Journal of Entrepreneurship Education (Print ISSN: 1098-8394; Online ISSN: 1528-2651)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 22 Issue: 3

Entrepreneurship Teaching Method for Special Needs Students in Binus University: A Qualitative Research Approach

Gatot Hendra Prakoso, Bina Nusantara University

Indriana Indriana, Bina Nusantara University

Indira Tyas Widyastuti, Binus University-Anggrek Campus

Ira Setyawati, Binus University-Anggrek Campus


This paper aims to report on the entrepreneurship teaching method to the Special Needs Students (SNS) in the Entrepreneurship classes at BINUS University. This research used in-depth interview with lecturers who were teaching entrepreneurship classes with SNS inside their classes. The findings show that there was not enough information about the SNS provided by the university and it pushed the lecturers to define the existence of the SNS by themselves. This paper found three separate themes and their relationships with service quality in the context of a university. These themes are information, SNS Identification, SNS respond to the entrepreneurship subjects.


Entrepreneurship, Teaching, Special Needs Students, Deaf Students, Disorder, Information.


Education is everyone’s right, without exception, including for them that were destined to be handicapped persons. The research is about the Special Needs Students (SNS) have been a fascinating subject to be examined. For instance, this kind of researches had been done by some researchers in the past such as (Ainscow & Haile-giorgis, 1998; Stoutjesdijk et al., 2012; Tétreault et al., 2014).

One of the other interesting issues in the education field is the entrepreneurship education. After all these years, there are no such exact patterns of entrepreneurship educations that anyone could easily look up to. We could say that each expert has their own opinion, which was concluded based on their experiences that somehow, might be irrelevant to the other places and cultures. However, though the exact pattern has not been found, most of the researchers agreed that the entrepreneurship education in higher education level such as in universities would have impacts on improving the motivations and desire to be entrepreneurs (Otuya et al., 2013; Souitaris et al., 2007; Tessema, 2012).

Students did not learn how to be entrepreneurs in the class, but they learned how to have entrepreneurial mindsets. The entrepreneurship classes would be the facility for the students to develop their leadership, motivation, innovation, communication skill, teamwork and writing the business plans, and the course would be the media to develop the knowledge and skills that would encourage their entrepreneurial behavior (Okudan & Rzasa, 2006).

According to (Chavez, 2016), entrepreneurs have at least three kinds of characteristics. Those characters are the need for achievement, locus of control, and risk-taking propensity. (Chell, 2008) stated that there were some studies that showed the empirical evidence that entrepreneurial actions were related to the achievement motivation.

Furthermore, (Chavez, 2016) stated that locus of control is considered to be one of the entrepreneurial characteristics. This statement is along with the statement of (Chell, 2008). Locus of control is defined as the individual control of their work and their trust to their success. The locus of control is divided into the internal locus of control, which showing the individual confidence of their responsibilities of their actions in the organization, and the external locus of control that showing the confidence of the individual that their working attitude and achievement were mostly set because of the external factor, which is organization.

Speaking of risk-taking propensity, it is considered as the character that makes the entrepreneurs different from managers (Chavez, 2016). Someone that is considered as the risk-taker is someone that would love to pursue a business idea, even there were some probabilities of failures ahead (Chell, 2008). Innovative is also being considered as one of the entrepreneurial characteristics. (Mirela, 2008) stated that actual innovation and innovative spirit would be extremely important for entrepreneurs. This characteristic would help them to sustain the creative innovative activities of the business.

Referring to the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994), all child have the same right in education, and must be given the opportunity to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of learning, regardless their conditions, which it was fully understood that each child has the unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs, including the special need students.

It is quite challenging for the lecturers to deliver the entrepreneurship materials in the classes that have special need students in it. Would the students that have special needs could accept the material as the normal students? Is the inclusion idea could be applied in this situation?

According to (Burstein et al., 2004), school systems are moving forward toward inclusive practices, education students with disabilities in general education classrooms.

