Research Article: 2018 Vol: 21 Issue: 3
Romansyah Sahabuddin, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Salmiah Thaha, STIE Tri Dharma Nusantara Makassar
Nurjaya, STIE Tri Dharma Nusantara Makassar
Fatmawati, STIE Tri Dharma Nusantara Makassar
This research is a correlation research that aims to determine whether or not there is effect of visual learning style and school climate on students’ achievement of learning at SMKN 1 Palangga. The population of this research was students of SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga, Lesson Year 2016/2017, consisting of students of class X and class XI which amounted to 1.376 students then as many as 310 students as sample by using Slovin formula. Data collection techniques used questionnaires and then the data was analyzed by using multiple regressions. The analysis showed that there was visual learning style and school climate variables simultaneously have influence of 91% and 9% is influenced by other variables on entrepreneurship learning achievement. Conclusion from the analysis is there is a high significant of visual learning style and school climate on students achievement of learning entrepreneurship.
Visual Learning Style, School Climate, Learning Entrepreneurship Achievement.
Education is an important sector in developing human life and also in improving the progress of a country. In the Law of National Education System No.20 of 2003 article 3 has described the function and purpose of that education: National education function to develop the ability and form the character and civilization of dignified nation in order to educate the life of the nation, aims to develop the potential of learners to become human beings who believe and be cautious to God Almighty, have a noble character, healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent, and become citizens of a democratic and responsible. Education is needed in every area of life. Therefore, the improvement of quality in education is very important to produce qualified human resources. Qualified human resources will improve the economy and life of the country.
Vocational High School (SMK) as part of the education system in Indonesia plays an important role in producing quality human resources in accordance with the National Education System Act No.20 of 2003 on Article 15 which asserts that: “vocational education is a secondary education that prepares students primarily to work in a particular field”. So that Vocational High School is designed or prepared to prepare learners who have the skills, and expertise to be ready to enter the workforce professionally in accordance with their respective areas of expertise, one of them through with entrepreneurial subjects.
Researchers argued that entrepreneurship has been believed to be an important force in global economic growth that creates new business and economic growth. According to Sahabuddin (2016), “through creative and innovative ability, the entrepreneurs have an important role as a driving force for national growth to produce goods and new ideas”. Thus, entrepreneurship as an important force in global economic growth, entrepreneurship is believed to be one solution to the problem of unemployment, seen from its contribution in the absorption of existing labor. The Indonesian government is very supportive of efforts to civilize entrepreneurship for the people of Indonesia, one of them by issuing instructions President 4/1995 about the National Movement and Entrepreneurism Entrepreneurship (GNMMK); “Entrepreneurship is one's enthusiasm, attitude, behavior and abilities in handling businesses and activities that lead to seeking, creating, implementing new ways of working, technology and production by improving efficiency in order to provide better services and/or gain greater benefits.”
Entrepreneurship science is very important to be taught in school especially vocational school. It aims to raise the spirit of the learners as a young generation so as to create jobs after going through the vocational education (SMK). By teaching entrepreneurship subject can help the learners to be more creative in sparking their ideas in accordance with the majors they taken so they are able to compete in the market in improving the economy of society and also improve the economy of the nation and state.
Based on the results of entrepreneurship learning, achievement of learners in SMK 1 Palangga showed that their achievement results are still low. It can be seen based on the percentage of students learning outcomes during the last three years (Tables 1 and 2).
The Average Achievement Of Students Of Class X
|BASIC COMPETENCIES||SCHOOL YEAR|
|Identifying attitudes and behaviors of entrepreneurs.||7.87||7.9||7.81|
|Applying attitudes and behaviors of achievement work.||7.95||7.9||7.88|
|Formulating the solution of the problem.||7.88||7.91||7.95|
|Developing entrepreneurial spirit.||7.92||7.91||7.98|
|Build a high commitment for himself and for others.||7.95||8||7.85|
|Taking business risks.||7.94||7.89||7.95|
|Make a decision.||7.92||7.93||7.93|
The Average Achievement Of Students Of Class XI
|BASIC COMPETENCIES||SCHOOL YEAR|
|Analyze business opportunities based on the type of products and services.||7.9||7.91||7.9|
|Analyze business opportunities based on consumer interest and purchasing power.||7.89||7.9||7.9|
|Analyze aspects of business planning.||8.03||7.87||7.9|
Source: Documentation of teacher value of entrepreneurship subject SMK1 Pallangga.
