Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 2S
Suharnomo, Diponegoro University
Sugeng Wahyudi, Diponegoro University
Citation Information: Suharnomo, & Wahyudi, S. (2021). Development of an entrepreneurship model to produce young entrepreneurs. Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences, 24(S2), 1-14.
This research is in an effort to develop an entrepreneurial model based on the symbiotic career method (SCM) to produce young entrepreneurs with business ethics in the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department curriculum who have an entrepreneurial spirit, competence in their field of knowledge, have a global outlook, and have business ethics so that they are able to be professional and uphold the values in every job. The first year of this research target has identified an entrepreneurial education model for students prior to the application of the SCM-based model and business ethics entrepreneurship model. In the second year, the problem is formulated to find a practicum module for entrepreneurship courses that involve entrepreneurs who are members of the Indonesian Sharia Banking Association of Semarang City as a comparison, and the third year will build entrepreneurial incubators. This research aimed is to obtain the right model in learning and mastery of student competencies in entrepreneurship education. The Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University is prepared to compete in the global market. Entrepreneurship development in the student environment is an effort to apply the Competency-Based Curriculum (KBK) with learning outcomes according to the Indonesian National Qualifications Framework (KKNI). This research is supported by all academicians and partners who are willing to contribute in the form of discussions with study program managers, team teaching, and students, mentoring, coaching, and counselling are carried out so that they are more focused and directed, as well as providing places for internships and training.
Entrepreneur with Management ethics; Symbiotic career method; Mentoring.
One of the effective efforts to reduce unemployment is to create young entrepreneurs who can create new jobs. For this reason, universities are responsible for equipping their graduates with knowledge of entrepreneurship and management ethics so that they can produce ethical young graduates / entrepreneurs. Based on data from the Central Bureau of Statistics (2011), the number of unemployed people based on diploma education reached 244,687 people, while those with bachelor degrees reached 492,343 people. The total number of unemployed college graduates was 737,030 out of a total unemployment of 117,370,485 in August 2011. The issue of intellectual unemployment is a serious problem that must be resolved by universities so that public trust in educational institutions can be maintained. Therefore, it is necessary to research the factors that strengthen the entrepreneurial abilities of university graduates so that they become more creative in creating new jobs.
From the perspective of psychological science, entrepreneurship is seen as a behaviour designed by individuals (Kirkley, 2017). Therefore, individual behaviour will affect the success of one’s business (Littrell, 2013). Furthermore, the research results of Teece (2018) indicate that certain characteristics help individuals deal with stress and various business dynamics.
Ethics education in management is very important in today’s society. Ethics is an indicator of right and wrong in running a business and requires workers to have good moral values. Some examples of unethical actions at the corporate level include cases of arrest of Bank Indonesia officials, corruption cases of members of the People’s Representative Council, cases of prosecutors selling evidence of illegal drugs, and many more. The role of education in shaping human morality is enormous. Therefore, there needs to be an ethical intervention in education, both at the primary school and tertiary levels.
Ethical intervention is a training and/or education for students in the field of ethics (Mullen, 2017). Based on this understanding, it makes perfect sense if researchers assume that training on ethics will improve student morale. Several previous studies have shown a positive correlation between ethical interventions and individual moral improvement (such as DeGrazia, 2014; Moore, 2015). On the other hand, several other studies have shown a very small or even non-existent correlation between ethical interventions and individual moral improvement (such as research conducted by Gu and Neesham, 2014; Schaefer, 2015). Several previous studies have also examined the impact of specific courses on ethics such as “Management Ethics” or other courses that incorporate elements of ethics in it. Bazerman and Gino (2012); Lambersky (2016) examined the impact of ethics courses on improving student morale. Bazerman and Gino (2012) concluded that there is a positive correlation while Lambersky (2016) is the opposite.