According to (Alqaryouti, 2010) citing the (UNESCO, 2005) stated that inclusion is defined as the process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion within and form education. It is also involving the change and modifications in content, approaches, structures and strategies, with a common vision which cover all children of the appropriate age rang and a conviction that is the responsibility of the regular system to educate all children.

Referring the statement of (Lindsay, 2003) citing the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994) that has several statements. One of those statements is the Second Statement that has five points, which are:

1. Every child has a fundamental right to education, and must be given the opportunity to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of learning.

2. Every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs.

3. Education systems should be designed and education programmers implemented to take into account the wide diversity of these characteristics.

4. Those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools which should accommodate them within a child-centred pedagogy capable of meeting these needs.

5. Regular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective measures of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all; moreover, they provide and effective education to the majority if children and improve the efficiency and ultimately the cost-effectiveness of the entire educations system.

Underlining the first statement, all children, have the same right in education, including those who has special learning needs (referring to the second statement). Furthermore, referring the fourth statement, those who have special needs should have the access to the regular schools. It means, the special need students would be experiencing all the things that the normal students would. Based on those statements above, the special need students would also have their rights to learn entrepreneurships, and furthermore, being involved in every activities in the subjects to gain the same experiences as the normal students would have.

This research would mainly discuss the entrepreneurship learning method for special needs students. By stating the entrepreneurship learning method, the researchers were implying for the whole process of the entrepreneurship learning. When the special needs students should enter the higher education level in university, those students would be blended in the regular classes, not the special classes for the special needs students.

There are lots of research results that suggested the inclusion of the special needs students in the regular classes. This idea is based on the philosophy that all students have the rights to have similar access and to participate in the school curriculum (Westwood & Graham, 2003).

A similar idea about inclusion had been stated by (Hyde & Power, 2004) in term of the inclusion of deaf students in the regular school. They stated that the inclusion is considered as a philosophy that is describing the rightful educational place for all kinds of students. This statement is in line as what were stated in the Salamanca Statement, especially statement number 2, point 2 (UNESCO, 1994).

Another statement from (Ruijs & Peetsma, 2009) stated that the effect of inclusive education for the special needs students had shown the slightly positive result, though they added more information that somehow is still quite difficult to consider as the significant result.

Along with the statements above, this research was constructed based on the fact that all students have their right to learn entrepreneurship, no matter what kind of constraints and obstacles they have within themselves.

In Bina Nusantara University (BINUS), the special needs students would be included in the regular classroom as well. They would have to deal with every aspect of the classroom, including the individual and group activities and assignments as much as the regular students.

This research’s aim was to find out the entrepreneurship learning process in BINUS, start from the very beginning of the process, from the notification of the existence of the special need students in the classes to the lecturers, to how the lecturers approached the special need students, in term of trying to deliver the entrepreneurship material. The researchers were unable to find any supporting papers on how entrepreneurship education has impacts to the special need students, or why the special need students should have the entrepreneurship courses. However, referring the Salamanca Statement, statement number two point one and two, BINUS has embraced the special need students into its education system, and by that, the special need students would be in the entrepreneurship class as well.

Literature Review

Special Needs Students Inclusion in the Regular Class

The existence of special need students is an integral part of today’s education system. The idea of inclusion of special needs students in the regular classroom had already become the interesting debate area between those who agreed and those who did not agree. Each party has their own point of view.

Based on the earlier studies, this topic remains a debatable topic. Some experts agreed that the inclusion of the special needs students into the regular classroom is the best way to provide the appropriate education for the special needs students. In several countries, this inclusion process had been started for more than 20 years ago (Stoutjesdijk et al., 2012).

The main reason of inclusion idea is that the special needs school for the special needs students has no longer able to give the same chances for the special needs students to get the similar learning process and similar learning experiences as what the normal students have from the regular school (Westwood & Graham, 2003).

