Research Article: 2022 Vol: 28 Issue: 6
Iwaloye Bunmi Omoniyi, University of Zululand
Bongani Thulani Gamede, University of Zululand
Citation Information: Omoniyi, I.B., & Gamede, B.T. (2022). Evaluating effective teaching and assessment methods for entrepreneurship education to produce self-employed higher education graduates. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 28(6), 1-16.
Despite the fact that entrepreneurship education has been provided to South African higher education students for many years, only a small percentage of graduates are capable of successfully starting their own businesses, implying that a large percentage of graduates remain ineffective. The current study used social learning theory to examine how to use effective teaching and evaluation methods to help facilitate the development of entrepreneurs by looking at some successful graduate entrepreneurs in South Africa. This study used a qualitative method that included focus group interviews. The study was carried out in Richard Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, using purposive sampling methods. There were a total of 5 (five) participants in the study. The results were thematically analyzed by generating themes from the participants' findings and conclusions about the study questions. In light of the facts that have been discovered, the study's findings suggest the following: Students in college and universities should be assigned tasks that involve them in the field of entrepreneurship. In addition, all entrepreneurs' education lecturers should be provided with the necessary skills through in-service training in order to stay current with market trends. Instructors should strive to strike a balance between theoretical and practical learning while teaching entrepreneurial education, and research institutions should maintain a database of students who have been successful in the workforce after graduation.
Education, Learning, Entrepreneurship, Teaching, Pedagogy.
The Background of the Study
Entrepreneurship is widely recognized as an important component of economic development (Carree et al., 2002). According to various early studies, entrepreneurs are born, not made. Universities and business schools simply aren't equipped to teach students how to become more entrepreneurial. People are typically afraid to become entrepreneurs because they believe the industry is hazy and dangerous (Petridou et al., 2009). Entrepreneurship, on the other hand, has been discovered to be aided by education and training (Petridou & Glaveli, 2008). For those who want to establish their own business, entrepreneurship education comprises systematic instruction. Students' levels of entrepreneurship can be raised through entrepreneurship education, prompting them to establish their firms (Petridou et al., 2009; Lubis, 2014). College and university administrators should promote entrepreneurship education as part of a holistic reform and development strategy, as well as in staff training and teaching evaluation systems (Zou, 2015).
Numerous recent studies have demonstrated the importance of entrepreneurial education. This is disputed; yet, there is disagreement over how entrepreneurship education should be provided and what students think about it. The importance of universities and business schools in the development of entrepreneurial education has been questioned (Kirby, 2004). Traditional schooling, according to some, fails to foster entrepreneurial characteristics and talents. Instead of teaching students to be effective employees, traditional education prepares them to be successful entrepreneurs (Solomon et al., 1994). There have been suggestions that the learning process needs to be overhauled. Entrepreneurship is about harnessing innovation and change to achieve something new, not merely launching new firms (Kirby, 2004).
By digging more into the topic, it becomes evident that entrepreneurship education is vital, but much more research is needed to develop a strategy to teach startup entrepreneurs. In the entrepreneurial education process, students play a critical role. The current study promises to examine the students' viewpoint: their comprehension of entrepreneurship education, their awareness, as well as their anxieties and concerns (Clarke & Visser, 2019).
Because of the growing rate of unemployment among members of the global community, entrepreneurship education is considered as a strategy for encouraging graduates of tertiary education, including those who have completed higher learning education, to pursue self-employment (Gyamfi, 2014; Kalimasi, 2014; Mangasini, 2015). Furthermore, in the context of the current challenges and opportunities associated with the fourth industrial revolution era, the World Entrepreneurship Investment Forum, held in Manama, Bahrain in 2017, agreed that entrepreneurship knowledge should promote domestic investment, resulting in job creation (WIEF, 2019). Despite having graduated from numerous institutions that teach entrepreneurship, several surveys demonstrate that the majority of graduates fail to start their enterprises.