College graduates need to be equipped with knowledge of good management ethics so that they are able to become moral entrepreneurs so that deviant behaviour practices in management (as reported by Littrell, 2013) will not occur. Students of the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Management, Diponegoro University are prepared to compete in the global market. In international management, knowledge of ethics is needed which includes various dimensions of international management (Chesters, 2012). Therefore, it is necessary to develop an ethical entrepreneurial education model that includes both local and international management knowledge. Various efforts have been made around the world (see Nabi, Holden, and Walmsley, 2010) to develop a model for entrepreneurship education so as to produce young entrepreneurs, especially those with university graduates.
In accordance with the vision and mission of Diponegoro University in 2020, the direction of mastery of graduate competencies is expected to be able to compete globally without leaving Diponegoro University’s characteristics, namely rural development and local wisdom. Diponegoro University needs to develop science and technology to develop and utilize rural resources in order to improve the quality of the economy, service community needs, and how society is organized to optimize the use of these resources. The extraction and utilization of local culture and wisdom that can be developed must be done to overcome current and future problems in the local area, and at the same time can contribute to solving regional, national, and global problems. In terms of economics, this characteristic can be interpreted as an effort to pay attention to the potential of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and entrepreneurship.
Learning involves change that is long term, not temporary, and experiences are necessary for learning. If experiences produce relatively permanent changes in behaviour, learning has occurred (Nordin, 2011). Research by Hayes and Richmond (2017) identifies that the entrepreneurship skills of students are still below the average ability of young entrepreneurs in the Semarang City, so research is needed related to learning methods for entrepreneurship courses for undergraduate students.
The first year the research target is to identify an entrepreneurial education model for students before implementing a symbiotic career method (SCM) based model as well as a management ethical entrepreneurship model involving entrepreneurs who are members of the Indonesian Sharia Banking Association (Asbisindo) of Semarang City as a comparison. In the second year, problems are formulated to find a practicum module for entrepreneurship courses, and the third year will build entrepreneurship incubators. This research is to obtain the right model in learning and mastery of student competencies in entrepreneurial education with management ethics.
The large percentage of intellectual unemployment in Indonesia shows that university graduates are unprepared to enter the world of work due to the limited job opportunities available. On the other hand, not a few college graduates fail to develop a business because of their limited knowledge and expertise. This is due to the absence of an appropriate entrepreneurial education model to produce quality young entrepreneurs.
Ethics education is not only provided at the primary and secondary school level, but needs to be followed up to the tertiary level. Research by Littrell (2013) concluded that one of the causes of failure of MSMEs in developing businesses was the illegal practice of cheating on weights and illegal levies which caused unfair competition among MSMEs. This problem needs to be resolved by providing ethical education in management combined with religious education, so that universities are able to produce young entrepreneurs with strong ethics.
The research objective in the first year is to identify an entrepreneurial education model for students before implementing an SCM-based model as well as a management ethical entrepreneurship model involving entrepreneurs who are members of the Indonesian Islamic Banking Association (Asbisindo) of Semarang City as a comparison. In the second year, problems are formulated to find practicum modules for entrepreneurship courses that have been tested and implemented in the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department, and the third year will build entrepreneurial incubators.
Research Main Objectives
This research aimed to develop a method of ethical entrepreneurship education by combining elements of management ethics and entrepreneurial education based on the symbiotic career method describing the character, personality, work attitudes, ethics, and morals of each human being. Meanwhile, the specifics were in the scope of science, knowledge, know-how, and skills mastered by an international management graduate.
Research Specific Objectives
This research has specific objectives to:
Identifying the successful experiences of entrepreneurs and identifying the factors that cause the failure of young entrepreneurs.
Identifying stakeholder perceptions about business ethics education in universities.
Identifying various problems/phenomena faced by MSMEs in business management for reference materials for the preparation of training modules.
Providing entrepreneurial experiences for students from an early age and generating networking between entrepreneurs, institutions, and students in the form of entrepreneurial incubation.
Designing a business ethics education curriculum for undergraduate students in the Department of International Management which is divided into three phases, namely education, mentoring, and experiential learning.
