the ongoing development of agriculture, especially capital. In addition, this study provides an overview of the existing collaboration patterns in agriculture in Banten.

The study (Dwiartama et al., 2020) presents a discussion on the issue of the global food system having an adverse effect on food security efforts and practices that are currently being massively mobilized by communities in various regions. The case raised by them is that there is awareness in taking collective action in the form of the Local Food Movement initiated by local communities in Bandung City to overcome the problem of importing food products in order to contribute to local cultivation which is to optimize local biological resources in areas around Bandung. They revealed that the movement's activism was based on various values, including respect for local farmers.

Another study was carried out by (Timisela et al., 2017) who conducted an analysis of local food agroindustry entrepreneurship with a focus on the type of sago food. In their study, they identified the factors that correlated with the entrepreneurial character who thoroughly studied managerial, institutional and performance issues of the local food agroindustry of sago. This study shows that the issue of entrepreneurship cannot be separated from the need for high motivation of entrepreneurs/women in the process, then having an orientation for the development of their business units and strategic tactics in anticipating obstacles or problems that will hit. Furthermore, it has an extensive business network in optimizing every process that is carried out.


The method in this research is a descriptive qualitative research method. This method was chosen because it is considered capable of describing the portrait of collaborative partnership governance, the Academic-Government-Business-Community parties in developing local food innovations for honey bee cultivation in Lebak Regency. The description of this phenomenon will be interpreted differently by each individual depending on the research context and the context of the research team's perspective shows in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Interventions and Innovation Approach

While the approach used is a case study approach. According to (Cresswell, 2016), Case Studies are one of the research designs in qualitative research methods where the research process is carried out thoroughly and in depth on the selected cases. Data collection was carried out on key informants and additional informants with the aim of providing a general picture and enriching the context. In this study, the case selected is the case of collaborative governance between the Academic-Government-Business-Community parties in developing local food innovations for honey bee cultivation in Lebak.

The 'Collaborative governance' and 'public entrepreneurship' approaches were adopted in explaining the dynamics of the development of technological innovation, changes in socio-political values ​​and their influence on the government-business-public relationship. This research is also an effort to build a model to see how the role of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University creatively initiates, facilitates and becomes a pendulum catalyst for the government's strategic role as an architect of growth as well as a protector of society against various interests from the tendency of business exploitation.

Results and Discussion

Challenges and Obstacles in Building a Business Center

From what was found in the field, there were several interesting things that were noted in the field related to honey bee cultivation. One of them is a village center that is trying to be transformed into a tourist area or tourist village. Some villages and villages are painted with pictures of bees. There has even been collaboration with IPB but through an integrated central partnership institution such as TOGA (Tanaman Obat Keluarga/Family Medicinal Plants). This is different from Legon Sari, Banjarsari village, where the assistance from the Dinas has reached 50 million. Buwana and Cikapek received assistance from Fatayat NU at the end of 2020. In their efforts, they always try to use the same method, for example giving sugar in the nest. In addition, they also apply ABGC (Academics, business, government, community) but it is not the same as Lebak. Academics have their respective roles. The community runs alone and collaboration has not yet been established.

From the activists, Wandi, the initiator of the honey bee, said that this started from anxiety. There is a lot of potential for honey but when it was developed, nothing moved it. Therefore, Wandi packaged and published it in 2009. From what was described and what the field findings actually were, the potential of this honey bee had many obstacles from the results of the field findings. The problem arises because the existing collaboration has not yet been formed. The honey bee community runs itself and there are many things that need to be studied starting from scientific studies, the support capacity of local governments and also the private sector that can build markets for these honey bee farmers.

In the case of honey bees in Banten Province, the system context that occurs within the scope of honey bees in Banten is a social problem, namely the fact that not many young people are willing and interested in becoming honey bee breeders. The main factor that dominates is that the honey bee business does not guarantee the welfare of the farmers. Within a period of 3 months of honey production, it can only produce an average of 300 thousand so it is difficult to make the bee business the main income. Even though in terms of the market is quite large, honey bee cultivators are hampered because of the low quantity of honey production due to the small scale of cultivation. Therefore, this is actually an opportunity that deserves attention in order to develop the business of beekeeping and honey commodities so that their production becomes even higher on a large scale.