Any individual, who has graduated from a higher learning institution that offers business studies, including entrepreneurship education, is defined as a graduate in the current study. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that there is a link between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurship success (Bawuah et al., 2006; Zhou & Xu, 2012; Fatoki, 2014). As a result, entrepreneurial education is described as the study of sources of business possibilities, with a focus on how to uncover, explore, develop, and evaluate them to start a firm (Fatoki, 2014). In addition, entrepreneurship education is a critical method for generating future goods and services (Qian & Lai, 2012; Munoz et al., 2019). As a result, entrepreneurship is now taught as a whole program or as a component of business-related degrees in colleges and universities all around the world (Arasti et al., 2013; Kalimasi, 2014). In the United States, for example, this notion was taught in higher learning education earlier than in other nations in the 1940s, and by the 2000s, more than 1600 learning institutions were offering relevant courses (Zhou & Xu, 2012). Later on, countries from all over the world, including Europe, Australia, Asia, and Africa, joined. Serious teaching of this phenomenon, for example, began in the 1970s in Canada, and in the 1990s in Germany, China, and India (Zhou & Xu, 2012). In India, it started with nine pilot colleges as part of the government's job-creation strategy, and by 2013, there were almost 100 departments dedicated to entrepreneurship as a concept or subject (Pradhan & Sahoo, 2013).
In the 2000s, most African educational institutions began to provide entrepreneurial education (Bawuah et al., 2006). For example, in the 2015 academic year, the University of Ghana made it a necessary subject for all freshmen entering university (Bawuah et al., 2006), and the Small and Medium Enterprise Development Policy made it mandatory (URT, 2003). Both programs regard entrepreneurship as a conscious endeavor to enhance employment prospects in the education sector, lowering the rate of unemployment among graduates after they complete their studies. The goal of mainstreaming entrepreneurship education in higher education was to encourage graduates to become entrepreneurs, to transform education into a job creator, and to keep up with scientific and technological advances (Sabokwigina & Olomi, 2010). As a result, most higher learning institutions in South Africa and other African countries have recently begun to offer various entrepreneurship education courses to respond to the country's national policy of reducing unemployment and poverty (Kalimasi, 2014; Sabokwigina & Olomi, 2010). Ineffective models and methods utilized in preparing students to become entrepreneurs are, nevertheless, the main acknowledged hurdles to the quality of entrepreneurship education delivered in South Africa.
Traditional teaching techniques, such as traditional lectures and written evaluations, contribute to graduates' failure to establish their firms since they do not encourage creativity and innovation, which are essential components of being an entrepreneur (Fulgence, 2015; Kalimasi & Herman, 2016; Sabokwigina & Olomi, 2010). Furthermore, it has been suggested that traditional methods of teaching this notion train students to work as employees of other entrepreneurs rather than as entrepreneurs themselves (Fayomi, et al., 2019). Because of the flaws in those educational techniques, unemployment has been rapidly increasing rather than decreasing in South Africa, although the number of graduates has increased (Kalimasi, 2014). Effective teaching of this notion, it is suggested, is necessary to encourage self-employment among graduates of higher education institutions, a group that is quickly growing in South Africa (Fulgence, 2015).
Despite years of investment in entrepreneurship education in South African colleges, many graduates are incompetent and so unable to launch their businesses (Fulgence, 2015; Kalimasi, 2014). Research has been undertaken to address the issues involved with teaching this idea in higher education in South Africa. Sabokwigina & Olomi (2010) explored the condition of development of entrepreneurship education in South African business schools, while (Fulgence, 2015) assessed the situation of entrepreneurship education in higher education institutions with a special focus on education colleges in this country. Mangasini (2015) explored impediments to business start-up and assessed factors of graduate entrepreneurial entry intent, and (Kalimasi & Herman, 2016) looked into how entrepreneurship education is integrated across South African public universities. In general, none of the previous research sought to link successful graduate entrepreneurs' contributions to the improvement of entrepreneurship education methods in South Africa. As a result, based on the experiences of successful graduate entrepreneurs in South Africa, the study intends to fill a vacuum in the literature by investigating effective entrepreneurship education teaching methods and self-employment assessment procedures among graduates of higher learning education.
The Research's Purpose and Objectives, as well as the Research Questions
By relying on the experiences of several successful graduate entrepreneurs in South Africa, the major purpose of this research was to investigate effective teaching and evaluation methodology relevant to entrepreneurship education to produce self-employed graduates of higher learning education. As a result, the research aimed to address the following research questions:
1. What are the most prevalent entrepreneurship education teaching and assessment methodologies utilized by South African higher learning institutions to produce self-employed people? 2. What are the hurdles that graduate entrepreneurs in South Africa face when beginning a business? 3. What are the tactics for enhancing entrepreneurship education teaching and assessment methodologies in higher education in South Africa to develop self-employed individuals?
The Study's Purpose
The current research adds to a growing body of knowledge in South Africa about how to improve entrepreneurship education teaching and assessment methodologies in higher education institutions. The study is based on the experiences of successful South African graduate entrepreneurs, whose input is crucial for curriculum developers and policymakers as they plan for the effective implementation of entrepreneurship education for the development of self-employed individuals in South Africa (Madrid, 2019).
