Research Article: 2018 Vol: 21 Issue: 2
Agus Syam, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Haedar Akib, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Muchtar Yunus, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Sitti Hasbiah, Universitas Negeri Makassar
The main problem of entrepreneurship education in Indonesia is that most young generation thinks that they continue to pursue an education in universities, including in Educational Institutions Teaching Personnel (LPTKs), that they aspire to become civil servants / civilian government officials, not to become entrepreneurs. Furthermore, it is argued that entrepreneurial learning in universities not be able to change the mind-set of college graduates from job seekers to job inventors. Therefore, this study assumes that the factors that cause alumni of educational institutions to engage in entrepreneurial activities are because of the strong desire or motivation for entrepreneurs who have been instilled or "formed" since those who are students or when pursuing learning at college, including at the State University of Makassar (Universitas Negeri Makassar/UNM). This study aims to determine the effect of entrepreneurship learning on student entrepreneurship motivation at UNM. This research is Explanatory Research with Survey approach. Number of the student population as many as 654 students of UNM who proposed Student Creativity Program (PKM), with 242 samples obtained by proportional random sampling technique. Data collection techniques used observation, questionnaires, and documentation. The results of the study found that there is a significant positive effect of the entrepreneurial pursuit of student entrepreneur motivation of UNM. Based on the focus and locus of this study it is clear that UNM's vision of "education and entrepreneurship" has "colored" the preparation of mission, objectives, policies and curriculum content in each study program. Similarly, its output and impact (effects), both the instructional effect and the nurturent effect can foster attitudes and entrepreneurial motivation for students. Thus, the results of this study are expected to contribute to the formation of creative, innovative and educated young entrepreneurs in the future.
Entrepreneurship Learning, Entrepreneurship Motivation.
Unemployment in Indonesia is increasingly increasing in number over time. Job seekers, both those who have a bachelor's or non-undergraduate degree must compete for employment in tandem with limited employment, resulting in unemployment (Handriani, 2011). The cause of educated unemployment is the number of scholars who seek to find jobs, rather than creating jobs. The analysis suggests that most educational programs are nothing but temporary fashion. We claim that the deficits existing in entrepreneurial interests and abilities of young people are caused by rational oriented educational systems, which do not promote creativity, opportunity recognition and problem solving abilities. The implications suggest to rather concentrate on the promotion of soft entrepreneurial skills than on teaching how to start a business (Lautenschläger & Haase, 2011). In fact, graduates of college or alumni who become entrepreneurship are a supporting factor that determines the economic backwardness in their area, because it is considered to have more knowledge, skills and life skills that can be applied in the work (Cravens & Piercy, 2003; Cooper, Schindler & Sun, 2006; Llanes & Barbour, 2007).
Organizing education at universities, especially in UNM involves lecturers as educators and students as learners, embodied through interaction or learning process (theory and practice). In organizing this learning, educators are consciously planning their teaching activities systematically and based on a set of rules and plans on education packed in the form of instructional curriculum, where the curriculum requires a teaching-learning process that emphasizes the needs of students.
One of the principles of the vision and mission of education is education is organized as a process of culture and empowerment of life-long students. In the process it is necessary that educators (lecturers) provide exemplary, constructive will and develop students' potential and creativity. Therefore, the learning process needs to be planned, implemented, assessed and initiated to be effective and efficient. Entrepreneurial learning at UNM should be able to provide cognitive knowledge and applicative understanding in entrepreneurship.
The State University of Makassar is one of the higher educational institutions that employ entrepreneurship courses as the courses taught in each study program. Entrepreneurship learning at UNM develops modules aimed at: 1) Entrepreneurship development among students, including raising awareness and motivation. 2) Develop entrepreneurial skills to identify and utilize opportunities. 3) Training skills needed to start and manage business growth (UNM Entrepreneurship Centre, 2016, in Ahmar, Rusli & Rahman, 2017).