Focus group discussion on curriculum design and methods developed based on the symbiotic career method.
Students get real mentoring from practitioners.
The benefits of this research are as follows:
For the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department, it is determining the appropriate learning method for entrepreneurship courses.
For partners, synergy or participation that is very supportive of the partners’ own needs, as well as for the community, namely the development of knowledge and its application.
For researchers who will research the same field, it is hoped that this research can become a basis for future research and be able to produce scientific papers in the form of journals, modules, or teaching materials.
This research was developed to realize the vision of the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University to produce economic experts with global insight and business ethics, so as to empower local potential for the benefit of the surrounding environment. The program manager regularly conducted surveys of alumni and users of graduate programs. One aspect that was considered important by alumni and users was ethical graduates. To develop an appropriate ethical entrepreneurship education model, there have been several studies by the management team of the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department by conducting a preliminary survey.
Research of Littrell (2013) concluded that: (1) The moral development of students who have taken ethics classes was higher than students who have not taken ethics classes; (2) The moral development of students of international accounting concentration was not higher than students of international management concentration; (3) The moral development of students who have taken ethics classes was higher than students who have not taken ethics classes in international accounting; and (4) The moral development of students who have taken ethics classes was higher than students who have not taken ethics classes in international management majors. Following up on the results of the tracer research conducted by users of graduates of the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department, the Faculty of Economics and Business in 2012.
Research of Lau (2010) on ethics education concluded that: (1) Age, academic achievement, and gender simultaneously have no effect on ethical judgment; (2) Age partially has no significant effect on ethical judgment; (3) Academic achievement partially has no significant effect on ethical judgment; and (4) Gender partially has no significant effect on ethical judgment.
Entrepreneurship is a group of people who regularly plan to carry out their duties in accordance with their sense of responsibility in developing business fields for their personal and environmental interests. Everyone who runs entrepreneurship must be able to conform to entrepreneurial rules, regulations, guidelines, and ethics. Entrepreneurial ethics are the rules, disciplines, and customs that have been determined by entrepreneurial associations. Entrepreneurial ethics are norms as a guideline for carrying out activities in the business sector which bind oneself to defend their personality, family, society, nation, and country.
Young Entrepreneurs and College Graduate Entrepreneurs
College graduate entrepreneurs are entrepreneurs who start a business immediately after graduating from college (Nabi et al., 2010). These entrepreneurs have characteristics, including college graduates who apply their knowledge and skills learned while studying in college and use their skills in finding job by starting new businesses (Kaur and Bains, 2013). Various efforts to develop young entrepreneurs have been made in various countries such as United States (Kaur & Bains, 2013), England (Nabi et al., 2010), Southeast Europe (Dodd et al., 2013), and Indonesia.
Ethics are principles that systematize problems of correct moral action and contain provisions and values that can be used in everyday life. Greenwood and Freeman (2018) defined ethics as the psychological lesson of moral values. Specifically, he defined business ethics as “lessons from right and wrong, or the good and evil of people in a business context”. Although ethics does not come from a religious background, religious teachings contain many ethical teachings in other words. In the life of the business sector or the business world, an entrepreneur is not alone, but he really needs the help of other entrepreneurs, there is help from the government or other related business entities.
In other words, entrepreneurial ethics are customs of courtesy, habits, and rules that apply in an entrepreneurial environment. Therefore, it is hoped that an entrepreneur in business activities must have: 1) A good sense of decency or character; (2) A sense of courtesy in terms of entrepreneurial life; (3) Manners in all actions and deeds during entrepreneurship; (4) Responsibility for the business; and (5) Honest and right attitude in accordance with the business profession.The entrepreneurial ethical norms that entrepreneurs must carry out or do are:
• Supporting and defending the state ideology, namely Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution, and government policies.
• Increasing devotion to God Almighty and maintaining the good name of entrepreneurs.
• Performing and demonstrating behaviour and attitudes in accordance with the entrepreneurial position.