An Examination of Connected Works
The Theoretical Foundations
Social Learning Theory, also known as Social Cognitive Theory, was used to guide the research. The hypothesis was pioneered by Herbert Bandura, whose work began in the 1960s. The hypothesis has been used in several students learning research projects, including entrepreneurship. When compared to other well-known learning theories such as behaviorism, humanism, and constructivism, (Byrne & Toutain, 2012) discovered that 60.8 percent of 97 reviewed publications were related to this theory. The primary concept of the idea is that people learn through observation, imitation, and modeling when they engage with others in a social setting. Observing others helps people learn skills, rules, techniques, attitudes, and beliefs. People also learn how to appropriately apply learned modeled behavior. The notion of self-efficacy was created by Bandura & Walters (1994), and it refers to an individual's personal belief in his or her capacity to execute a task. Self-efficacy is the outcome of mastery of experiences, social persuasion, social modeling, and psychological responses, according to (Bandura & Walters, 1994). According to Bandura & Walters (1994), the stronger the self-efficacy, the more likely the task will be completed, whereas the lower the self-efficacy, the less likely the activity will be completed (Wahid et al., 2016).
According to current research on entrepreneurship education instructors and other people in the social milieu should serve as role models and mentors to students. Students must watch and replicate the behaviors of great entrepreneurs to learn entrepreneurship education and become successful entrepreneurs. To reshape present teaching techniques and analyze entrepreneurship education in higher learning institutions, successful graduate entrepreneurs must participate. Aside from recommending ways to improve teaching techniques and evaluation procedures, successful graduate entrepreneurs serve as role models for other graduates who, though they are in the field of entrepreneurship, have failed to begin their company endeavors for a variety of reasons. The social cognitive theory is important to the current study because it will help researchers figure out what successful graduate entrepreneurs think about entrepreneurship education and how it may be taught to self-employed South Africans. Successful graduate entrepreneurs can also serve as role models in society, addressing the different obstacles that graduate experience while beginning their businesses. Based on the chosen theory, the study's findings will also be presented about the underlying theoretical perspectives.
Entrepreneurial Education Conceptualization
An entrepreneur is someone who, using critical thinking, establishes a new business that didn't exist before (Qian & Lai, 2012). A person who identifies, analyses, and capitalizes on chances to produce future goods or services and employment is sometimes referred to as an entrepreneur (Munoz et al., 2019). Entrepreneurship, on the other hand, is a type of activity in which an entrepreneur organizes the four factors of production and entails four major components: vision, invention, risk-taking, and business organization (Qasim et al., 2018). It is the capacity to foresee and launch a new business endeavor or change an existing one by applying learned knowledge and experience from the environment to manage the business despite the problems it may face (Fatoki, 2014). An entrepreneur is defined in this study as someone who has launched their business venture (s) after graduating from a college or institution with an entrepreneurship program.
Training for Entrepreneurship
Scholars are currently offering a variety of recommendations on how entrepreneurship education might be taught in a way that promotes effective learning. While some researchers attempt to direct which types of teaching methods are appropriate for education entrepreneurship (Arasti et al., 2014), others suggest conditions that guide the decision to use a specific method for this subject (Arasti et al., 2014; Pradhan & Sahoo, 2013). Methods such as project, lecture, report writing, discussion, individual presentation, guest speaker, video recording, web-based, and seminar are more appropriate for entrepreneurship education. Furthermore, Arasti et al. (2014) believe that case studies and lectures are more suited when educating students about business planning. Entrepreneurship education should be taught through a range of methods, including lecture presentations, handouts, group discussions, case studies, and role-plays. Learning by doing, digital tools, internships, connecting with entrepreneurs, multimedia, mentoring, and experimentation are all highly recommended for entrepreneurship education training, according to the European Union (Fayomi et al., 2019).
