Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2023 Vol: 29 Issue: 3

Evaluation of Tourism and Ecotourism Development Components in the Development of Rural Women's Entrepreneurship (case study: tourism villages of Kerman province)

Neda Baniasadi, Azad University of Tehran

Citation Information: Baniasadi, N. (2023). Evaluation of tourism and ecotourism development components in the development of rural women's entrepreneurship (case study: tourism villages of kerman province). Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 29(3), 1-15.


The current research aims to identify the components of tourism and ecotourism activities in rural women's entrepreneurship based on the experts' point of view. In terms of the purpose, it was conducted as survey research. The current research is a descriptive and analytical study. According to the statistics obtained from the cultural heritage organization and the governorate of Kerman province in 2019, 370 are active in the field of tourism, and of these statistics, 219 women are active in the field of tourism and ecotourism, which was estimated to be 139 according to the Cochran formula. First, by reviewing the research literature, based on the opinion of experts, 32 factors have been extracted as the final factors of tourism and ecotourism on rural women entrepreneurs, which is the research tool of the questionnaire. The findings of the research showed that there is a significant relationship between the expansion of rural tourism and ecotourism in these villages and the entrepreneurship of rural women in the dimensions of knowledge and awareness, management capabilities, environmental and economic factors, advertising and psychological factors at the alpha level of 0.05 percent. There is no significant relationship between social norms and rural women's entrepreneurship. According to the results obtained from the factor analysis model and obtaining the points or factor load of each of the indicators, 6 interrelated indicators have an effect on the first effective factor on tourism entrepreneurship. Cultural factors such as "gender norms" are the most important factors


Ecotourism and Tourism, Rural Entrepreneurship, Women, Rural Development.


Globally, an increasing number of women are starting their own businesses, women tend to manage fewer businesses than men, while women's businesses are in sectors that are less profitable, grow slowly, and are more likely to close. experience more (Loscocco et al., 2012). The development of women entrepreneurs, especially in rural areas, is a sign of social transformation and breaking traditional taboos (Maduraiveeran & Sudha, 2017).

In the past, researchers believed that many characteristics are hereditary, born with a person, and entrepreneurs cannot be nurtured; But the research results show that entrepreneurship, like other professions, is cultivated through educational programs. Through entrepreneurship training, people develop the ability to create and manage a new risk and the ability to think creatively and critically. Rural women also need full knowledge of entrepreneurship. And by acquiring training techniques and expanding the desired characteristics, they will be able to come out of the state of stagnation and uniformity Some women need the education of self-confidence and self-development as much as job skills. Entrepreneurship training should provide women with the knowledge of risk-taking and the ability to assess risk and danger, and in the direction of strengthening and re-creating the spirit of creativity and innovation among rural women and girls. Despite this necessity, women have not yet been able to achieve their main role-playing position in development. The consensus of development thinkers is that the theories and policies proposed in the field of women's entrepreneurship have inadequacies and do not have the necessary efficiency to prepare the presence and role of women compatible with gender roles and issues in development (Mansouri & Baghai, 1400).

The role of rural entrepreneur in economic development such as balanced regional development, public employment, improvement of living standards, increase in income, per capita, national self-reliance, proportional distribution is important. Rural entrepreneurship has these benefits: providing job opportunities, preventing migration, balanced regional growth, promoting artistic activities, preventing social harm, and alerting young people. (Das, 2014).

Women face many obstacles in starting companies. Many researches have focused on the difficulty of women in accessing banks and other institutions (Cabrera & Mauricio, 2017; Buultjens et al., 2016). Women tend to borrow from informal sources, due to the barriers that exist in the way of formal sources of finance, women-owned companies tend to be smaller and their profits are 30-40% lower than male-owned companies of comparable size. (OECD, 2014). In fact, researches, policies and programs in the field of entrepreneurship are mainly based on the assumption of "male entrepreneur" and have a tendency to "become masculine". Mandatory support for women entrepreneurs and female entrepreneurs is not considered. In other words, equal opportunity between men and women from the point of view of entrepreneurship is still not a reality Arnstein (1969).