This inclusion (some researchers prefer to state it as “integration”) of the special need students in the regular class, as it was stated earlier, is still a debatable topic. The researchers that did not agree with the inclusion idea stated that by having the special need learning process in the special needs school, the special needs students would also gain the unique and useful experiences (Hyde & Power, 2004).

Learning Process for Special Needs Students

It is not easy to handle the special needs students. It requires a special method that would be different from handling the normal students. The teachers or the lecturers that had to handle the special needs students had to deal with some certain obstacles to deliver the learning material. According to (Mariage et al., 2000) the teachers (and/or lecturers) should try harder to be able to take the special needs students “into” the classroom.

Furthermore, (Mariage et al., 2000) stated that the ways that were done by the individual teachers in term of assisting the individual student and the groups determined the effectiveness of the practices. There were four ways that were done by the teachers to assist the students. Those four methods are:

1. Using dialogue as the media to improve the special need students’ performance in the classroom (Mariage, 2014; Palincsar, 2011).

2. Maintaining the dialogical relationship between the special need students and the lecturers as the learning process basic in the classroom (Tannen, 2007).

3. By using the existing procedures to simplify access to the complex processes for the special need students and by setting the language to communicate in written or oral form (Bereiter & Bird, 2009).

4. By transferring the controlling ability and responsibility to the special need students to arrange their own learning processes (Mariage et al., 2000).

Research Methodology

Research Design

This is a qualitative research. Referring to the objective of the research, it is simply being done to understand the information about to whom the entrepreneurship is being delivered in the learning process–for the special needs students, in BINUS. The current researched phenomenon was happening in the certain period of timeframe that could not be manipulated. This research is being done in two semesters within 2016-2017.

Based on this situation, the researcher had decided to use the Case Study method as the most suitable approach to the research objective.

Research Focus

The focus of this study is the entrepreneurship teaching method for the special needs students in BINUS and the impact of the entrepreneurship learning on the special needs students.

Research Objective

The objective of this research is to explore the experience and the mechanism of the lecturers in term of entrepreneurship lecturing method for special needs students.

Research Benefits

The result would give the overview of how entrepreneurship education in the university is being delivered to the special needs students. The result would also be useful as the starting point for the development of entrepreneurship education method for the special needs students, in BINUS itself, and also could be used as the reference for the other universities and higher education institution that were going to use the inclusion method for the special need students in their entrepreneurship classes.

Research Respondents

The respondents in this research are the informant respondents. The informants were chosen based on these criteria:

1. Active lecturers that are currently teaching entrepreneurship subjects in BINUS.

2. Active lecturers that have classes with special needs students in their classes.

Data Collection Methods

In-depth interview method is being used to collect the data. The in-depth interview is a process to search and gain the necessary information by directly asking the informant (face-to-face). The interview is being done from individual to individual to get the clear information from the informants (Bungin, 2007).

Data Collection Procedures

1. Preliminary study: The researchers decided to interview the informants that were considered as the competent individuals in entrepreneurship teaching and special needs students teaching field to get the perfectly matched point of view to the research context. The chosen informants for this preliminary phase were the entrepreneurship lecturers in BINUS that have already trained for the special needs students teaching method.

2. Research respondent determination: Informants of the research were determined with the purposive sampling technique. This technique was chosen to get the accurate result from the relevant informant (to the research subject). According to (Bungin, 2007), one of the most common strategies to determine the qualitative informant is the purposive method, where the informants were determined based on the relevant chosen criteria.

Furthermore, (Bungin, 2007), sampling size was measured based on saturation theory. There would be no further informant addition when there was no new information gathered, which means, there would not be any new information that could add the new point of view in this research.

3. Research execution: In-Depth Interview is being done based on the agreement between researchers and informants. The interviews were being done in the different places and in the different time. Each informant was given the same open-ended questions.

Data Analysis Method

The collected data from the in-depth interview were analyzed soon after the collected data were being coded. The coding process was being applied to all the keywords. After the coding processes had done, it should be followed by making the abstraction. Abstraction is a process to create the summary of all important facts, process, and statements of the informants. This process would be followed by the transformation the data into units. The units would be categorized into groups, based on the similar topics of the units. The researcher generated the summary to simplify the interpretation.