The second group of experts, on the other hand, does not offer any specific ways for teaching entrepreneurship education, but rather suggests conditions to consider when choosing this subject's teaching methods. Pradhan & Sahoo (2013), for example, suggest that there is no single way for teaching entrepreneurship education, but that alternatives should be chosen based on the link between four important components. The program goals, the audience, the content, and the assessment are the elements. Similarly, Arasti et al. (2014) suggest that how students are taught should be guided by the course purpose of entrepreneurship education. In the same line as establishing guiding parameters for method selection, (Fayomi et al., 2019) argue that who teaches, what is taught, and where learning occurs are all important drivers of entrepreneurship education instruction. As a result of the foregoing literature on how to teach entrepreneurship education, two types of teaching methods and assessment procedures may be distinguished: traditional methods and action-based approaches. Traditional approaches such as traditional lectures, according to (Arasti et al., 2014) make a student passive and so do not educate him or her to operate as an independent entrepreneur; rather, these methods teach a student to work with entrepreneurs (employees of other entrepreneurs). Action-based strategies, on the other hand, are strongly recommended for teaching entrepreneurial education. Action-based methods, according to Pradhan & Sahoo (2013), are instructional approaches that are distinguished by learning by doing, participation in real-life circumstances, or more didactical and traditional procedures whose efficacy can be measured. Examples include role-playing, case studies, project work, simulation, games, and other action-oriented methods.
Difficulties in Teaching Methods for Entrepreneurship Education: Empirical Studies
Zhou & Xu (2012) compared entrepreneurship education at three Chinese universities: Beijing, Renin, and Tsinghua. Despite considerable progress in entrepreneurship instruction in higher education institutions in China, it was revealed that the country still trails behind the United States. The study recommended, among other things, that teachers receive extensive training to improve the teaching pedagogy of this subject or courses connected to entrepreneurship, as most teaching approaches are traditional.
The challenges of entrepreneurial education in India were reviewed by (Pradhan & Sahoo, 2013). To begin with, it was determined that in India, the subject is not taught holistically because it concentrates largely on company management or general business education. As a result, valuable abilities like leadership, creative thinking, technology exposure, and innovation are undervalued. In addition, the bulk of teaching methods and assessments were revealed to be traditional. As a result, the study advised that teaching techniques and assessment procedures be changed to improve entrepreneurship education efficacy. Radipere looked into the state of entrepreneurship education in South Africa and how it was taught in colleges in the country. The study found that the stated purpose of entrepreneurship education is not being reached because many entrepreneurial graduates are looking for jobs due to flaws in teaching methods that are defined by traditional (teacher-centered) rather than learner-centered approaches to teaching. According to the findings, the topic should use interactive teaching methods like simulation to allow students to put what they've learned in class into practice. Despite Radipere's good advice on enhancing entrepreneurship education teaching techniques, the study did not take into account the contributions of successful graduate entrepreneurs in developing entrepreneurship education teaching methods (Pepple & Enuoh, 2020).
Gyamfi (2014) conducted a second study in Ghana to assess the notion of entrepreneurship education as a tool for job creation and economic growth. Between 2005 and 2010, 100 graduates of the University of Professional Studies in Accra participated in a quantitative survey. The majority of them started their businesses, according to the statistics. However, the study suggested that the entrepreneurship education paradigm be updated to make it more effective as a tool for economic development. Although Gyamfi's research included graduates, the purpose was not to learn about their suggestions for improving teaching techniques for effective entrepreneurship education.
Entrepreneurship in Local Knowledge is Invaluable
Kalimasi (2014) conducted a feasibility study on the desirability of entrepreneurship education with instructors from two public universities. Entrepreneurship education is not well-integrated into our higher learning institutions, according to in-depth interviews, because it is not taught according to the approved pedagogy. It was suggested that to properly educate this discipline, it should concentrate on job-related skills, and that donor entrepreneurship projects be customized to the African setting. Fulgence (2015) used a design science approach to examine the status of entrepreneurship education in higher education institutions and conducted descriptive research. Data was collected from management, entrepreneurship educators, and students at the institutions. The study discovered that, among other difficulties to this phenomenon's availability, traditional methods of teaching and assessment of Entrepreneurship Education are used, with insufficient resources such as books. To make this discipline more effective, it was advised, as with other previously cited studies, that experiential and innovative teaching and assessment approaches be merged.
Mangasini (2015) conducted a second study to identify hurdles to company start-up and determine factors of graduate entrepreneurial inclinations. Utilizing 308 graduate respondents, the study used a cross-sectional design with questionnaires. Inappropriate teaching techniques, a lack of business experience, a weakness in a university curriculum, obligations, and bureaucratic concerns such as legal procedures in a business start-up are identified as primary hurdles to Entrepreneurship Education in South Africa, according to the research. As a consequence of the above-mentioned research on the implementation of Entrepreneurship Education from both outside and within South Africa, it is obvious that there have been some problems involved with offering quality Entrepreneurship Education at colleges and universities. However, some information regarding what successful graduate entrepreneurs suggest for improving Entrepreneurship Education teaching techniques in South Africa is unavailable. As a result, the goal of this research was to fill a gap in the literature by investigating effective Entrepreneurship Education teaching methods and self-employment assessment procedures among graduates of higher learning institutions in South Africa, based on the experiences of successful graduate entrepreneurs (Mbunda & Kapinga, 2021).