• Carrying out duties in accordance with the entrepreneurial position with high dedication.
• In brief, ethics can be interpreted as follows:
• Ethics are good habit in entrepreneurship.
• Ethics are good values in running entrepreneurship.
• Ethics are principles that contain norms in entrepreneurship.
Ethics in a broad sense are:
• Ethics are procedures for dealing with other humans, because each community has a variety of customs and cultures.
• Ethics are often referred to as the act of regulating human actions or behaviour with society.
• The behaviour needs to be regulated so as not to violate the norms or habits that apply in society.
The ethics and norms of every entrepreneur are:
• To be responsible.
• Keeping promises.
• Committed and respect.
• The goals and benefits of entrepreneurial ethics are:
• Ethical goals must be in line with company goals.
• Ethical benefits for the company:
• Friendship and association.
• Pleasing others.
• Persuading customers.
• Retaining customers.
• Building and maintaining relationships.
Entrepreneurial psychology is a science of applied psychology that examines the behaviour patterns and personality characteristics of entrepreneurs. It should be emphasized that what is meant by entrepreneurs here is anyone who has an entrepreneurial character in a broad context, in accordance with the definition of entrepreneurship as a creative-innovative capacity in realizing new products or services, or adding new value to old products or services, or forming and / or transforming new business organizations. Thus, what is meant by entrepreneurs is not limited to mere employers or businessmen, but also includes business actors / leaders in a company, who are familiarly called intrapreneurs or corporatepreneurs. So, entrepreneurial psychology is useful for those who want to build or already have a career as:
• Consultant for entrepreneurship development.
• Professional or executive who acts as a supporter or “right hand” of the entrepreneur.
Symbiotic Career Method
This method was first introduced by Che Ibrahim in 2009 which is a holistic approach by combining the strengths between the capitalist model and the cooperative development model, highlighting the linkages between all parties involved in business. The highlight of this alliance method is the use of ethical entrepreneur development techniques that are well documented and through systematic levels such as education about entrepreneurship and business ethics, mentoring, and learning through practical experiences in collaboration with MSMEs that are within the reach of higher education areas.
Research Approach Methods
The method used in this research was a survey method using quantitative and qualitative approaches.
This research was designed in a multi-year research and development format, with the plan to be conducted in two stages (two years) to produce targeted products. This research took a series of activity cycles starting from need assessment (mapping), action, reflection, evaluation, and innovation in a systematic research series. At this stage, an assessment of the need for ethical entrepreneurship education was carried out from the perspective of students and stakeholders. How to produce knowledgeable, skilled, and trained young entrepreneurs so that they are able to start new businesses well. Grand design of the curriculum was carried out by considering the business cycle, and the module was completed with cases around starting a business and managing a business. This grand design was equipped with theories and strategies that could be applied in various cases to produce creative problem solvers.
The location of this research was in the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University.
Population and Sample
The population in this research were students of the undergraduate program, namely international management. Education and training were given to 5th semester students.
Data Collection Methods
The data collection methods or instruments used in this research were:
• Distribution of questionnaires and interviews.
Conducting direct interviews with several community leaders in charge of the planning area, both from the government, villages / wards, and related parties.
Focus group discussions (FGD) with academics, business practitioners, and all related parties (stakeholders) in the grand design of ethical entrepreneurship education for undergraduate students.
Data Processing and Analysis Methods
The research method focused on the grand design of the curriculum and ethical entrepreneurship education modules for students of the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University. This was done by tracing information from various data sources consisting of informants, places, and events as well as related documentation / archives at the Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University and the Business Incubation Centre in the Regency / City Government of Semarang. The location of this research was in the Regency / City of Semarang.
In addition, in-depth interviews were also conducted. Interviews were conducted openly, freely, and focused on the problem being researched. Data collection through interviews used a tape recorder to assist researcher in reducing errors and recording complete information. To assist field observations, field notes and photographing tools were used, while to avoid data distrust, triangulation technique was used, namely by checking data from several different sources regarding the same problem. To obtain the correctness of the information, a recheck was carried out until the latest data from the interview results reflected the reliability of the data. Another data collection technique used was a focus group discussion (FGD) conducted by informants as a group, while the role of the researcher was only as a facilitator during the discussion.