Research Limitation

Limitations of this research are:

1. The research is only being done to the students in the entrepreneurship classes, as the research was conducted to know the entrepreneurship learning method for the special need students.

2. The special needs students’ criteria are limited to the different behavior that they had shown in the classroom which was recognized by the lecturers.

Results And Discussion

Informant Characteristics

Fourteen informants were being involved in this research, consisted of 7 women and 7 men. All of the informants are the entrepreneurship lecturers in BINUS where the research was conducted; they were teaching the entrepreneurship classes that have special needs students. Informants’ age range is between 30 to 44 years old.

Based on the interview, it was found that among those 14 lecturers, only four of them that had been exposed to the experiences of dealing with special needs students or had been trained to deal with special needs students (Table 1).

Table 1
Informants Information
Informants Gender Age Teaching Duration (year) Training/Experiences on SNS
Indriana F 36 8 No
Jajat Sudrajat M 41 7 Yes
Indira F 36 2 No
Desman Hidayat M 30 4 No
Yud Buana M 44 3 No
Carolina Hisjman F 41 4 Yes
Irene Teresa F 36 4 No
Dotty Wimpertiwi F 37 6 Yes
Abdullah Umar M 41 3 Yes
Yunitasari Christianti F 40 1 No
Stievan Halim M 32 1 No
Siti Paramadita F 30 1 No
Kusumah Arif M 41 2 No
Satrio Matin Utomo M 35 5 No

Research result analysis theme: Based on the interview, related to the objective of the study, the research had managed to identify several themes. The themes are:

1. Identification the Special Needs Students (SNS) in the Entrepreneurship Classes.

2. Types of SNS in the entrepreneurship classes.

3. Handling method of the SNS in the classes.

4. SNS responds on the entrepreneurship assignment in the classes.

5. Responds of the regular students to the SNS, and 6) entrepreneurship comprehension of the SNS.

SNS Identification in the Entrepreneurship Classes

The interview results have shown that none of the informants received any information about the existence of the SNS in their entrepreneurship classes.

It could be seen from their expression:

No information from the campus at all in the past,

I usually got an email about them, but not this time...

For the lecturers, this situation leads them to two things:

1. Their un-preparedness to deal with the SNS in their classes.

2. The impact of the un-preparedness to the whole teaching and learning processes of the class.

The unpreparedness of the lecturers to deal with the SNS: All informants have stated that they did not receive any information in all possible information channels which usually was being used by the university to contact the lecturers such as short message service, email, or phone. Some of them found out that there were SNS in their classroom after quite a while after they realized that those SNS had shown some different behaviors.

The impact of the unpreparedness to the whole teaching and learning processes of the classes: All of the informants agreed that at the beginning, they did the regular teaching style since they assumed that the classes were entirely regular. After some meetings, the lecturers found out that there were some SNS in their classes.

This late awareness of the existence of the SNS had impacted the whole teaching and learning process. The lecturers would need time to determine the condition, which means, the teaching and learning process–for the regular students, would be postponed for a while.

All informants also agreed that they had to determine the SNS by themselves. The informants stated that they recognized the SNS based on some physical signs–which could be associated with the signs of SNS.

Those physical signs are:

1. The SNS tend to be alone. Most of them preferred to sit outside the students’ groups in the classes. The seat composition of a class would normally divide into two or three major groups of seats (consists of more than three students), and two or three smaller groups (two persons each group). The SNS however, chose to sit by themselves.

2. The deaf SNS chose to sit in the front row. This would allow them to read the lips of the teaching lecturer. These deaf SNS were recognized by the hearing aid that they were using in the class.

3. The SNS has a different way to communicate with the other students. The deaf SNS were considered easier to communicate with the other normal students compared to the disorder SNS. The disorder SNS in the classes were identified based on three habits; no communication at all with other students, communicate with a very loud voice, and self-talker.