The research looked at aspects that contribute to finding effective teaching and assessment methods for entrepreneurship education to develop self-employed graduates of higher education. Through focus group interviews, data was gathered using a qualitative method. Interviews, according to Kumar (2014); Cresswell (2014) are adaptable methods of gathering in-depth data about a topic. Five (5) successful entrepreneurship graduates were chosen using purposeful sampling, whereas five (5) institutions of higher learning were chosen using convenient sampling. The entrepreneurs were chosen for the study based on their availability, schedule, and desire to participate. As a result, the study included a total of five (5) participants. The researchers were guided by an interview schedule guide during the focus group interviews, which helped to ensure that the questions asked were uniform.
Below are the results of an investigation into successful teaching and assessment methodologies relevant to entrepreneurship education to generate self-employed graduates of higher education in South Africa. Through the use of the acronym "FGIA-E," which stands for "Focus Group Interview" the participants' responses are reflected in several recognized themes below.
Teaching Entrepreneurship: Methods of Instruction and Assessment
According to the research, traditional teaching and assessment approaches are frequently used in higher education. Lectures, group discussions, and question and answer sessions were chosen by teachers when teaching entrepreneurship. According to the research, students needed to take written tests, quizzes, and exams to complete their studies. Among the 5 (100%) questioned participants, none stated that they were trained through practical methods such as participating in entrepreneurial initiatives, visiting exclusively entrepreneurial study tours, learning directly from experienced entrepreneurs, and drafting and practicing a company plan (Fayolle, 2005).
FGIA: The entrepreneurship module did not vary from the others in terms of learning. Lectures and written assignments were always used to measure learning. Because the learning environment is different, what we were taught and how we were taught do not always correspond to what happens in the corporate world.
FGIB: The process was overly theoretical, and as a result, professors may end up as motivational speakers.
FGIC: While some lecturers employed practical methods occasionally, they were neither prioritized nor consistent.
FGID: Our lecturer told us that we needed to write a business plan and submit it for approval. I finished it, but nothing was done to put my business strategy into effect after that.
FGIE: We're just taking notes, going through the motions, and taking exams according to the semester schedule or course system; we've never experienced true entrepreneurship in the actual world.
Because of the nature of the prevalent methods used to prepare students, most college and university graduates are strong in theories connected to entrepreneurship rather than in actual expertise. These findings are similar to those of other research that looked into typical teaching approaches in Entrepreneurship education (Kalimasi, 2014). As a result of the above facts, it is easier to conclude that lecture and written assessment are the most popular methods employed in higher education to teach students about entrepreneurship. To complete their studies, students are obliged to take exams and examinations during each semester. A major shortage of actual entrepreneurial skills exists at colleges and universities (Taatila, 2010). Most higher education institutions do not place a larger priority on action-based teaching techniques and learning through experiences such as business plan creation, as suggested by one of the respondents, study tours, project work, and others. In ongoing assessment and end-of-semester examinations, the majority of course instructors heavily rely on paper and pencil for student assessment. Indeed, using knowledge-based teaching and assessment contradicts curricula that promote competence-based training.
Traditional Techniques of Instruction and Evaluation are Still Effective
FGIA: Traditional approaches provide many advantages, despite several limitations that have been found. One of the participants alluded to this. Traditional techniques teach the fundamental entrepreneurial knowledge and skills necessary to establish and maintain a business. According to one of the respondents,
FGIB: "I am currently a trainer of our eight branch managers because most of them require fundamental entrepreneurial knowledge and abilities," says FGIB, "due to the knowledge I have learned about entrepreneurship."
FGIC: Traditional approaches, particularly the lecture method and book reading, are used to teach customer service, innovation, opportunity identification, risk calculation, network identification, and entrepreneur quality. When asked how important traditional methods are, some of the respondents said:
FGID: Winning clients in today's industry requires customer service and inventiveness. However, because I am familiar with them, they are no longer a struggle for me. Even after losing everything in my first business, I was able to launch a new one with the help of my entrepreneurial abilities. I persevered despite the difficulties.
