Research Article: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 1
Agus Syam, Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Negeri Makassar
Muhammad Rakib, Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Negeri Makassar
Muhammad Jufri, Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Negeri Makassar
Nurul Fitrah Utami, Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Negeri Makassar
Sudarmi, STIM Lasharan Jaya Makassar
This study aims to determine the effect of entrepreneurship education in family and information literacy on student entrepreneurial interest in SMK Negeri 1 Makassar. The current study applied descriptive quantitative research. It was conducted at SMK Negeri 1 Makassar in September 2019 to October 2019. The population in this study were students majoring in Marketing of SMK Negeri 1 Makassar. Sampling was done by Probability Sampling technique so that 73 students as sample was obtained. Findings of this study indicate that entrepreneurship education in family does not partially affect on entrepreneurial interest. While information literacy partially affect on entrepreneurial interest. The effect of entrepreneurship education in family and information literacy are simultaneously positive and significant on the entrepreneurial interest of students of SMK Negeri 1 Makassar.
Entrepreneurship Education in Family, Information Literacy, Entrepreneurial Interest.
Main capital to be a successful entrepreneur is great motivation from within individual besides courage to take risks, perseverance and tenacity in running business. This will be realized if the entrepreneurial spirit can be nurtured from early age. It is undoubtedly true that the role of family is a big thing to consider because family is the first and foremost educator for children (Syam et al. 2018). Family environment is the first place children get various influences (values). Therefore, family is the oldest educational institution which is informal and natural. Father and mother in family act as the educator and children as the educated. Family as the first educational environment is very influential in shaping children's personality patterns. A child acquires value through their interaction within the family. Family values conveyed to children in different behaviors make different affects in the children’s skills mastering and influence their progress in school and subsequent lifestyle. Such values influence the type and the extent of mastery skills child initially acquires (Khair, 2014)
In a family environment, one of the parents will influence children in determining his future, for example in choosing a job (Alma, 2013). Being an entrepreneur is inseparable from parents or family support, if family provides positive support of entrepreneurial interest, children will acquire the interest in doing business, but on the other hand, if family does not support children in entrepreneurship, interest of children in entrepreneurship will be lower. However, obstacles faced in the efforts of developing entrepreneurial interest in vocational school students are mindset of parents who lead their children's future on educational degrees and school certificates for hoping that their children can be registered as the State Civil Servant (ASN). The problem of interest in entrepreneurship is a very important problem. Entrepreneurial interest will make someone more active in seeking and exploiting business opportunities to optimize their potential. Interest that is not innateness but grows and develops according to factors influenced (Rakib 2015a).
Creating an entrepreneur can be started through entrepreneurship education which is taught in vocational high schools (SMK), but it will be faster if entrepreneurship education is also applied from families, communities and educational institutions. Basically, education can be used as a bridge for humans toward a better life. Entrepreneurship education is expected to be able to generate entrepreneurial spirit, be independent, productive and develop national economy (Jamal Ma'mur Asmani, 2011). Entrepreneurship education is also expected to be able to generate creative entrepreneurs who can create jobs and help to reduce endless unemployment.
Entrepreneurship education not only provides theoretical foundation for the concept of entrepreneurship but also shapes the attitudes, behavior and mindset of an entrepreneur. As research from (Muhammad Azis et al., 2018) has explored the extent to which entrepreneurship education in relation to experience contributes to student career interest. It is a capital investment to prepare students to start new businesses through integration of experiences, skills and essential knowledge to develop and expand a business. Young adult age is the main target of entrepreneurship education programs.
Various efforts have been conducted to foster an entrepreneurial spirit, especially by changing mindset of young generation who have been interested only in becoming job seekers when they finish school. In this case, students in vocational high schools are required to receive a detailed and comprehensive entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship education will encourage students to start recognizing and opening a business.
Phenomenon occured is that the educated workforce of vocational high school graduates is increasing each year. Most of student has not planned a job after graduating from school. Government has launched entrepreneurship education to be implemented in vocational high schools as an effort to create entrepreneurship. Young entrepreneurs play a role in helping government to reduce unemployment. Entrepreneurship education is expected to provide students with entrepreneurial insights and skills when they are graduated.