The data were analysed using an interactive model analysis technique (Heer and Shneiderman, 2012) which included: (1) data collection, (2) data reduction, (3) data presentation, and (4) drawing conclusions (verification). In this technique, the analysis was carried out continuously from the beginning of data collection to the verification process that took place from the beginning of the research to the completion of the research. Thus, the analysis process occurred interactively and the test between components in a cycle took place continuously for quite a long time. By using these analytical techniques, conclusions have been tested selectively and accurately (Fletcher, 2017).
Symbiotic Career Method Based Education and Training Model
The initial stage in this method is the provision of knowledge about business ethics through formal education and training. Education and training are important stages in establishing a foundation for entrepreneurial learning in the future. Through this education, it is hoped that young entrepreneurs will be able to learn about the various nuances that exist in the business world by raising various business cases (Bharadwaj et al., 2010; Sullivan & Marvel, 2011).
Business ethics education is included as one of the formal subjects in the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department which aims to provide ethics and entrepreneurship education academically which emphasizes important issues in entrepreneurial development (Bharadwaj et al., 2010; Lane et al., 2011). This course can be used as a compulsory or elective course.
Entrepreneurship education can be divided into several module stages starting from the launch of an idea (Sullivan and Marvel, 2011) to the development of business planning (Knotts, 2011). This module is intended to provide sufficient education to students in starting new businesses.
Hayter (2016) found in his research that entrepreneurs gain more knowledge through experience in the field. Therefore, Hayter (2016) questioned the importance of formal education and training for entrepreneurs. Furthermore, Hayter (2016) suggested the importance of education to train critical and creative thinking skills that can increase the ability of entrepreneurs to adopt knowledge as well as increase the ability of entrepreneurs to adapt to changes that occur in the business environment. The ability to think critically is one of the important skills that must be learned and possessed not only by entrepreneurs but also by all college graduates because this knowledge is not only useful in business management but can also be used in several domains (Mulnix, 2012).
Symbiotic career method emphasizes the importance of training as the initial skills formation of young entrepreneurs in managing businesses. Training can be carried out in collaboration with student activity units by introducing various types of modules during the education and training period. These modules include business development, creativity, and innovation modules.
Symbiotic Career Method Based Mentoring Model
Mentoring is seen as an effective way of fostering new entrepreneurs in starting new businesses (St-Jean and Audet, 2012). Mentoring is someone who has certain qualities and has authority and is willing to supervise the younger generation so that they are able to develop their potential optimally (St-Jean and Tremblay, 2011).
The results of research by Ahl and Nelson (2015) on new women entrepreneurs in the United States concluded that these women entrepreneurs have shown rapid progress in terms of entrepreneurial abilities so that they are able to achieve business goals with better business capabilities. The strategic collaboration framework provides opportunities for newcomers to the business world to get support groups and mentors so that they not only fulfil their career needs as entrepreneurs but also implement their social psychology functions (Ahl and Nelson, 2015).
In this symbiotic career method, the mentoring process cooperated with MSMEs, both those that have not exported and those that have already exported. The mentoring process was carried out by placing students in internships at local and export-oriented MSMEs. In this internship process, there was a process of knowledge sharing between students and businessmen or entrepreneurs. In this internship process, one supervisor was also appointed from the entrepreneurial development centre for the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department as one of the support systems for interning students.
Experiential Learning (Internship) Model
According to Neck and Corbett (2018), entrepreneurs must be open to learning entrepreneurship. This learning task is carried out in several stages, including start-ups, failures, business transactions, and so on. In short, young entrepreneurs must learn through practical experience (experiential learning) which is seen as the most effective way for entrepreneurs to learn (Hayter, 2016). Learning entrepreneurship through practical experience provides opportunities for entrepreneurs to solve business problems so that they are able to develop creativity and innovation through an internship process (Neck and Corbett, 2018). This method requires a fairly high cost from the start to the end until they finally manage to run the business well (Neck and Corbett, 2018; Hayter, 2016).