FGIE: Everything I observe today in my business was taught in class, conceptually. I'm now able to connect what I learned in class to what's going on in my company right now.
It was also obvious that entrepreneurs benefit from classroom knowledge when it comes to bridging the gap between theory and practice. As a result, it's a method for dealing with a variety of business problems. The results of the focus group were in line with Fatoki (2014) opinion that traditional methods such as lectures are still important in teaching Entrepreneurship Education because they provide a theoretical foundation for general knowledge about concepts such as customer service, creativity, risk calculation, networking, and keeping adequate records. This means that conventional methods are still relevant to Entrepreneurship Education, but that a balance between traditional and other approaches is necessary for effective Entrepreneurship Education learning. Some studies, such as Arasti et al. (2014) emphasize traditional methodologies while stressing the need for action approaches for effective Entrepreneurship Education learning. Students must be integrated into both theoretical and practical learning, according to Radipere.
Traditional Methods of Entrepreneurship Education Teaching and Evaluation have Limitations
Traditional approaches were conceptually focused, according to several interviews with participants. Although students enjoy hands-on learning, those methods were found to be inefficient in motivating students to engage in entrepreneurship. One of the responders, for instance, said during the interview:
FGIB: I didn't have the time to pursue entrepreneurship in college, even if it was possible. Lecture methods and examinations were used during our whole period of study.
FGID: To be honest, during my education, my primary goal was to improve my GPA. I used to memorize everything said in class to pass my tests.
When I was studying for my certificate, I recall one instructor teaching us as if we weren't Tanzanians. She used to tell us about her studies in Europe. This, in my opinion, was not conducive to a thorough understanding of entrepreneurship in our community.
FGIE: A big issue for me arises from the educational system, which trains graduates to enter the labor market, and the majority of graduates are so fussy about their positions that they want white-colored jobs.
Some teachers fail to provide relevant examples when teaching entrepreneurship to their pupils. As a result, according to one of the respondents, students find it difficult to connect classroom information to real-world business. Traditional entrepreneurship education teaching techniques appear to be a key reason for graduates' failure to create their enterprises since they do not prepare students for self-employment; rather, they prepare students for wage jobs, as the focus group interview indicated. When colleges and universities fail to involve students in entrepreneurial activity, shallow rather than profound learning results. As a result, most students focus on tests rather than learning and applying what they've learned in the classroom to the real world of entrepreneurship. To explain the concept of shallow learning, one of the responders stated. Indeed, depending on knowledge-based teaching and evaluation goes against the grain of curricula that promote competence-based learning. These findings are comparable with those of previous similar studies (Kalimasi, 2014), all of which suggest that traditional teaching methodologies are more typically used by instructors in Entrepreneurship Education courses than action or experiential approaches. Traditional teacher-centered rather than learner-centered teaching techniques, on the other hand, make the learning and teaching process one-way. As a result, instead of becoming active students, pupils become inactive (Radipere).
The Difficulties Faced by Graduate Entrepreneurs in Launching a Company
One of the study's goals was to look at the difficulties that graduate entrepreneurs experience while beginning a new firm in South Africa. Based on the respondent's comments, several issues surfaced during the debate.
When it comes to launching a new firm, it was revealed that certain graduates have poor tolerance. They're constantly on the lookout for easy wins. With different problems that may damage the firm in its early phases, some graduates become quite inclined to surrender rather than strive for the company's success. Furthermore, most graduates are concerned about losing money in the new firms they intend to establish. One of the responses expanded on the subject of tolerance, saying:
Before launching my current company, I tried various times. I refused to quit, despite certain failures in my business. To get to where I am now in my business, it took me around five years to get additional experience.
FGIB: Becoming an entrepreneur was challenging for me because both of my parents wanted me to seek white-collar occupations that reflected my family status.
FGIC: Identifying and screening a company's idea seemed to me to be a considerable challenge. It took me a long time to decide what kind of business I wanted to establish.
FGID: Starting a business is difficult. I attempted it several times before I finally found my footing and acquired the essential talents or qualities to run a firm. Being an entrepreneur is a rewarding experience, but it comes with a lot of challenges.
FGIE: I believe my difficulty is a lack of patience; my expectation was for the firm to explode in a short period, but it took me years before it began to make a profit. Although I begin with sufficient funds because of my financial background.