The graduates produced by the Indonesian Institute of Education (LPTK) in Indonesia, especially in the State University of Makassar (UNM), have acquired much entrepreneurial knowledge and experience during the learning process, in line with UNM's vision of "education" and "entrepreneurship." Curriculum implemented at LPTK requires obligation courses at all levels or educational programs (UNM Rector Instruction, Prof. Dr. Husain Syam, M.TP). At undergraduate level (S1), students are provided with knowledge of the basic concepts of entrepreneurship theoretically and practically. At the Master's program (S2), students are provided with the knowledge of the "Basic Concepts of Entrepreneurship theoretically and practically, as well as the focus of the students are deepening the material on the" Entrepreneurship Development Strategy. "While at Doctoral Program (S3), students are provided with knowledge of "Basic Entrepreneurship Concepts and" Entrepreneur Development Strategy "as an introduction, students are also given the material on the development of concepts, theories and methods of entrepreneurship (contemporary, modern, postmodern or contemporary entrepreneurship theory) theoretically and praxis. In other words, students and alumni at UNM have been provided with contextual entrepreneurship knowledge and skills, so the undergraduate who has vast and deep experience in the field of entrepreneurship also (hopefully) have the freedom to work and independently. This entrepreneur can create new jobs to be able to absorb labour (Cravens & Piercy, 2003; Cooper, Schindler & Sun, 2006; Llanes & Barbour, 2007).
However, the expectations, as stated above, however, the tendency for college students (including at UNM) today is that most of them are looking for a steady job by earning a respectable and generous status after completing education. There is a tendency that most students, including finalists and newly graduated scholars have no entrepreneurial plans. They prefer to be a worker in large corporations or government agencies (to become State civilian/ASN) to secure their future. Therefore, graduate college graduates, especially UNM alumni, need to be directed and supported not only as job seekers, but able and ready to become job inventors (Dharma & Akib, 2009; Idkhan et al., 2015; Aisyah, Musa & Ramli, 2017).
The findings indicate that there are causal linkages between entrepreneurial education (managerial skills), social competence (interpersonal skills) and to a greater degree, basic entrepreneurial training skills and ventures’ effectiveness (Elmuti, Khoury & Omran, 2012). The article of this study assumes that the main factor that causes alumni of educational institutions, especially higher education, to engage in an entrepreneurial activity is because of the strong desire for entrepreneurs who have been instilled or "formed" since the students followed the learning process at universities, including UNM.
Susanto (2000) suggests some motivation that can encourage a person to become an entrepreneur is the desire to feel free work, self-efficacy achieved and tolerance of risk. The point here is Freedom in work is a model of work where one does little work but gets great results. Going to work without being tied to rules or formal working hours or doing business rarely but once a profit, let alone fortunately enough to be enjoyed for months or enough for so many weeks ahead. While self-achievement achieved is the achievement of expected work goals, which include satisfaction in work and comfort work and tolerance of risk, is how much ability and creativity a person in solving the size of a risk taken to obtain the expected income (Lautenschläger & Haase, 2011). The greater a person is to his or her ability, the greater his belief in the ability to get results from his decisions and the greater his conviction to try what others see at risk (Gibson et al., 1991; Heskett & Kotter, 1992; Guiltinan, Paul & Madden, 1997; Aras et al., 2017).
Needs achievement can be interpreted as a unity of character that motivates a person to face the challenge to achieve success and excellence. The need for achievement can also encourage decision-making ability and the tendency to take the risk of an entrepreneur (Indarti & Rostiani, 2008). The need for achievement affects the entrepreneur interest of a person who wants to achieve the desired career path according to the hard work done (McClelland, 1961; Noe et al., 2007; Luthans, Luthans & Luthans, 2015).
Findings from various studies on the various factors that can shape a person's entrepreneurial attitude more clearly show that one's entrepreneurship can be learned and shaped (Johnson, 1997). For that some attributes of personality such as the need for achievement, a strong internal locus of control, high creativity and innovation, have a role in shaping the interest of people to entrepreneurship (Lautenschläger & Haase, 2011). Similarly, the attitude factor of a person in looking at entrepreneurship activities is also believed to form entrepreneurial interest, while the contextual factors that get the researcher's attention are academic support, social support and business environment condition.