Based on background description of the problem, the current study conducted research on "The effect of entrepreneurship education in family and information literacy toward students' entrepreneurial interest in Marketing Department of SMK Negeri 1 Makassar." From background description stated above, formulation of the problem in this study is whether entrepreneurship education in family and information literacy simultaneously affect student interest in entrepreneurship in Marketing Department of SMK Negeri 1 Makassar?
Entrepreneurship Education in Family
Education is process of developing human potential, abilities and capacities that are easily influenced by habits, then refined with good habits supported by tools (media) that are structured in such a way which lead education to be used in helping others or themselves in achieving their goals that have been set. (Helmawati, 2016).
The term ‘entrepreneurship’ becomes widely used in Indonesia and not to be translated in national language. Entrepreneurship can be interpreted as the backbone of the economy which means a center of economy, or as the tailbone of economy that can be interpreted as economic controller of a nation (Muhammad Rakib, 2010). In epistemology, entrepreneurship is a value that is needed to start a business (start-up phase) or a process in doing something new or something different.
According to Goode (1995), the success or achievements obtained by students in their education is not only about the quality of educational institutions, the success of families in providing their children with good preparation of education they are undergoing is the other one to be considered. Family is a social institution that exists in every society. Therefore, family is the strongest institution of the community. Family is the first environment for children. Entrepreneurial values can be internalized in family environment by involving children in various family economic activities, for example involving children in buying basic family needs, managing the electricity budget, drinking water, newspapers and others.
Entrepreneurship education in family is knowledge in entrepreneurship taught by parents either directly or indirectly, by giving behavior model, habituation or direction in entrepreneurship (Muhammad Rakib, 2016). This variable is measured by indicators; possession of entrepreneurial mental attitude, bravery in taking risks, and ability in recognizing the environment.
In general, information literacy in Indonesia is widely known as melek infomasi. According to the English dictionary, literacy is competence or knowledge in a specified area while information is facts provided or learned about something or someone. Information may also be translated as anything conveyed or represented by a particular arrangement or sequence of things. So, information literacy is competence or knowledge in about facts provided by a particular arrangement or sequence of things. This term is not familiar in Indonesian society, but this term is usually associated with the ability in utilizing libraries and use of information technology.
The term information literacy was first introduced by Paul G. Zurkowski, Chairman of the American Information Industry Association in 1974 in his proposal to The National Commission of Libraries and Information Science in United States. Paul G. Zurkowski used this phrase to describe information literacy "techniques and abilities", it is the ability to utilize various information tools and primary sources to solve their problems.
Another definition given by Verzosa (2009) states that information literacy can be defined as a skill in accessing and retrieving information effectively to solve problems and make decisions. Someone who has this expertise knows how to manage information, organize, sort and maintain it according to the applicable ethics.
Apriyanti (2010) reveals that someone is said to have information literacy skills if that person; (1) capable to realize their information needs, (2) capable to realize that accurate and complete information is the basis for making correct decisions, (3) capable to identify potential sources of information, (4) capable to build strategies of appropriate search (5) capable to access various sources of information including other basic technologies, (6) capable to evaluate information, (7) capable to manage information in its implementation, (8) capable to integrate new information with the old knowledge they already have, and (9) capable to use critical information and to solve problems.
In the current era of globalization, there is so much convenience in obtaining information that makes people difficult to find the proper information. According to Mackall (2004), information develops rapidly and unlimitedly, consequently validity of the information could not be guarated. Attaining the information needed, students are required to have the ability to obtain, analyze, manage, maintain, and use the information as needed.
ALA, Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (1989) stated that information literate individual is able to: (1) Knowing the extent of information needed, (2) Accessing the information needed effectively and efficiently, (3) Evaluating critical information and sources, (4) Incorporating selected information into one's knowledge base, (5) Using information effectively to achieve certain goals, and (6) Understanding economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information, accessing and using information ethically and legally .
Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that a person is said to have information literacy if it fulfills four basic components in the context of information, i.e., determining information needs, access to information, utilizing of information, and evaluation of information.