4. The disorder SNS tends to avoid eye contacts with the lecturer (1 SNS).

5. The disorder SNS tend to show aggressive behavior. This one SNS was trying to take the lecturer’s nametag.

The unavailability of information about the SNS in the classes made the informants need more time to recognize their existence in the classes. Four informants stated that they just recognized the SNS in the second week of lectures. Two informants said they just recognized the existence of the SNS in the fifth week and the other two informants in the seventh week of lectures.

SNS Types in Entrepreneurship Classes

Eight out of all informants stated that they have the deaf SNS in their classes. One informant has both deaf and disorder SNS. The rest of the informants have the disorder SNS in their classes. Generally, given the fact that most of the informants did not have any specific knowledge about how to handle SNS, the informants were classifying the SNS based on their assumptions, and based on the very general symptoms that they could identify in the classrooms.

Although based in the information from the informant that the SNS showed different behaviors and characteristics, researcher grouped them into one group, the disorder SNS, considering that each informants could not differentiate and could not exactly specified what kind of disorders that theirs student have. This is because they did not have any information about the detail condition of the SNS in their class, and they also did not have the capacity to categorized the disorder SNS (Table 2).

Table 2
Students Information
Informant Study Program Number of Students Types of Special Needs
Indriana  Management 1 Deaf
Visual Communication Design 1 Deaf
Jajat Sudrajat English Department 1 Disorder
Japanese Department 1 Disorder
Indira Visual Communication Design 1 Deaf
Desman Hidayat Visual Communication Design 1 Deaf
Yud Buana Management 1 Deaf
Carolina Hisjman Game Application Technology 3 Disorder
Irene Teresa Information Technology 2 Disorder
Dotty Wimpertiwi Visual Communication Design 2 Deaf
Abdullah Umar Business Information Technology 1 Disorder
Yunitasari Christianti Management  1 Disorder
Stievan Halim Visual Communication Design 2 Disorder
Food Tech 2 Deaf
Siti Paramadita  Visual Communication Design 2 Disorder
Kusumah Arif Design Interior  1 Deaf
Satrio Matin Utomo Japanese Department 1 Disorder
Game Application Technology 1 Disorder

Handling Method to Teach the SNS

All 14 informants showed the various response of how they deal with the SNS. Each informants seemed to have different experiences (in details) on dealing with the SNS in the class. Though varied, the response could be categorized in four teaching methods:

1. Exclusive time for the SNS after the class.

2. Talk slower, so the deaf SNS could read the lips.

3. Giving the special assignments for the SNS.

4. Motivate the SNS to be more active in all discussions in the class.

Response of the SNS to the Assignments

Based on the information from the interview, the informants had given various statements. The first informant chose to add more time for the SNS students, right after the class was dismissed. Soon after the other students left the class, the SNS could have their own extra session for 10-15 minutes. According to the first informant, the SNS had shown a positive response after they had been given the special session after the class. They asked more questions related to the assignments which lead them to understand more about the assignments.

The second informant stated that the SNS seemed confused. The disorder SNS got more confused when she found out she had difficulties to find the student’s guidance in the student’s portal. The confusion had turned into panic condition, so the informant decided to bring the SNS to the university’s psychologist to get some treatments. This however, had taken some certain times for the second informant to bring the students to the university’s psychologist.

The third informant stated that the SNS had shown lack of response to the assignments. The disorder SNS tended to be silent during the group discussion. The student did not show any interest to join the group’s discussion at all.

The fourth informant stated that the SNS, at a glance, seemed to understand the assignment. The deaf SNS showed the ability to have communication with the whole member of the group. The informant also added that although the other students were not fluently speaking in sign language, it seemed that the deaf SNS could have quite good communications with the other students in the class. He could understand the class, including the assignment that should be done, whether individually or in group.