For students to be motivated and have entrepreneurial desires felt necessary to analyse the factors that can affect students wishing to entrepreneurship in the hope that later can be considered the college in developing the course, especially in the field of entrepreneurship. These factors are the first self-efficacy, the second is the tolerance of risk, the third is to feel free work, the four needs for achievement and the fifth preparedness of instrumentation to become an entrepreneur (Pearce, Robinson & Subramanian, 2000; Segal, Borgia & Schoenfeld, 2005; Luthans et al., 2015). The hypothesis that can be proposed from the theoretical framework is, "there is a significant influence of entrepreneurship learning on student entrepreneurship motivation at Universitas Negeri Makassar”.
This research type is quantitative by using survey approach. These types and approaches rely on scores of scores as the basic framework of the analysis gained through survey methods. This method, according to Kerlinger & Lee (2000, p. 599), is commonly used in large and small populations, but the data studied are data from samples taken from that population, so that relative events, distribution and inter-variable relationships are found. From the data, facts or information obtained through the survey can be described the condition of each variable studied, so it is possible to note the influence of variables that one with other variables, which in the context of this study independent variables to the dependent variable. In other words, based on the types, approaches and methods mentioned above, this research includes the type of quantitative research. This type of research tries to explain and describe the condition of each variable in detail and see the relationship between entrepreneurship learning variables (X) with the motivation of entrepreneur (Y) of UNM students studied.
The population in this study is all students of UNM who submitted the title of Student Creativity Program (program kreativitas mahasiswa/PKM) in 2016. The number of UNM students who submitted the title of PKM in 2016 is as many as 654 students. Sampling in this study refers to the formula proposed Isaac and Michael (Sugiyono, 2012) with a 5 percent error rate, so that the number of samples obtained as much as 242 people/students. Determination of the number of samples from each unit (faculty) is done proportional random sampling. Furthermore, a lottery technique is used to determine the selected sample of each unit.
In this study, Likert Scale is used to measure social phenomena, which in this study is specified by the researchers, from now on referred to as research variables. The measured variable is defined as subvariabel and subvariabel is defined as an indicator (variable manifest) that can be measured. This measurable manifest variable indicator is used as a starting point for preparing instrument items, in the form of questions or statements which are then answered by the respondent. The answer to each question item is made into gradation, from very positive to very negative (Sugiyono, 2006). The use of Likert scale is based on considerations:
1) Has many conveniences;
2) High reliability in ordering subjects based on perception;
3) Flexible than other techniques and
4) Applicable in various situations (Purwadi, 2000). In data processing, the Likert scale is included in the interval scale (Supranto, 1997). The Likert scale is 1 to 5, the summated scale is done using five categories of choice: Strongly agree (score 5), Agree (4), Doubt (3), Disagree (2), Very agree (1).
Data collection technique. The data collection instrument used to obtain valid and reliable data is a questionnaire as the main instrument. This technique is done by distributing the question to the students of UNM which is determined as the respondent in this research. The technique of collecting supporting data is interview technique that is to interview some key informant to be interviewed related to the variables studied. Similarly, documentation techniques are used using data collection through document tracking efforts and other written reports (secondary data) that have to do with this research variable.
Data analysis. To answer the question asked, the data analysis technique used is inferential statistical analysis. The approach used to solve the objectives of the research is quantitative, i.e., to test the significance of the independent variables to the dependent variable (data comprehensively) analysed by using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis technique (Hair et al., 1999; Bowen & Guo, 2011). The complete SEM modelling consists of Measurement Model and Structural Measurement Model. The measurement model is intended to confirm a dimension or factor or latent variable based on empirical indicators (manifest variables). While the Structural Model is a modelling of the relationship structure that forms or explains causality between factors or latent variables.
Stages of SEM Analysis. To make a complete modelling, the following steps are necessary:
1) Development of the theory-based model
2) Development of path diagram to show causality relationship
3) Conversion of flowcharts into a series of structural equations and measurement model specifications
4) Selection of input matrix and estimation techniques on built model
5) Assess the problem of identification
6) Evaluation model
7) Interpretation and Modification of the model.