Another problem is that honey bees are unique and very sensitive animals. This sensitivity makes it difficult for even the farmer to control it. Bees are very susceptible to light. They will approach the light but the next day they can fall to the ground and will not be able to fly again. Bees are also unique because they can treat farmers differently depending on the approach and treatment of the farmer. This makes honey bee production very difficult.

Furthermore, limited land also makes honey bee production limited. As many as 8 farmers in Buwana Village, some of whom use a honey bee production site that is not their land. Whereas in the honey bee process, a large expanse of land is needed to be able to maximize honey bees in producing their honey to be marketed. In addition, the challenge in honey bee cultivation is regarding the approval or acceptance of the community. Not a few people are worried about the existence of beekeeping in the surrounding environment which is considered dangerous for daily activities, especially if you have small children who are sensitive to bee stings. This makes beekeeping more and more complex challenges. In order to avoid rejection from local residents, it means that the need for large, natural and beautiful land far from community settlements is very important for the smooth cultivation of this honey bee.

The next problem is the lack of capital, which causes the resources to produce honey bees to be very limited. Boxes for honey bees made of wood are still very few owned by honey bee farmers. Even though this box is one of the main equipment for honey bee production, but the price is quite expensive, around 120 thousand depending on the type of wood, so honey beekeepers cannot have it in large quantities.

The honey beekeepers we interviewed admitted that in fact they learned the science of bees and honey on a self-taught basis through Youtube channels and other social media and only based on experience, trial and error in treating this cultivated commodity. Even by following the advice or suggestions of content creators on Youtube, sometimes the results fail, such as the suggestion to cut the queen bee's wings so as not to leave the nest she has provided, it actually makes the queen bee short-lived and its attractiveness tends to fade. Thus, bee cultivators need guidance from education on governance to maintain and care for bees to market their products.

This means that from some of the descriptions above, the problem of honey bee cultivation is considered a structural and cultural problem. It is classified as structural because there is still a lack of effort and attention from the government, private sector, and academics (universities) in developing honey bee cultivation in Banten. Furthermore, it is classified as a cultural issue because developing this cultivation is still getting rejection from local residents and cultivators also still do not have an integrated understanding of the governance of keeping bees and marketing honey as a result of their cultivation. If this is the case, then a joint effort is needed in the form of collaborative governance as a way to maximize the increase in original honey production initiated by the people of Banten. However, challenges and obstacles in realizing collaborative governance practices need to be investigated in order to encourage the success of honey bee cultivation. Therefore, this is where the urgency of this research is to examine the role of each actor in collaborative governance efforts.

From Praxis to Governance

From some literature on collaborative governance, it is interpreted as a joint effort between the private sector, the community and the government in achieving what is a common goal (Donahue & Zeckhauser, 2011). That is, each party must play its role to support the achievement of the goals that have been formulated. Collaborative governance that wants to be photographed in this research is to see how the Academic-Government-Business-Community Collaboration Partnership in the field of Development of Local Food Innovation for Honey Bee Cultivation in Pandeglang Regency in realizing the Integrated Smart and Green Campuss Untirta.

In collaborative governance there is always something called a driver. The driver or initiator plays a key role as the initial mover of the other party. In the case of bee farmers in Banten Province, the collaborative governance model was initiated (driven) by young people such as Wandi from the Cingagoler Honey Community and Yosa from the Juang Lebak Community, as well as other honey bee farmers who have an interest in honey bees.

Wandi is the founder of the Cingagoler Madu Community. He is called a driver because he is able to move the surrounding community in Cingagoler Kidul Village, Panhyuanga Village, Cihara District, Lebak Regency. Starting in 2007, Wandi mobilized young people to be able in raising honey bees. The trick is that Wandi gives a direct example of how to raise honey. This was because the youth's interest at that time was still low because the prospect of honey bees was not very promising, as a result of the less available market and the price was not too high. But over time, Wandi's efforts to raise honey bees began to show results, namely by finding a wider market so as to increase the interest of young people to raise honey bees. Until now, Cingagoler village is known as a honey bee center because apart from many honey bee farming businesses, the community has been able to seize another opportunity, namely the creation of a honey bee center tourist village. When we visit there, we will find many people's houses that are painted with colorful pictures of honey bees. This shows that in this village, interest in honey bees is getting higher because the prospects are starting to look promising. In 2014, 2016, and 2018, the cingagoler honey community was invited by the Slow Food Foundation in Italy to join the Salone Del Gusti & Teraa Madre event. This event is a catalog of food from around the world through the Ark of Taste program which in the event is verification of food products from around the world, organic certification through the Presidia program, Youth Movement for food and biodiversity conservation, as well as various workshops and food exhibitions from around the world. Wandi's success is increasingly able to mobilize youth to be able to continue to produce cingagoler honey which is eventually used as a sustainable livelihood shows in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Collaboration Pattern between Stakeholders