Self-employment, according to some graduates, is better than paid employment. Parents or guardians can sometimes have an impact on their children's post-college employment choices. As a result, despite the abundance of business options, the vast majority of graduates chose to work for someone else. "The truth regarding the above-mentioned thought was evident," according to one of the respondents. Because both of my parents (mother and father) desired that I seek white-collar occupations that mirrored my family status, it was tough for me to become an entrepreneur. Furthermore, challenges in beginning a business were linked to a person's incapacity to see business prospects for some graduates. Although students are educated about many sources of business ideas throughout their education, not all graduates can recognize those opportunities. Respondents also mentioned a lack of commitment as a problem when presenting their thoughts. Some graduates are undecided about the business they want to start and run. To generate a profit, any firm requires the owner to put in a lot of effort. As a result, a company's worst enemy is lethargy.
Entrepreneurial education's challenges
One of the most essential components in enhancing graduates' ability to start a new business is effective student training. Entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities is claimed to be more theoretical, leaving graduates without the skills needed to succeed as entrepreneurs. The majority of teaching and learning methods end up translating abstract knowledge into concrete knowledge with little simulation. As a result, students do not engage in entrepreneurship while they are in school. One of the responders exemplified this by saying,
FGIA: Cramming notes in a lecture will not make someone become an entrepreneur unless they learn to practice.
FGIB: Completing the business registration procedures took me more than three months. Of course, I had a lot of issues with those operations, and I still dislike them.
FGIC: When questioned about the financial capital difficulty, the entrepreneur has another challenge: financial institutions' services, such as banks, have high-interest percentage rates, which do not help company novices such as grads. The majority of graduates also lack the financial means to start and run their own companies. Before approving a loan to anyone, the vast majority of financial institutions require collateral security.
FGID: Most graduates have business ideas and a desire to establish their firms, but finding superior financial capital at cheap interest rates is tough.
FGIE: Another barrier to entrepreneurship is the legal system, which has a big impact on firm starting and failure. Most graduates who wish to start a new business are put off by the bureaucracy involved in business registration and licensing.
It was also observed that legal systems play a substantial effect on business success or failure. Most graduates who wish to start new enterprises are put off by the bureaucracy involved in business registration and licensing. The government performs extensive bureaucratic procedures through its institution, which still does not favor newcomers to the corporate world, particularly graduates. Graduates may lack the information required to comply with legal business creation requirements in some situations. The appropriate marketing of entrepreneurial items is also a vital component of a business. Because they are new on the market and require some advertising costs, certain new items created by small entrepreneurs face market scarcity. Customers are averse to trying new things by nature. As a result of the lack of stable marketplaces, entrepreneur-owned enterprises experience low sales, which leads to their failure.
Education enhancement strategies
To produce self-employed individuals in South Africa, the third research purpose of this study was to explore techniques for improving teaching and assessment methodologies utilized by higher institutions in teaching Entrepreneurship Education. During interviews with respondents, the following issues surfaced (Mohajan, 2018).
Methods of Instruction that are both Practical and experimental are being Adopted
The majority of graduates polled showed a desire for practical rather than academic ways of entrepreneurial education. Students should engage in a variety of activities that will allow them to practice entrepreneurship while still in college or university, according to the proposal. As two graduates remarked, "respondents strongly recommended a system of entrepreneurial ventures and simulation."
FGIA: During their studies, students should practice internet business; this will allow them to adapt what they learn in class to the real-world conditions of running a company.
FGIB: Using guest speakers, field visits, case studies, and other experience-related approaches, students can learn from individuals who have excelled in entrepreneurship, giving graduates more bravery to start new enterprises. One of the interviewees stated this.
FGIC: I agree with the formal speaker because this will truly motivate and support new company ventures.
Experiential teaching and learning approaches were regarded as essential for inspiring all students to become entrepreneurs, in addition to the practical skills required by students. Students must learn from successful local entrepreneurs. Some studies, such as Arasti et al. (2014); emphasize traditional methodologies while stressing the need for action approaches for effective Entrepreneurship Education learning. Students must be integrated into both theoretical and practical learning, according to Radipere (2012).
In the Classroom, Theory, and Practice
Some grads stated a desire to study both theoretically and practically. Finding a balance between theory and practice is the most crucial component of learning. According to various notions in entrepreneurship education, theoretical approaches serve as the foundation. In terms of the usefulness of theory in learning, however, practical approaches such as simulation, entrepreneurial study tours, project work, and other related approaches are crucial for linking classroom information with what is happening in the workplace.
Although the theory is not intrinsically harmful to learning, educators should always link it to practical exercises. If a teacher instructs a student on how to produce a business plan, the student should be taught how to write one as well.