According to Bollen and Long (1993) there are five processes to be followed in the analysis of Covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM), where each stage will affect the next stages:
1) Model specification
2) Model identification
3) Model estimation
4) Model evaluation
5) Model respesifikasi
In this article, the research result of Syam (2017) dissertation is not presented SEM modelling and SEM analysis stages as a whole, because the dissertation of this source examines a series of inter-variable relationships in addition to learning entrepreneurship and entrepreneur motivation students UNM.
In this research used Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with the second order. Testing the goodness of fit on the measurement model for each variable using the measurement of convergent validity described as follows. This evaluation is done by looking at the value of loading factor on each indicator. If the value is greater than 0.50 then it can be said that the indicator is valid. Convergent Validity aims to ensure that the indicators used correctly define the observed latent variables. The results of data processing for Convergent Validity analysis of exogenous and endogenous constructs are as follows (Table 1):
|Table 1 : Standardized Regression Weight Confirmatory Learning Entrepreneurial Variables (X)|
|X.1 (Learning Content)||X1.1.1||0.771||-|
|X.2 (Learning Model)||X1.2.1||0.822||-|
|X.3 (Learning Evaluation)||X1.3.1||0.853||-|
Based on the above table, the value of factor loading on all indicators of Entrepreneurship Learning (X) variables above 0.5 with sig<0.05. This indicates that the sub-variables that exist in Entrepreneurship Learning (X) have valid indicators and can form these variables well. The learning materials provided to students have been based on the curriculum applicable at UNM. This learning material is designed in a "Learning Plan" created by a lecturer who entails entrepreneurship. Given this research is focused on one strata level students, the content of the curriculum is about introducing entrepreneurship, basic concepts of entrepreneurship, theory and practice.
To achieve instructional goals and nurturent effects for students on entrepreneurial theories and practices, the teaching model or learning model, is designed and applied by the expected level of taxonomy and weight (cognitive, affective, psychomotor). For example, in knowledge areas or taxonomies, ranging from the level of understanding and knowledge, to levels of analysis, synthesis and evaluation (high level cognitive). Similarly to affective and psychomotoric taxonomy, the weight is adjusted to the specific purpose of the learning process.
Evaluation of entrepreneurial learning for students at UNM is designed in the form of evaluation tools and practices that have been implemented, both in the form of formative evaluation and summative evaluation, so that measurable achievement and mastery of students towards the entrepreneurial learning material provided. One of the tangible results of the evaluation and the positive impact of this entrepreneurial learning process is the formation of an "entrepreneurial" student group that produces entrepreneurial research proposals funded by some funders (both bank and non-bank) (Table 2).
|Table 2: Results Standardized Regression Weight Confirmatory Variable Motivation Entrepreneurship (Y)|
|Y.1 (Creative and Innovative)||X2.1.1||0.768||12.737||0.000||Significant|
|Y.2 (Has Leadership Spirit)||X2.2.1||0.778||12.517||0.000||Significant|
|Y.3 (Effective and Efficient)||X2.3.1||0.787||12.922||0.000||Significant|
|Y.4 (Future Oriented)||X2.4.1||0.758|
Based on the above table, the value of factor loading on all indicators of entrepreneur motivation (Y) variables above 0.5 with sig<0.05. This indicates that the sub-variables that exist in Entrepreneurship Motivation (Y) has a valid indicator and can form these variables well. Relationship of Entrepreneurship Learning with Entrepreneurship Motivation got correlation value of 0.849 and p-value 0.000<0.05 then obtained the conclusion that there is a very strong positive relationship between Entrepreneurship Learning and Entrepreneurship Motivation.
Entrepreneurship Learning (X1). Description of the variables (process) of entrepreneurial learning includes three indicators, namely:
1) Teaching materials
2) Teaching model
3) Learning evaluation
Measurement of items in each indicator is done by using a Likert scale with value range 1-5. The result of measurement of Entrepreneurship Learning indicator is obtained mean value 4.51. More details can be seen in Table 3.