According to Suhartini (2011) interest is a mental set consisting of a mixture of feelings, expectations, convictions, tendencies that lead individuals to a certain choice. Interest influences one's learning process and outcomes because when someone is studying something with great interest, it is hoped that the results will be better. In addition, one's intention can be expressed through a statement that shows someone is more interested in an object. Interest is not innateness of birth, otherwise it grows and develops according to factors influence it, i.e, first, intrinsic factor which is factors that arise due to influence of stimulation from within the individual himself (Nilam Cahya Syahruddin et al., 2018). These factors are in the form of income, namely the income that a person earns in the form of money or goods. Self-esteem, and a feeling of pleasure in doing entrepreneurship. Second, extrinsic factor is factors that affect individuals due to the influence of external stimuli, e.g., family environment, community environment, opportunities, and education.
Entrepreneurial interest is transformation of attitude and mindset of students to enter business world (Muhammad Rakib, 2015a). Many teenagers say that they really enjoy business activities, because it is promising for future life. Overcoming the business for future, provisions should be prepared e.g., mentality and supporting skills. Entrepreneurial interest is a desire, interest and availability to work hard with focus on fullfiling needs without any fear of risks that will be faced.
Quantitative descriptive is the approach used in this study, because data obtained would be presented in numbers and analyzed based on statistics. A quantitative approach was used to examine a particular population or sample chosen by applying random sampling technique. The type of research used is a causal relationship that was studying the causal relationship of how far the extent of variations in one variable becomes causes and other variables as the effects. The population in this study were all 265 students majoring Marketing at SMK Negeri 1 Makassar. The technique used in determining sample was using Solvin formula to obtain sample of 73 respondents. The instrument testing conducted was data validity analysis which consisted of validity and reliability tests. Meanwhile, the data analysis technique used normality test and linearity test and statistical analysis used in this study was multiple linear regression analysis using the SPSS version 23 program.
Table 1 shows that the level of entrepreneurship education in family is very high for students as seen from the indicators of having an entrepreneurial mental attitude, having the courage to take risks, and being able to know their environment.
|Table 1 Descriptive of Entrepreneurship Education Level in Student Families|
From Table 2 above, it can be seen that information literacy of students at SMK Negeri 1 Makassar, 60.3 percent or 44 students are classified as very good, 39.7 percent or 29 students are classified as good, and 0 percent or 0 students are classified as fairly good, while 0 percent or 0 students are classified as bad. Based on these data, it can be concluded that the information literacy of students at SMK Negeri 1 Makassar is classified as very good as seen from indicators of being aware of information needs, the ability in accessing information, utilizing information, and evaluating information.
|Table 2 Descriptive of Student Information Literacy Level|
From Table 3 above can be seen that entrepreneurial interest of students at SMK Negeri 1 Makassar is 60.9 percent or 51 students are classified as very good, 30.1 percent or 22 students are classified as good, and 0 percent or 0 students are classified as fairly good while 0 percent or 0 students are classified as bad. Based on these data, it can be concluded that the students' interest in entrepreneurship at SMK Negeri 1 Makassar is very high in terms of freedom, personal dreams, and independency.
|Table 3 Descriptive of Student Entrepreneurial Interest Level|
The first prerequisite test is the Normality Test shows in Table 4. Normality test is used to determine whether the residual value is normally distributed.
|Tabel 4 Normality Test|
|One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test|
|Most Extreme Differences||Absolute||.061|
|Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)||.200c,d|
|a. Test distribution is Normal.|
|b. Calculated from data.|
Based on the normality test seen from the table above, the significant value is 0.200 > 0.05, it can be concluded that residual value is normally distributed. The second prerequisite test is linearity test. Linearity test is used to determine whether dependent variable and independent variable have a linear relationship.