The fifth informant stated slightly different information than the other informants. The SNS in the class had shown the determination to learn, even better than the normal students in the same class. This deaf SNS were actively involved in the class discussion, asked questions to the lecturer, and been actively engaged in the group discussion. Furthermore, it was recognized by the informant that the deaf SNS had shown higher interest in the subject than the other (normal) students in the class. The deaf SNS often asked some constructive questions which were considered as very useful questions in the class discussion. The deaf condition did not seem to have impacts on the ability to learn in the class.

The sixth informant stated that there were some differences between the SNS students in her two classes. The sixth informant had to handle three disorder SNS. Though the three SNS have the similar disorder problem, they showed a different kind of behaviors and responses in the class.

The two disorder SNS in the first class showed that they were able to communicate with the lecturers, and most importantly, they could learn after the lecturer gave the special lecturing session. In contrary, the disorder SNS in the second class showed the disability to communicate, and he tends to get aggressive by trying to take the paper from the lecturer’s hand and the lecturer’s nametag.

The seventh informant stated that the SNS in the class was considerably quiet. The disorder SNS showed no much response unless he was being asked. When he answered, he tends to use very short answers, with only one or two words. He did not show any initiatives to have some discussion with the other members of the group, in term of discussion the group assignment.

The eighth informant stated that the class had one deaf SNS. Along with the other informants that had the deaf SNS in their classes, the eighth informant stated that the deaf SNS had shown the ability to study. It was shown in the special extra session after the classes. The deaf students tend to ask more questions after the class was officially closed. In this session, the lecturer had more chances to deliver the material that it was delivered to the classroom earlier. The deaf student also used this session to ask varies questions that were related to the material and the assignment.

The eighth informant also stated that the class might have another SNS. As also it had been stated by the other informants, the disorder SNS seemed to close himself to the others, both to the lecturer and the other students in the class, even his own group. The disorder SNS did not seem to try to make any contacts with this fellow group. Even so, the disorder SNS did not make any particular behavior that might bother the other students in his group.

The ninth informant stated that the class has one disorder SNS. The student showed some specific symptoms such as tend to close himself to the others. The students seemed to be more attracted to his activities by doing his own drawing activities and not focusing on the class. This student was not able to be involved to the class activities, either it was the lecturing or even the group discussion.

A similar situation is also stated by the tenth informant. The disorder student showed that he could not be focused in the class, and tends to show certain anxiety during the class.

The eleventh informant had to deal with four SNS in his class. Two of them are the deaf SNS, and the other two showed the disorder symptoms. The deaf students had difficulties to communicate, due to their handicaps. The disorder students showed different conditions. One disorder student tends to be trapped in his own mind, while the other one showed much worse condition. Though they had their own issues, somehow their existence did not cause any problem in the class. The deaf students however, tried so hard to keep up with the current explained materials.

The twelfth informant stated that in her class, she had to deal with two students with disorder problems. Though, the two students showed much better conditions than what the other informants stated. The disorder SNS in this class showed quiet behavior in the class during the lecturing process, and tend to ask much more questions after the class.

The thirteenth informant stated that the deaf student in his class did not behave very differently than other normal students. The student chose to have extra time after the class to ask for some further explanations of the explained materials.

The fourteenth informant stated that the students in his class showed the symptoms of disorder SNS. Though, the disorder SNS did not show any particular behavior that tends to disturb the class.

The Responds of the Normal Students

Ten informants agreed that there were some supports in the class to the SNS. The students seemed to show their compassion to the SNS, and they were trying to embrace the SNS. However, the students seemed to be a little bit picky when it was about their assignment points. The students had a little concern due to the ability of the SNS to cooperate with them.

They were afraid that the SNS might become some certain burdens during the class. According to the informants, some students that showed their concern about the existence of the SNS in their group stated that their concern were more because they had experiences in the previous classes. The SNS could not cooperate with the other student in the group. When the task was being distributed to the whole member of the group, the SNS could not finish his/her part.

The lecturers–which in this case are the informants, managed to convince them that the SNS would not become their burden. And, whatever the SNS had done, it would not have any impacts to the other students’ final results on the classroom.