Meanwhile, Yosa is the founder of the Juang Lebak Community. Currently, Yosa has mobilized 8 young people to do honey bee business, which is located in Buwana Village. The motivation given by Yosa is able to convince the youth to continue doing business even though there are still many problems in the production of this honey. Many things were done to motivate, such as seeking assistance from Fatayat NU in Lebak Regency which gave 10 million in cash to honey bee farmers in order to motivate farmers to keep running the honey bee business. Currently, honey bees are not as promising as what Wandi has achieved in Cingagoler, but Yosa's hope is the same as Wandi's, which is to create a honey bee village in Buwana Village.

The existence of Wandi and Yosa as a community that moves honey bees is not supported by other parties from the government, private sector, or academics. From the government, at the Banten Province level, it has provided financial assistance of 50 million which was given to Legon Sari, Banjarsari District for the production of Honey Bees, accompanied by Wandi. However, this assistance is only given once and is only given to certain communities. Moreover, such donations are given because there is momentum and are ceremonial. For example, Wandi, when it came to Lebak's birthday, there was new attention to bees so that they seemed to contribute to the development of Lebak, in reality they did not.

The rest, after being given assistance, there is no longer any monitoring from the government to the honey bee community. At the Lebak Regency level, although it has a vision of developing a tourist destination, the honey bee village has never received special attention. In fact, with the existence of a honey bee tourism village, it could be one of the promising tourist destinations to increase local revenue. At the Sukamanah Village level, although the village has been aware of the potential of these honey bees, there has never been a desire from the village to make honey bees one of the focuses of village development and empowerment. This can be seen from the budget priorities in the APBDes that are not planned and realized for honey bees. Sukamanah Village prioritizes BUMDes on home stays because its area is close to the Bagedur coast. Meanwhile, from the legislature, especially to the DPR RI, they have advocated through Hasbi Jayabaya who is a representative from the Banten I electoral district, but there has been no attention and follow-up because it is also not a null commission because it is not in his commission. This adds to the list of government negligence towards the honey bee community.

From the private sector, various large companies in Lebak Regency such as Semen Merah Putih are also reluctant to provide their CSR to increase honey bee production. CSR is more directed at financing youth and organizational activities, as well as sheep farming, while honey bees themselves have not been touched yet.

On the other hand, for academics, there has been a collaboration contribution with IPB but through an integrated center partnership institution such as TOGA (Family Medicinal Plants). Meanwhile, the need to increase honey bee production has not been implemented theoretically by universities in Banten and surrounding areas. Whereas honey bee cultivators really hope for continuous guidance and assistance in order to properly understand the application of bee maintenance and breeding and marketing efforts for the result, namely pure honey to be widely marketed.

This half-hearted form of collaboration is certainly homework in the future. Assistance from the government, CSR and community organizations can be used as a stimulus for the creation of more massive beekeeping. This is reinforced by interviews conducted with farmers that one of the main obstacles they face in developing beekeeping from a simple home model to a larger model is related to capital. The urgency of developing beekeeping to become more professional is actually to answer market needs related to honey demand. Often honey farmers feel overwhelmed by the huge market demand for pure honey. However, due to the unspoiled farming process and limited infrastructure, they are not able to meet the demands of the market. As a result, they are also unable to maximize profits because the scale of the farm is still simple. For illustration, in 1 box of beehives, it takes 4-6 months to be ready for harvest and able to fill 300 ml bottles. That's assuming it's supported by the weather. Often, the honey produced is not as much as expected by farmers. This is coupled with honey bee nest boxes, which are still few in number among farmers. Therefore, the role of assistance from the government, private sector, universities and community organizations is important to realize the form of collaboration itself, in addition to ensuring the sustainability of beekeeping.