Based on data in Table 5 shows that significant deviation from linearity is 0.967 where the rule used for deviation from linearity is p> 0.05. Furthermore, the significant linearity is 0.008, where the rule used is p <0.05. Based on this explanation, it can be concluded that Entrepreneurship Education in family and Entrepreneurial Interest is linear, so it can be interpreted that the relationship between Entrepreneurship Education in Family (X1) and Entrepreneurial Interest (Y) has a positive direction.
|Table 5 Linearity Test of Entrepreneurship Education in Family Towards Entrepreneurial Interest|
|Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|Y * X1||Between Groups||(Combined)||842.702||22||38.305||.808||.702|
|Deviation from Linearity||474.901||21||22.614||.477||.967|
Based on the data in Table 6, it is showed that significant deviation from linearity is 0.615 where the rule used for deviation from linearity is p> 0.05. Furthermore, the significant linearity is 0.000, where the rule used is p <0.05. Based on this explanation, it can be concluded that entrepreneurship character and entrepreneurial interest is linear, so it means that the relationship between Information Literacy (X2) and Entrepreneurial Interest (Y) has a positive direction.
|Table 6 Linearity Test of Information Literacy on Entrepreneurial Interest|
|Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|Y * X2||Between Groups||(Combined)||1254.502||15||83.633||2.433||.008|
|Deviation from Linearity||408.820||14||29.201||.849||.615|
After it has been conducted prerequisite test, it was carried out the hypothesis testing and significance test. The following is the results of partial hypothesis testing using SPSS 23.
The t value was conducted by comparing the t value in the table above with the t table value and the significance level (X1) of 0.004< 0.05 and degree of freedom (df) = n-k = 73-2 = 71. Within these conditions, the t table is 1.666. The results of t test are as follows:
1) Variable of Entrepreneurship Education in family (X1) with regression coefficient on 0.287 indicates that t-count (1.883) >t table (1.666) means that Enterpreneurship education has a positive and significant effect. Thus, Enterpreneurship Education in Family variable partially affects entrepreneurial interest of students of SMK Negeri 1 Makassar.
2) Variable of Information Literacy (X2) with regression coefficient on 0.650 indicates that t-count (3.397) > t-table (1.666) has a positive and significant effect. Thus, Information Literacy variable partially affects entrepreneurial interest of students of SMK Negeri 1 Makassar shows in Table 7.
|Table 7 Partial Test Results|
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients||t||Sig.|
|a. Dependent Variable: Entrepreneurial Interests|
The F value is carried out to test whether there is effect of entrepreneurship education in family and information literacy simultaneously on entrepreneurial interest of students of SMK Negeri 1 Makassar. From the F test conducted, the following results were obtained:
Table 8. It was resulted F-count in 14,209 based on the table with significance level (α) = 5% or 0.05. It is known that F-table with df1 = k-1 = 2-1 = 1 and df2 = nk = 71, then F-table is 3, 14. Based on the calculation results obtained F count (14,209)> F table (3.14). So it can be concluded that Entrepreneurship Education in family and Information Literacy simultaneously affects students' interest in entrepreneurship at SMK Negeri 1 Makassar (Table 8).
|Table 8 Simultaneously Significance Test|
|Model||Sum of Squares||Df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|a. Dependent Variable: Entrepreneurial Interest|
|b. Predictors: (Constant), Information Literacy, Influence of Education|
Coefficient of determination (R2) naturally measures how far model can explain the variation in dependent variable. The results of coefficient determination test can be seen in the following Table 9.
|Table 9 Determination Coefficient Test|
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate|
|a. Predictors: (Constant), Information Literacy, Influence of Education|
Based on Table 9 above, it can be seen that correlation value (R) of entrepreneurship education variable in family (X1), information literacy (X2) is 0.537 or 53.7%. This indicates that there is relationship between entrepreneurial literacy, student character (R square) of 0.289. It means that influence of entrepreneurship education variable in family and information literacy simultanously on business success is 0.268 or 26.8% and the remaining 73.2% is influenced by other factors.
Based on the results of data analysis, the next section will present a discussion that focuses on the results of hypothesis testing which will provide answers to research question in this study.
Hypothesis 1. The effect of entrepreneurship education in family on entrepreneurial interest. Results of first hypothesis test indicate that there is influence of entrepreneurship education in family on entrepreneurial interest. The results of descriptive analysis of entrepreneurship education variables in family showed that most respondents stated that knowledge and understanding of entrepreneurship taught in family environment was very high. Entrepreneurial knowledge is important to foster students' entrepreneurial interest. Through entrepreneurial knowledge, a student will found out what would be the obstacles in starting a business.