Winkel (2005) argued that the learning achievement is a proof of success that has been achieved by someone, and then the learning achievement is the maximum result achieved by someone after carrying out the learning efforts. Learning achievement according to Suryabrata (2008) is a result of the act of making an assessment which is expressed by numbers or symbols, where it is all about the progress or learning outcomes of students during a certain period. Achievement is a result of the process of teaching and learning activities where the activity can be found anywhere. Achievement of learning is influenced by several factors.
According to Slameto (2003), the factors that affect learning achievement can be classified into two groups of internal factors that originate in students and external factors that originate from outside the student self. One of the factors that affect the learning achievement that comes from within the students is how to learn. The way students learn is often referred to as learning styles or student learning modalities. Learning style is the easiest way that individuals have in absorbing, organizing and processing information received. A suitable learning style is the key to success in learning. A person's ability to understand and absorb the lessons is definitely different. Some are fast, moderate and very slow. Therefore, they often have to take different ways to understand the same information or lessons. From various activities undertaken by students during the learning process takes place it will create a way of learning that becomes a habit of students in everyday life.
According to Arikunto (2006) there are three learning styles of a person: visual; auditorial; and kinesthetic learning styles. Visual learning styles tend to learn through what they see. In the classroom, the visual child prefers to record down the details for information. Auditorial learning style relies on the success of learning through the ear (hearing instrument). Students who have an auditorial learning style can learn faster by using verbal discussions and listening to what the teacher says. Kinesthetic learning styles has learning kinesthetic learning styles through moving, touching, and doing. Students like this cannot bear to sit for long listening to the lesson and feel able to learn better if the process is accompanied by physical activity. The advantages, they have the ability to coordinate a team in addition to the ability to control bodybuilding.
Although the learning style is different, but the goal to be achieved remains the same in order to achieve learning objectives and achieve learning achievement is expected. There are students who are able to maximize their learning style; there are also students who have not been able to maximize their learning style because they have not realized the learning style they have. This is evident from the still existence of students who busied themselves while the teacher explained the lesson.
Other factors that affect student achievement are external factors. One of the external factors is the school climate. Hadiyanto (2004) suggested that the school climate is the situation or atmosphere that arises because of the relationship between the principal with teachers, teachers with teachers, teachers with students or the relationship between learners that characterize schools that influence the teaching and learning process in school. In addition, the school climate is the quality of the school environment that teachers constantly experience, affecting their behavior and based on the collective perceptions of their behavior.
The school's obligation is to create an internal environment as a pleasant, harmonious and responsible environment, within which it contains several elements, as follows; high student expectations, effective teacher attitudes, order and discipline, and the reward system for students. This will affect the school climate created in the school environment that will ultimately affect the learning process and learning outcomes. But students are still lacking discipline in the school, although in school the teacher has tried to enforce discipline and order.
Based on the above description, we formulated the purpose of this research is to know:
1. The influence of visual learning style to learning achievement of student Entrepreneurship SMKN 1 Pallangga.
2. Effect of school climate on learning achievement of student entrepreneurship SMKN 1 Pallangga.
3. Effect of visual learning style and school climate simultaneously on learning achievement of student Entrepreneurship SMKN 1 Pallangga.The research method will be explained and the results analyzed and discussed.
In the last, the conclusion will provide the implications of the results and suggestions for further research.