|Table 3: Table Frequency/Percentage Indicators Of Entrepreneurship Learning Variables (X1)|
|Indicator||Respondents answer Score||Mean|
|Mean Variable Learning Entrepreneurship||4.51|
Source: Results of Dissertation Research Data (Syam, 2017)
Based on the results of data analysis in Table 3, obtained information that of 242 respondents in this study, tendency strongly agrees that learning entrepreneurship did well seen from three indicators namely learning materials obtained, learning model used and evaluation of learning held at the State University Makassar. The results are in line with the understanding of Wibowo (2011, p. 76) that there are two good ways (effective) to instil entrepreneurial mentality to students in college or on campus. First, integrate entrepreneurship education into the curriculum. Therefore, in the contents/curriculum materials under guidance, the character of entrepreneurship science is designed so that students can know (to know), do (to do) and become (to be) entrepreneur. Thus, both teaching objectives (as part of learning) and learning objectives themselves, as well as educational objectives in the narrow sense of schooling and educational goals in the general sense, that is to know and to do integrated into the curriculum of courses and distributed in various eyes scholarly lectures.
In this study, universities (UNM) provide entrepreneurship courses aimed at provision of motivation and the formation of entrepreneurial mental attitude. To become an entrepreneur, is provided with practical business skills training. Second, students’ extracurricular activities are systemically packaged and directed to build motivation and entrepreneurial mental attitude. Student coaching in various activities of interest and talent, knowledge, welfare or organizational also directed to provide a skill or life skill entrepreneurship. Thus, learning can be viewed as a process of change and the formation of knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities of an entrepreneur, either through education, training, mentoring or experience.
Entrepreneurship education is the "weapon of destruction" of unemployment and poverty, as well as a ladder to the dream of every society to be financially independent, can build individual prosperity, as well as to build the welfare of society (Dharma & Akib, 2009; Asmani, 2011). The Government has issued Presidential Instruction Number 4 of 1995 concerning the National Movement to Populize and Entrepreneurial Entrepreneurship. This directive mandates the entire Indonesian community and nation to develop entrepreneurial programs. The number of entrepreneurs is one of the supporters of the national economy so should be striving to be improved continuously.
Entrepreneurship Motivation (X2). Description of entrepreneurship motivation variables include four indicators: 1) Creativity and innovative, 2) Leadership, 3) Effective and efficient and 4) Future oriented. Measurement of items in each indicator is done using a Likert scale with a range of values of 1-5. The result of measurement indicator value (mean) obtained 4.52 which tendency is at good/very good catergori. More details can be seen in Table 4.
|Table 4: Table Frequency/Percentage Indicators Variable Motivation Entrepreneurship (X2)|
|Indicator||Respondents answer Score||Mean|
|Mean Variable Motivation of Entrepreneurial Students||4,52|
Source: Results of Dissertation Research Data (Syam, 2017)
Based on the results of data analysis in Table 4, obtained information that from 242 respondents indicate their existence (students as informants) strongly agree that his motivation for entrepreneurship is based on the results or effects of entrepreneurial learning that has been obtained during the lecture at UNM. The student's entrepreneurial motivation is seen in four indicators, namely creativity and innovative behaviours are shown, soul or spirit of leadership that actualized in organizational behaviour, effective and efficient in action and future-oriented to live better or more prosperous. The effect of learning and the effect of accompaniment of entrepreneurship learning process and entrepreneurship motivation by UNM students are forming its jatidirinya to berwirusaha now and in the future.
The results of this study reinforce the opinions of experts and views Siagian (1999) that entrepreneurship is the spirit, behaviour and ability to give positive responses to the opportunity to gain profit for you and or provide better benefits to customers or society. The trick is always to seek and serve customers better, create and provide more useful products and implement more efficient ways of working through risk-taking, creativity and innovation and management skills. An entrepreneur in his mind is always trying to find, utilize and create business opportunities that can provide keahungan.