As a result of the above facts, it is easier to conclude that lecture and written assessment are the most popular methods employed in higher education to teach students about entrepreneurship. To complete their studies, students are obliged to take exams and examinations during each semester. A major shortage of actual entrepreneurial skills exists at colleges and universities. Action-based teaching approaches and learning through experiences such as business plan preparation, study tours, project work, and others are not prioritized at higher education institutions. For both ongoing assessment and end-of-semester examinations, the majority of course instructors rely significantly on paper and pencil for student assessment. Indeed, depending on knowledge-based teaching and evaluation goes against the grain of curricula that promote competence-based learning. These findings are comparable with those of previous similar research (Kalimasi, 2014 & Radipere, 2012), which all reveal that traditional teaching methodologies are more typically used by instructors in Entrepreneurship Education courses than action or experiential approaches. Traditional teacher-centered rather than learner-centered teaching techniques, on the other hand, make the learning and teaching process one-way. As a result, instead of becoming active students, pupils become inactive. As a result, students must be exposed to both theoretical and practical learning to receive successful Entrepreneurship Education. Moreover, despite some of the flaws connected with traditional entrepreneurial teaching methods in universities and colleges, those approaches continue to play a significant part in students' learning. The employment of the lecture technique and written form of evaluation, for example, was said to be critical in comprehending the broad knowledge of this profession.
The relevance of the lecture technique and written form of evaluation is compatible with (Fatoki, 2014)'s findings, who discovered that conventional methods like lectures are still important in teaching Entrepreneurship Education. The lecture technique, as well as other traditional approaches, gives a theoretical foundation for general knowledge such as customer service, creativity, risk calculation, networking, entrepreneur quality, and maintaining business records. This means that traditional ways of Entrepreneurial education are still essential in higher education, but that there should be a balance of traditional and non-traditional techniques for effective learning. Some research, such as Arasti et al. (2014); emphasizes traditional methodologies while stressing the need for action approaches for efficient Entrepreneurship Education learning.
Most traditional teaching methods, such as lectures and other forms of the written evaluation, are theoretical in nature and so promote shallow rather than deep learning, resulting in students' failure to connect classroom knowledge to real-life circumstances. Furthermore, passing a test and keeping a high score is more important to pupils than understanding and applying what they have studied. As a result, some effective entrepreneurship education delivery methods, such as project work, case studies, new venture development, and problem-solving, are not prioritized in higher education. According to some participants, the majority of graduates face a variety of obstacles when it comes to launching their businesses, including a failure to screen business ideas, a fear of taking risks, a lack of tolerance, a lack of proper research about what business to start and run based on customer needs, poor commitment, and a lack of business knowledge.
There are other aspects to consider, including financial capital and bureaucratic problems. These are difficulties that have been raised in several research projects, including this one (Mangasini, 2015). However, depending on the type of entrepreneurial investment made by that country to support entrepreneurship, the scope of such problems may range from country to country. According to Zhou & Xu (2012), there is a large research investment in the growth of entrepreneurship in the United States, which helps entrepreneurs solve many obstacles. As a result, it is past time for governments around the world, including South Africa, to spend heavily on entrepreneurship education, particularly for students in higher education.
The majority of South Africa's higher learning institutions continue to teach Entrepreneurship Education using traditional methods, according to the survey. Instructors typically choose the lecture style and paper-and-pencil evaluation while educating students to become self-employed graduates.
1. In this regard, most South African higher learning institutions still teach Entrepreneurship Education theoretically because students have little or no opportunity to practice entrepreneurship while in college or university.
2. Apart from the difficulties connected with insufficient Entrepreneurship Education teaching techniques, graduates in South Africa confront extra difficulties while attempting to establish new enterprises.
3. Among the noteworthy problems cited are individual or personal challenges, legal compliance, and a lack of financial capital.
4. The study offers the following suggestions based on its findings: When teaching Entrepreneurship Education, students should be successfully engaged in practical activities. In-service training should provide students with sufficient information to keep them current with market-relevant abilities. The educators must create a balance between theoretical and practical instruction.
5. For research and follow-up purposes, colleges and universities should keep their database of graduates who have found work after graduation.
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Received: 18-August-2022, Manuscript No. AEJ-22-12470; Editor assigned: 19-August-2022, PreQC No. AEJ-22-12470(PQ); Reviewed: 28-August-2022, QC No. AEJ-22-12470; Revised: 01-September-2022, Manuscript No. AEJ-22-12470(R); Published: 03-Septemeber-2022