A person's ability to understand and absorb the lessons is definitely different. Therefore, they often have to take different ways to understand the same information or lesson. Learning styles are a typical way of learning for students (Winkel, 2005). While others stated that learning style is defined as the ways in which individuals begin to concentrate, process, internalize, and retain new and difficult information or skills. Furthermore Biggs (2011) suggested that learning outcomes are determined by the characteristics of participants consisting of: learning styles and learning skills. Learning styles are several things:
1. Physical and mental preparation.
2. Increasing concentration.
3. Increasing learning motivation.
4. Using learning strategies.
5. Learning according to learning styles.
6. Learning comprehensive (Daharnis & Ardi, 2016).
Thus it can be argued that learning styles are the easiest way that individuals have in absorbing, organizing and processing information received. The appropriate learning style is the key to one's success in learning. Munthe (2009) explained that learning style was the key to developing self-potential, because it related to the pleasure in developing themselves. Therefore, in the learning activities, students need to be helped and directed to recognize learning styles that are appropriate to themselves so that the learning objectives can be achieved effectively.
Classification of Learning Styles
According to Gilakjani (2012) the information retrieval by students, there are three ways that most of them use, those are visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic. Although each student learns by using these three learning styles, most students are more likely to be in one of the learning styles. Johnson & Miller (2010) suggests that: learning styles of learners is determined by the characteristics of the field of interest. Learners who study the disciplines of physics, mathematics, and chemistry are more likely to have a visual learning style. Furthermore, it is argued that in general the characteristics of individuals who have a type of visual learning style, namely: likes neatness and skills, if speaking tends to be faster, like to make a mature planning for the long term, very thorough down to the details. While the auditorial learning style is more dominant in using the sense of hearing to do learning activities. Individuals easy to learn, easy to capture stimuli through the sense of hearing (ear). Furthermore, individual traits that have a kinesthetic learning style type are always physically oriented and moving a lot, memorizing by walking and seeing, using fingers as a pointer when reading, using many body cues, unable to sit still for long, want to do everything, and like a busy game.
Hadiyanto (2004) suggested that school climate is a situation or atmosphere that arises because of the relationship between the principal and teachers, teachers with teachers, teachers with the learner or the relationship between learners that characterize schools that influence the teaching and learning process in school.
Hoy and Miskell (2008) specifically mentioned that school climate is the end product of the interaction between groups of learners in schools, teachers and administrators working to achieve a balance between organizational dimensions (school) and individual dimensions. According to Cohen (2009), school climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School climate is based on patterns of students’, parents’ and school personnel’s experience of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures.
Stronge et al. (2013) said that formal school climate refers to social relationships and employment relationships between staff and school administrators. School climate is a collective or atmospheric personality, including staff behavior that helps or hinders teaching, or a teaching climate. The school climate affects the culture of the school and the procedures for running all activities at school. Thus it can be argued that the school climate is a collective, personal character that determines the atmosphere and qualities that affect the behavior of school members.
The term entrepreneurship was first introduced by Richard Cantillon, a French economist. Furthermore researcher stated that the entrepreneur is an innovator who implements changes in the market through new combinations. Innovation cannot be separated from two main criteria namely novelty and improvement. The novelty here does not have to be creating a new product but also on its usability, condition and application. Hellström (2004) argued that innovation also considers the incremental and radical product creation process, then there were those who consider diffused innovation and adopted innovation.
Entrepreneurs in running their business cannot be separated from the capital. Some of the capital in question is intangible capital, namely:
1. Intellectual Capital which is a combination of various resources that are intangible that forms a system's ability to create stakeholder value.
2. Social Capital that can be called as integrity is an important thing that forms an image of personality in running business.
3. Entrepreneurial entrepreneurship should be arranged early in manifested in form of courage to face risk and challenge (Sahabuddin, 2016).
This research used statistical analysis techniques to process data. This research was quantitative because the data used in this research was quantitative data. The data was then analyzed by a quantitative approach using an inferential statistical analysis tool. Data collection was conducted by using questionnaires and documentation method. Questionnaires related to the variables studied, namely; learning styles, academic climate and environmental comfort the results will be reviewed by using SPSS. Documentation method used to collect data of student number and data of student achievement of SMKN 1 Pallangga.