Even so, it doesn't just stop at providing capital. Honey bee breeders need more serious assistance from financiers. So far, the process of providing assistance is only one-way in the form of providing capital without continuing with the monitoring process. As a result, capital is often not used according to its designation. The process of mentoring and monitoring is important to ensure that the capital provided is indeed used for the development of honey bee farms. In addition, long-term sustainable capital is also considered to be able to ensure that honeybees can be cultivated more professionally. Moreover, so far, the provision of capital is only ceremonial. As a result, the common goal of collaboration is still something that is difficult to pursue.

Parties involved in honey bee farming, ranging from breeders, government, private sector, to academics need to understand that the problem of honey farming is not only confined to the livestock process. But it is a process from upstream to downstream that needs to be prepared for activities and predict potential problems. There needs to be a comprehensive problem identification starting from the preparation of tools, approval of the surrounding community for the existence of beekeeping, natural and non-destructive farming processes, innovative honey harvesting processes, product packaging to marketing. Because of this long process, the commitment of each party is certainly needed. The role of the government, be it village, district/city and provincial governments is very important. And this research shows that the key role in honey bee farming is still dominated by the community, with the role of other parties being minimal.

Indeed, efforts to build collaborative governance in the development of honey bee cultivation are not easy. It is necessary to understand the dynamics of collaboration in order to realize the cooperation of all stakeholders. Emerson, Nabatchi, & Balogh, (2012) present the dynamics of collaboration and tactical ways to build collaborative governance, namely: (1) Principled Engagement, which means it requires multi-stakeholder involvement related to honeybee cultivation and honey commodities in terms of uniting principles to emphasize return to the initial goal to be achieved together, which is indicated by the achievement of 4D factors such as discovery, definition, deliberation, and determination. Through shared principles, stakeholders who have relationships and different identity goals work hand in hand in their respective institutions, sectors, and jurisdictions to resolve problems and conflicts and generate values ​​that are able to facilitate honey bee cultivation and increase the productivity of pure honey commodities. (2) Shared Motivation, includes mutual understanding, shared commitment, trust, and internal legitimacy. In this context, it actually underlines the interpersonal and relational elements in the dynamics of collaboration and is sometimes referred to as social capital. This means that stakeholders in honey bee affairs must understand the collective motives so that collaboration is only to support each other in order to create a common benefit. (3) Capacity for Join action, closely related to procedural and institutional arrangements, leadership, knowledge, and resources. This capacity is the basis for empowering a group, which can also be called the principle of egalitarian cooperation. Thus, the role of all stakeholders who are struggling with the cultivation of honey bees and honey commodities needs to emphasize the importance of measuring their internal capacity in order to identify strengths, weaknesses, projected barriers and opportunity structures which are then formulated as tactical actions to encourage the success of honey bee cultivation and pure honey sales.

So there needs to be a partnership model built between academics, business, government, and the community to increase honey bee cultivation which is one of the potential local foods in Banten Province. Academics need to play a better role in research by conducting innovative research to improve honey bee cultivation from various aspects, as well as community service by providing counseling, understanding, and assistance related to local food innovations, in this case honey bees. The business sector also needs to play a role in supporting honey cultivation through the provision of resources which have been an obstacle to honey bee cultivation efforts. The government as a policy maker also needs to participate in this collaboration. At the Banten Province level, it is necessary to provide various supporting facilities that will facilitate honey beekeepers in their production. At the Lebak Regency level, it is necessary to provide support through training and assistance to honey farmers so that they can maximize the potential of this local food. In the village government, it is necessary to prioritize the honey bee cultivation program as one of the leading local food potentials. With a well-developed collaborative partnership model, local food innovation in this case honeybee cultivation will develop better which will have an impact on improving the community's economy as well as motivation for other regions in Banten Province that have the same potential.


Honey bee cultivation in Lebak Regency still has structural and cultural problems. Collaborative partnerships as an effort to increase honey bee cultivation have not yet been formed between academia, business, government, and society. Communities that come from the community still have a dominant role in moving honey bee farmers. Academics are still limited in providing support to honey beekeepers. While the business sector has not played a role and the government has not been fully involved in this honey bee cultivation. The assistance provided was not followed by an intensive mentoring process.


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