Another opinion about entrepreneurship is also put forward by Idrus (1999), Syam (2007) and Arlennora (2013), that there are five essentials in entrepreneurship, namely:
1) Entrepreneurship is the value embodied in behaviour that can be used as resources, movers, goals, ways, processes and business. In this study, it can be seen that the students studied show attitude and behaviour based on the soul or entrepreneurial spirit;
2) Entrepreneurship is the ability to create something new and different from the existing one. In this case, the students' creativity that is contested is a tangible proof of creativity to create something "new" or different from existing ones;
3) Entrepreneurship is a process whereby creativity and innovation are created to solve problems and find opportunities. In this case the student's firmness in making the right and beneficial decisions, both for himself and for others;
4) Entrepreneurship is the value needed to start and grow a business. A good ethical, aesthetic and kinesthetic value is considered productive by students and others is a tangible form of appreciation of entrepreneurial values;
5) Entrepreneurship is the process of working on something new and different that can provide more benefits. In this case, the students studied can show the public about the newness, uniqueness, difference and usefulness of the activities undertaken. In other words, the creative-innovative behaviour of students and employees is the potential of human resources that can be transformed into valuable competencies (Akib, 2006), both for themselves and for others.
In the context of business or wider scope, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship motivation is a real effort in creating added value by combining the potential and variety of existing resources, technology, knowledge, services, improvements and other ways into something new, unique, different and useful to compete in the market.
Several research results support the results of this study, among others, conducted by Barba-Sánchez et al. (2017) who examines the formal learning of courses related to entrepreneurial learning that gained the result that entrepreneurial learning in formal learning has a strong positive relationship or influence with intention, that there is an increase in entrepreneurial intent among engineering students, up from 35.4 percent to 67.2 percent among industrial engineering students and from 41.5 percent to 70.5 percent in the case of computer engineering students, thanks to this training. Suggest that entrepreneurial learning among engineering students be proposed as an addition to training in business management subjects and entrepreneurship skills.
Similarly, the study by Hattab (2014) that comparison between the intentions of students before and after exposure to special courses of entrepreneurship reveals that learning has significant positive entrepreneurial outcomes with the students' intentions towards increasing self-employment. Students gain further knowledge about entrepreneurship; Therefore, their perception of entrepreneur turns them into positive career choices. This finding confirms that entrepreneurship education is related to entrepreneur interest. Similarly, the results of research by Schwarz et al. (2009) and Noel (2002) concluded that there is a significant influence on the university where the learning of student interest in starting a business.
Students who view entrepreneurial education or learning positively are more likely to have a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship. Students who view entrepreneurship-education positively are more likely to have positive subjective norms and students who view entrepreneurship education positively are more likely to have higher behavioural controls and that lead to student entrepreneurship intentions. This is the result of a study conducted by Sondari (2014) presented at The 5th Indonesia International Conference on Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Small Business (IICIES 2013). The results of this study are also in line with the findings of the research conducted by Elmuti et al. (2012) that there is causal linkages between entrepreneurial education (managerial skills), social competence (interpersonal skills) and to a greater degree, basic entrepreneurial training skills and ventures’ effectiveness. They were statistically significant confirming the prior expectation of the significant value of entrepreneurship education. The data demonstrates that the entrepreneurial education and training programs appear to create openness, confidence and trust among the participants in this study. However, the type of entrepreneurship education must be coupled with content that is rich in learning principles, innovation and reflection to enhance ventures’ effectiveness.
Based on the discussion that has been described, it can be concluded that there is a significant positive influence on the entrepreneurial learning process towards student entrepreneurial motivation at the State University of Makassar (Universitas Negeri Makassar/UNM). The result of this study also reinforces the opinion of its experts, previous research results and assumptions that have been developed that the main factors that led alumni of educational personnel education institutions, particularly in UNM, to want to engage in entrepreneurial activities is because of the strong desire for entrepreneurs who have been cultivated or " formed "since the alumni still have the status as a student who follows the process of entrepreneurial learning. In other words, entrepreneurial learning has a positive impact, both personally to the student, as well as institutionalally for UNM. Then, based on the focus and the locus of the study it is clear that UNM's vision, "education and entrepreneurship" has been "colouring" the mission, purpose, policy and curriculum development of each study program. Similarly, the output and the positive impact (impact) generated, both the impact of the learning/instructional and the impact of its nurturent effect have been able to foster entrepreneurial attitudes and motivations for students and alumni. Hence, it is assumed that the implementation of education based on entrepreneurial learning in college contributes to the creation of creative, innovative and educated young entrepreneurs in the future.
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