The population of this study is the students in the scope of SMK 1 Palangga Lesson Year 2015/2016 consisting of students of class X and class XI which amounted to 1.376 students. Furthermore, the determination of the number of research samples using Solving formula, that is: n=N/(1+N.e2) where n was the sample size, N is the population size, and e is the magnitude of the possible error can be tolerated by 0.05. Based on the equation, the number of research samples was 310 students.
Questionnaire was a data collection technique that is done by giving a set of questions or written statement to the respondent to answer. The questionnaire is an efficient data collection technique when researchers know with certainty the variables to be measured and know what can be expected from the respondents. The type of questionnaire used in this study was a closed questionnaire, which is a questionnaire that allows respondents to choose only alternative answers provided. Questionnaire used to find out the visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning styles in the students. Instrument scoring is made using the Likert scale.
The formulation used to test the hypothesis proposed in this study is multiple regression or multiple regression as follows.
Furthermore, to determine the level of significance of influence, then used degree α=0.05 or 5% which is the magnitude of the possibility of error in the analysis of data and the rest of 95% is the level of acceptance of the influence of independent variables to the dependent variable either partially or simultaneously. The analysis of multiple regression used above, can be done by using SPSS v.20.0 program.
Response of the Respondents toward Visual Learning Style
Based on the class interval and the frequency categorization of respondents 'responses to visual learning styles it can be seen that from all respondents' answers to visual learning styles are generally categorized high, where as many as 238 students or 76.8% chose to respond strongly agree (SS) to visual learning style, and as many as 72 students or 23.2% who voted in favor of the visual learning style. Thus it can be argued that generally students of class X and XI SMKN 1 Pallangga strongly agree if the subjects of entrepreneurship implemented by using the approach of visual learning style.
Response of the Respondents toward School Climate
Based on the class interval and the frequency categorization of respondents 'responses to school climate in the above table shows that the frequency of respondents' responses is predominantly enough of 163 students, so it can be said that 163 or 52% of X and XI students responded that the school climate according to entrepreneurship subject at SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga. Followed by 132 people or 42.6% of students, who responded that the school climate was less suited to entrepreneurship subjects. Continued as many as 9 people or 2.9% of students, who responded to school climate less appropriate to entrepreneurship subjects. Lastly as many as 6 people or 1.3% of students who respond strongly to the school climate with entrepreneurship subjects in SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga.
Average of Learning Achievement
The value of student achievement is based on the results of the semester exam for entrepreneurship subjects consisting of 16 items of questions distributed into 10 exam questions of the 2016/2017 school year, of which 8 questions of which each has one question item with the weight of the assessment of each item, namely: 10 and one question of which has two question items with the weight of answer 20, and one other problem has 6 items question so that the total weight of scoring for 16 items of question is equal to 160.
Based on the weight of the 16 items of questions distributed in 10 questions the student may be able to receive the lowest test result, the number below 1 and if the student is able to answer all the items correctly will get the highest score of 160. Furthermore, the determination of the lowest grade interval limit can be done by subtracting the lowest one and the highest grade interval, thus obtaining the lowest class interval limit of 0 and the highest class interval limit of 161.
The analysis used in this research use multiple linear regression or multiple regression to get the result of study about the influence of visual learning style, school climate to student achievement value of SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga. The amount of α:0.05 used in this study is the possibility of the level of error or deviation that occurs in the analysis process, and by 95% is the degree of acceptance. Referring to the model of multiple regression analysis used in this study to determine the magnitude of the influence of partial or simultaneous independent variables, namely visual learning style and school climate to the value of achievement as a dependent variable. For more details of the results of the study and analysis of the effect of visual learning styles and school climate on student achievement of SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga, multicolinearity test results can be presented as follows.
(Table 3) Above shows that the VIF value of the visual learning style and school climate has a value less than 10, i.e. 1.001 it can be indicated that the two variables do not occur multicollinearity, which means there is no strong relationship between independent variables on the regression model so that the error rate is large partially on each independent variable does not occur.