Having entrepreneurial knowledge, one will found out all entrepreneurial problems occured and might prevent any losses endangered the continuity of starting a business. Entrepreneurship education, measured from knowledge, attitudes, and skills of entrepreneurship, partially affects entrepreneurial intentions (Muhammad Rakib, 2015b). In addition, the results of this study are in line with results of research conducted by (Muchtar et al., 2015) which it shows that there is influence of living environment, family economic intensity and entrepreneurial learning on students' entrepreneurial interest. Entrepreneurship education has significant effect on students' entrepreneurial interest (Andika et al., 2020).
Hypothesis 2. The effect of information literacy on entrepreneurial interest. Results of the second hypothesis test indicate that there is a positive and significant effect of information literacy on students' entrepreneurial interest. This can be explained that being aware of information needs, ability to access information, utilizing information and evaluating information have effect on interest in entrepreneurship, the results of this study are in line with research result conducted by Hidayat, M., & Yunus, U. (2019) about Entrepreneurship Educatioan in Industry Revolution 4.0. And with research result by Hidayat et al. (2015). About about curriculum of Entrepreneurship Education.
Results of descriptive analysis of Information Literacy variables show that most students agree with being aware of the need for information, ability to access information, utilizing information and evaluating information are important things to increase entrepreneurial interest. Thus information literacy can be interpreted as a skill in accessing and understanding information effectively to solve problems and make decisions. Someone who owned these expertises knows how to manage information, organize, sort and maintain it according to their ethics.
Results of this study are in line with the results of research conducted by Hasugian (2013). The results of his research show that the competency-based curriculum aims to create a number of abilities or competencies in the context of lifelong learning. It takes the ability or competence to manage and utilize information effectively, namely information literacy skills.
Hypothesis 3. The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education in family and Information Literacy simultanously on Entrepreneurial interest. The F value is 14,209 with a significant value of 0,000. Because the significant value is less than 0.05, this means that Ho is rejected and Ha is accepted so that there is a simultaneously significant effect of Entrepreneurship Education in family and Information Literacy on Entrepreneurial Interest. Coefficient of determination (Adjusted R square) is 0.289 or 28.9%. This means that 28.9% of the dependent variable i.e., entrepreneurship, can be explained by variations in independent variables i.e., entrepreneurship education in family and information literacy. While the remaining 71.1% is explained by reasons other than regression. The standard error of estimate (SEE) is 5.746, in other words, the smaller the SEE value, the more precise the regression model will be in predicting the dependent variable.
Entrepreneurship Education in family and Information Literacy has a positive direct influence on entrepreneurial interest. The significance of these findings is that entrepreneurship education in family (having an entrepreneurial mental attitude, having courage to take risks, being able to recognize environment) and Information Literacy (being aware of information needs, being able to access information, utilizing information, evaluating information) have positive influence on entrepreneurial interest (freedom, personal dreams, independency).
Findings of this study are in line with research result conducted by Bambang Budi Utomo (2014) which shows that students' interest in entrepreneurship is influenced by role of parents in guiding and directing their children to have entrepreneurial attitudes. In order to foster entrepreneurial readiness apart from role of parents, teacher’s role is also indispensable due to their input in teaching students to make them better understand the skills that support entrepreneurship.
Based on findings and discussion, several conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) Results of this study partially show influence of entrepreneurship education in family on entrepreneurial interest of students of SMK Negeri 1 Makassar, (2) Information literacy is partially positive and has a significant effect on entrepreneurial interest among students of SMK Negeri 1 Makassar, and (3) Results of this study indicate that there is effect of entrepreneurship education in family and information literacy simultaneously and significantly on entrepreneurial interest of students of SMK Negeri 1 Makassar. Entrepreneurship education in family and information literacy is one of the important factors in fostering students’ interest in entrepreneurship. For this reason, entrepreneurship education is needed from early age to provide insight into entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial mentality so that it can foster interest in starting a business or entering the world of entrepreneurship.
It is expected that further researchers able to develop this research by examining other variables that can affect entrepreneurial interest. Further researchers can also use other methods in researching entrepreneurial interests, e.g., in-depth interviews with vocational students, so that the information obtained can be more varied than questionnaires which questions and answers are structured. Suggestion for future researchers on the same focus of study, it is cosiderable to find out how far role of parents comparing with role of teachers in entrepreneurial interest of students.