The normal students also showed their ability to treat the SNS normally. However, among all of the classes that had been informed earlier in this paper, an informant stated that in her class, the normal students seemed to refuse the existence of the SNS in their class. What happened in this class would not be the representative of the whole university’s students’ behavior, considering the other students in the other class that had been involved in this research seemed to be able.


This study managed to come out with several conclusions. First, the lecturers of entrepreneurship in BINUS were not informed about the existence of the SNS in the classrooms. This leads the lecturers to have some difficulties of identifying the SNS, and what kind of special needs the students have, which lead them to have difficulties in arranging the learning plan for the SNS. By recognizing the SNS in the later sessions of the lectures would be a disadvantage for the SNS themselves, since they might not be able to understand the contents of the lectures. Second, it is important for the lecturers to have a training of handling SNS in the class. This is closely related to the whole class activities since entrepreneurship course contains group activities and group discussions. Third, based on the fact that there were only two types of SNS in the entrepreneurship classes of BINUS (deaf and disorder SNS), it could be concluded that the deaf SNS are likely to have better ability to learn entrepreneurship. The lecturers, regardless of the absence of special course to handle SNS, still had the ability to communicate with the deaf SNS. In contrary, the disorder SNS seemed to have difficulties in understanding the lecturers’ guidance in the classes, and more importantly, they seemed to have problems to deal with the group activities. Problems, by definition, mean that the disorder SNS might not be able to interact with the other members of the group, or they might not be able to contribute to the activities of the group. Fourth, the responses of the SNS to the assignments of the entrepreneurship classes were varied. The deaf SNS showed better response to the subjects. They could understand what the lecturers have delivered in the classes. The disorder SNS showed different response. The disorder SNS showed two kinds of behaviors: quite (not involved with the classes, either partially or totally), and aggressive. However, the disorder SNS did not show any comprehensions to the subjects. Fifth, the responses of the normal students to the SNS were generally supportive. In term of class activities that were not related to the students’ mark; all students seemed to be supportive. For example, the normal students helped the SNS (both deaf and disorder) to get along with the classes. Some deaf students showed that they did not have problems to communicate with the normal students, and they could get along normally, nearly without any problems occurred. However, the opposite response was showed when it was related to the students’ mark. This condition was showed when the students should divide the classes into groups, regarding the group assignments. Some normal students tend to show their rejections when they were asked to take the disorder SNS into their groups. The normal students objected because, in their opinions, the disorder SNS would be a burden to the group, and they (the disorder SNS) would not have any significant contribution to the group activities. The normal students worried that the disorder SNS might have negative impacts to the group performance, which would have some impacts to the final points of the subjects. However, it did not happen to the deaf SNS. The groups that had the deaf SNS did not seem to be bothered with the existence of the deaf SNS.


Based on the result of the research above, there might be some suggestions that could be proposed. First, it is crucial to provide the information of the SNS to the lecturers, so the lecturers would have a better preparation to deal with the classes, especially the classes with SNS inside of it. Second, the inclusion idea of SNS was good, as it was stated by (Ainscow & Haile-giorgis, 1998; Hyde & Power, 2004; Ruijs & Peetsma, 2009; Westwood & Graham, 2003). However, the idea of inclusions might only have positive impacts on the deaf SNS. This study showed that in entrepreneurship learning process, the inclusion of disorder students was not the perfect way to teach entrepreneurship to disorder SNS. Third, a specific method to teach entrepreneurship, especially to the disorder SNS should be determined. It would be an intriguing topic to be investigated in the future researches.


This study has limitations. This study used a single university, with eight informants. The information that was gained in this study might be different with the information from the other entrepreneurship lecturers from the different university. The research result could not be generalized to the other universities that also have adapted the inclusion for the SNS.

This study, however, did not try to generalize the entrepreneurship teaching method to the SNS, but it generated the valuable insight that would be useful to develop the entrepreneurial teaching method for the SNS.