Multicollinearity Test Result Based On Value Of Variance Inflation Factors (VIF)
|Model||unstandardized Cofficients||Standardized Cofficients||t||Sig.||Correlations||Collinearity Statistics|
|Visual Learning Style||0.520||0.031||0.294||16.932||0.000||0.263||0.695||0.294||0.999||1.001|
Test results are expected to avoid heteroscedasticity but on the contrary can happen homoscedasticity. Instructions that can be used to determine the occurrence or heteroscedasticity can be seen in the (Figure 1) Scatterplot, where if there is a random point spread and does not form a pattern it can be concluded heteroscedasticity occurs, otherwise homoscedasticity. It is expected that this analysis does not occur heteroscedasticity and test results showed no heteroscedasticity so it can be concluded that the data used qualify for multiple regression.
Based on the normality test with Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test obtained KSZ value of 1.053 and Asymp. sig. of 0.217 greater than 0.05 it can be concluded that the data tested is not different from the normal standard data, so it can be said that the data tested is normal distribution (Table 4).
Test Result Of Data Normality Based On Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test
|Normal Parameters (a,b)||Mean||0|
|Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)||0.12|
a: Test distribution
b: Calculated from data
The table shows the significance value of visual learning style variables and School Climate partially on the sig column. Is below the value of α:0.05 which means the value of T count>T table. Thus partially for both variables can be concluded have a significant effect on the value of learning achievement. In the table the value of the constant is: 20.081 and the value of Visual Learning Style coefficient (X1) of 0.520 and the coefficient value of Climate School variable of 0.475. Based on these results, it can be composed of multiple regression equation as follows:
Visual Learning Style (X1)
Based on the equation can be explained that the magnitude of the effect of partial visual learning on student achievement value SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga was significant indicated by the value of T arithmetic>Ttable or can be seen on the sig column. In Tables 4 and 5 the significance value of visual learning style is below 0.05. The amount of contribution of the influence of visual learning style based on multiple regression equation above, can be shown through the coefficient of X1 variable direction that was equal to 0.520 which explains that every improvement of the implementation of visual learning style would give improvement of entrepreneurship learning achievement equal to 20.601 with pay attention to school climate (X2). The value was obtained through the formulation as follows:
T Test Result
|Model||unstandardized Cofficients||Standardized Cofficients||t||Sig.|
|Visual Learning Style||0.520||0.031||0.294||16.932||0.000|
The above analysis results can be concluded that the error rate or standard error for visual learning style variables in Tables 4 & 5 of 0.031 or 3.1% which is a mistake that occurs, so that the level of acceptance of visual learning style variables to improve student achievement for subjects entrepreneurship of 1-0.031=0.969 or 97%.
School Climate (X2)
Based on the multiple regression equation mentioned above, explains that the direction coefficient for the variable X2 showed the value of 0.475 which could be interpreted that the amount of contribution of school climate influence partially to the value of student learning achievement student SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga was 0.475. In other words that every addition of one part of the school climate will give an improvement in the value of student achievement in entrepreneurship subjects of 20.556 with regard to visual learning style variables. The value is obtained through the formulation as follows.
The result of the above analysis could be concluded that the error rate or standard error for school climate variable in table 4.5 was 0.009 or 0.9% which was error happened, so the level of acceptance of school climate variable to increase student achievement for entrepreneurship subject equal to 1-0.009=0.991 or 99.1%.
Value of Entrepreneurship Learning Achievement (Y)
The value of learning achievement in this study used an assessment based on several question items. As for the number of questions given as many as 10 numbers in which two of them have sub questions, so that the total item of the question was 16 items in which each question has a weight of 10 so that the total weight of the total if answered correctly is 160. In this assessment the lowest value that could be obtained by each respondent is 1, so at the setting of the interval class limit the lowest value was 0 obtained from the reduction of the lowest value with the number 1, as well as for the highest grade interval limit minus 1 so that the class interval limit could load the lowest 1 and the highest 160.