Need Identification and Analysis
The results of problem and need identification showed: (1) The background of students’ understanding of entrepreneurship showed that 67% of students had a lack of understanding; (2) The implementation of the curriculum so far showed that the learning model used was still focused on theory and has not been matched by practical activities; (3) The behaviour and attitudes of students during the teaching and learning process did not take full advantage of their time, had low learning motivation, and lacked time discipline when learning in class; (4) The attitude of lecturers still dominated learning activities which had an impact on students who were passive in the learning process; (5) Entrepreneurship learning applied was still not in accordance with the vision of the study program because the material being taught has not been able to foster a maximum entrepreneurial spirit; (6) The expectation of the study program was that there is an improvement in the learning model in which students are required to be more active in the learning process; and (7) Suggestions and opinions from related parties in the FGD stated that learning should be more directed at practicum which is applicative.
Based on the description of the problems above, it was obtained identification of problems regarding changes in learning models according to student needs and being able to realize the vision of study program (Presidential Decree 8/2012, KKNI; BSNP, SIPT 2010; Minister of National Education Decree No. 45/U/2002). The analysis of learning objectives will determine the exact form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes expected as learning outcomes (Yorio and Ye, 2012). Referring to this goal, project-based entrepreneurship learning emphasizes the internalization of knowledge, skills formation, and attitudes, so that this goal tends to lead to procedural orientation goals and supporting prerequisites regarding procedural steps in carrying out activities sequentially (Degeng, 2013).
Design and Prototype Development Results
The materials used to compile the design of entrepreneurship learning models include: (1) Considering the background of students’ understanding of entrepreneurship; (2) The background of the implementation of the curriculum that has been implemented so far; (3) Student needs and objectives of the international management study program; (4) The condition of student learning behaviour in the learning process; and (5) Using the reverse design (backward), namely determining the learning outcomes then formulating objectives, learning procedures, and learning evaluation. The results of developing the design and prototype of project-based entrepreneurship learning are as follows:
The learning objectives include: (1) The objectives of the course are to provide new insights into the entrepreneurial potential of students; (2) The competency standard to be achieved is that students are capable of having an entrepreneurial spirit; (3) The basic competence to be achieved is the ability of students to explain the role and importance of entrepreneurship education, develop imagination to become an entrepreneur, have motivation to develop entrepreneurship, explain entrepreneurial characteristics, find and develop business ideas, make business plans for new businesses, and conduct entrepreneurial practices; and (4) The main material in entrepreneurship learning consists of the role and importance of entrepreneurship education, building entrepreneurial dreams, developing entrepreneurial motivation, entrepreneurial characteristics, finding and developing business ideas, business planning, and business implementation.
The learning method applied includes the division of student work groups that are determined based on the student learning style (learning style inventory) and project-based entrepreneurship learning. The assessment is based on the process and results of entrepreneurship learning (portfolio and product).