Visual Learning Styles (X1) and School Climate (X2)
Analysis of the influence of visual learning style and school climate variables shown through the following equation:
Y=b0+ b1x1+b2x2+e atau
Results of analysis based on multiple regression equation above can be shown through Table 6 F test as follows:
F Test Result
|Model||Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
a. Predictors: (Constant), Visual Learning Style, School Climate
The table above explained the level of significance of simultaneous influence of visual learning style variables (X1) and school climate (X2) on the value of entrepreneurship learning achievement (Y) students of class X and XI at SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga.
The magnitude of the effect can be seen simultaneously on the sig column. in Table 6 above, where the significance value of 0.000 or smaller than α:0.05 which shows the value of t arithmetic<t table, so it can be said that the two independent variables of visual learning style and school climate simultaneously have a significant effect on the value of learning achievement of entrepreneurship of grade X and XI students at SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga.
As for knowing the influence of variables of viasual learning style (X1) and school climate (X2) gives an idea of the amount of contribution of influence simultaneously which can be explained through the determinant (R2) or R square test as shown in the following table.
The Table 7 explains the contribution of simultaneous influence of visual learning style and school climate variable to the value of student entrepreneurship learning achievement of SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga. The amount of influence of influence is indicated by the value of R square or R2 of 0.908 or 90.8% and the rest of 0.092 or 9.2% is the effect derived from other variables not studied in this study.
Determinant Test Results Level of Independent Variability Perspective
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate|
a. Predictors: (Constant), Visual Learning Style, School Climate
The level of significance of the influence of learning styles and School Climate on learning achievement shows a very strong level of inadequacy. This shows that the two independent variables are the most important part to get special handling from SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga besides other factors in order to improve student's learning achievement especially to entrepreneurship subject.
Entrepreneurship education today is an important part of improving knowledge and skill skills, but the main thing besides the mastery of knowledge and skills is to instill the values of entrepreneurial personality through the process of value internalization that can shape the character of entrepreneurial personality.
In this regard, achievement assessment is not enough to equip with knowledge and business skills without touching on the joints of the value of entrepreneurial personality. The indicators of the success of learners achievement, one of which can be seen from a strong desire to transform the value of novelty through the implementation of visual learning methods and transformation of school climate values as an integral part of the learning atmosphere that builds the values of discipline, obedience, and motivation to learn.
Students' learning styles include three things: visual learning styles that tend to learn through what they see, an auditory learning style is a learning style that emphasizes something they dengarm as well as kinesthetic learning style which is a learning style that tends to be done through movement or touch. Thus it can be argued that achievement is also determined by the factor of personality character or personality called intrinsic or inherent in the students themselves.
Furthermore, related to external factors of learners or extrinsic more emphasis on environmental factors of education including school climate, learning place, environment atmosphere, and community learning culture that can stimulate or stimulate the readiness, process, and learning outcomes of learners though not be something absolute that School Climate is the only one determining the success of the learning process.
The Pallapu (2007) study found that learning styles can influence student achievement with extraordinary improvements and fast learning process. Learning style is a choice of needs for every individual who becomes a reference in facilitating the process of transforming knowledge or skills.
Ozerem & Akkoyunlu (2015) found that school climate or school environment is one of the determinants of student achievement. The better the school climate or the environment of a school then it can improve student achievement in school. School climate is an external environment that can stimulate students' attitudes and behaviors to generate learning activities in improving learning achievement so that the results of analysis indicate a significant and positive influence school climate on student achievement students SMK Negeri 1 Pallangga.
Based on Pallapu (2007) and Ozerem & Akkoyunlu (2015) study, it can be concluded that the visual learning style and school climate have a great influence on the level of student achievement in entrepreneurial learning.
Sahabuddin, R. (2016). Effect of students’ entrepreneurship commitment to self-efficacy through entrepreneurship intention and competence. Actual Problems of Economics Scientific Economic Journal, 2(176): 440-449