1. Model test class profile. Experiential learning is a cycle that must be passed to determine student learning styles (Yardley et al., 2012). The learning styles used in this learning are accommodator and assimilator learning styles. The accommodator and assimilator assessment of student learning styles has relevance to project-based entrepreneurship learning. The accommodator learning style assessment can be used to assess the learning styles of students who are only able to adopt an existing product (limited to product innovation techniques). Meanwhile, the assimilator learning styles can be used to assess the learning styles of students who are able to find new ideas so that they can produce completely new products. The results of the assessment of student learning styles showed that most students had an accommodator learning style. From the assessment of student learning styles and the application of project-based entrepreneurial learning, it can foster students’ entrepreneurial spirit consisting of self-directed, self-nurturing, action-oriented, highly-energetic, and tolerant of uncertainty. Student learning styles have relevance to students’ entrepreneurial spirit which is shown from the two dimensions of learning developed by Richardson (2011), namely perceiving information and processing information. The information obtained and processed will result in a real action so that it has an impact on discipline, self-confidence, the desire to make dreams come true, has high energy to work hard, and is ready for all the risks that will be faced;
2. Portfolio and product assessment. The products produced by the student working groups were compatible with student learning styles. The accommodator learning style is demonstrated by the ability to innovate existing products. Meanwhile, the assimilator learning style is demonstrated by the ability to find new ideas and produce completely new products. The results of the portfolio assessment showed that 44% of the students had very good learning scores (portfolio average score was 81-100), and 56% had good learning scores (portfolio average scores were 66-80). Thus, it can be concluded that the application of project-based entrepreneurial learning and supported by the determination of student learning styles shows the ability of students to determine, plan, and implement the selected project, so that the end result of this learning is in line with expectations (Richardson, 2011);
3. Entrepreneurial spirit. The assessment of students’ entrepreneurial spirit was based on the results of the assessment of entrepreneurial spirit and entrepreneurial experience when participating in project-based entrepreneurship learning. Students who have participated in project-based entrepreneurship learning had a good spirit of entrepreneurship. They were able to possess and apply the characteristics of successful entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviours (Fayolle and Gailly, 2015);
4. The effectiveness of project-based entrepreneurship learning to foster students’ entrepreneurial spirit. Based on the application of project-based entrepreneurship learning, the division of student work groups was in accordance with the student’s learning style, and the assessment of the portfolios and products produced have been able to foster students’ entrepreneurial spirit very well. Thus, the application of project-based entrepreneurship education is an appropriate strategy and teaching method to increase student entrepreneurial intentions. With the increase in entrepreneurial intentions in students, the entrepreneurial spirit of students will grow and will automatically change the mindset of students from job seekers to job creators;
5. And (5) Final product revision. Final product revisions to improve entrepreneurship learning packages include: (a) Entrepreneurship teaching materials are separated from student worksheets; (b) Student worksheets as records of student portfolio results; (c) Instructions for implementing learning are more focused on planning and implementing the learning process, as well as assessing learning outcomes; and (d) Lecturers are provided with lecturers’ manuals as guidelines in implementing project-based entrepreneurship learning.
The results of the research include the following four points: (1) Initial identification shows that the entrepreneurial learning model has not balanced theory and practice, is partial, and the learning model is not yet steady. Through this research, a learning model has been developed by implementing the development of a symbiotic career method that balances theory and practice as well as comprehensive and applicable practicum; (2) The validation test by education and entrepreneurship experts as well as the limited test by the respondent show that the objectives, material content, and learning presentation seen from the content and appearance are good, while viewed from the appearance they are classified as very good; (3) The final product test shows that the majority of students’ learning styles are classified as accommodators. The results of the student portfolio assessment are mostly good. The products produced by the student work groups are in accordance with their learning styles. The effectiveness test shows that project-based entrepreneurship learning has been able to foster students’ entrepreneurial spirit very well; and (4) Revision of the final product was carried out in the following sections: (a) Teaching materials, namely separating the material from student worksheets; (b) Guidelines for the implementation of learning, namely by emphasizing the planning and implementation of the process, as well as the assessment of learning outcomes; and (c) Prepared lecturer instructions as guidelines for implementing learning.
Coaching modules and models will continue to be used in the Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department to produce graduates who are ethical and have high entrepreneurial skills. Furthermore, the financial burden for the sustainability of the program will be included in the budget of the Faculty of Economics and Business as part of the learning process that must be carried out. Partnership with an institution, namely the Indonesian Sharia Banking Association (Asbisindo), is still held regularly in the form of discussions and workshops as a medium for continuous evaluation of development. The Undergraduate Program of the International Management Department receives input from other government departments or agencies that will enrich the competence of graduates who produce ready-to-use personnel, but also become ethical entrepreneurs in business.