Another area of challenges faced by female entrepreneurs is the balance between work and family. Even though one of the important reasons why women start their own business is to balance work and family, this often fails due to their inability to pay enough money to replace themselves in the family. (Ratten & Tajeddini 2018). There is a constant tension for women entrepreneurs between the demands of family and children versus the demands of an expanding business in terms of investment in time as well as finances due to the gender-based division of labor in families and communities. Women entrepreneurs are often forced to prefer investing in their children's education and food over strengthening their entrepreneurial skills to expand their business (Arachchi & Gnanapala, 2020; Fernando & Kumari, 2020). Other issues that are often discussed about women entrepreneurs are around the issue of gender norms that limit women's presence in public spaces and their access to information. Such a restriction leads the presence of women to weaker social networks and thus creates another disadvantage for women entrepreneurs compared to men.

Women's networks are limited in kinship relationships, while men's networks remain much wider. Lack of access to skills, information, credit and knowledge, women entrepreneurs have low self-confidence. Some researchers acknowledge that tourism entrepreneurship allows women to balance their family responsibilities and work, which is why it attracts more women (Ratten & Tajeddini, 2018).

Gender discriminatory practices in the business world have created barriers to the flow of information, education and networks in finance and banking, while multiple social roles related to the family, such as child care, have reduced women's trust in Business companies became small (Madurawala et al., 2016).

Women often have the motivation to enter the tourism sector because of "flexibility" and "suitability". For women, this sector has special attention and importance in the entrepreneurship sector. Women entrepreneurs are ambitious people, they take on important responsibilities without limits and they want to control the environment they manage. Perseverance and the ability to work in a group are considered the most important characteristics of business women, which supports them in their career, while the physical aspect is not important (On, 2011).

Based on the pressure of feminists, two indicators of economic progress, indicators such as indicators of gender empowerment, and indicators of gender-based development should be added to human development indicators since 1995. Inequalities are measured based on women's income, their participation in job positions with better income and access to parliamentary and professional positions and the like. The gender-oriented development index is a distribution-oriented index that considers the effect of existing generation gaps on the three components of human development (literacy, health, income) in women's society. (Klasen et al., 2009)

The development of tourism in rural areas can help in the formation of a supportive environment as well as the creation of basic infrastructure, and this ultimately leads to the development of entrepreneurship (Sima et al., 2015). In the meantime, one of the major potentials that has been welcomed in rural areas in the last few years and rural women are widely active in it is rural tourism. Rural tourism is a tool for rebuilding and re-creating the economic environment and the society of the villages has been taken into consideration. Tourism as the fastest growing industry in the world by attracting the participation of women and supporting their capabilities has become the basis for the movement of rural women and their entrepreneurship. (Mansouri & Baghai, 1400)

The empirical literature published so far has not identified a universally accepted definition of sustainable tourism development, although recent evidence on this topic suggests that one of the most widely used definitions of this concept is the one proposed by the World Trade Organization (WTO). , which defines it as "development that meets the needs of current tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future." With the preservation of environmental quality, it is particularly important that whatever is done now does not harm future generations, so long-term evaluation of economic, environmental and community health is considered necessary. (León-Gómez et al., 2020)

The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) defines tourism as follows: "Tourism is a set of activities that every person does on a trip and in an environment other than his own environment. This trip usually does not last more than one year and its purpose is entertainment, recreation, rest, sports and such activities). (UNWTO). In other words, tourism has been defined as a tool for economic mobility, marginalization, promotion and development through creating employment and income.

Most countries consider eco-tourism as a goal to strengthen the micro and macro economy, protect the environment and promote international peace. Therefore, this industry has the ability to create employment and economic development. This industry recorded a 7% growth rate in the arrival of tourists during 2017 with the number of approximately 1322 million people and a growth rate of 5-4% in 2018. (World Tourism Organization).

In Poland, tourism activities cover a wide range of services such as breakfasts, guesthouses and inns, restaurants and cafes, tourist health and wellness services, sports training and entertainment, and rental services. The most common tourism activities offered are visiting pilgrimage sites, national parks and nature experiences, outdoor and recreational activities, art festivals and cultural events, galleries related to art and folklore and art or cooking seminars, visits to historical sites, seminars related to health and wellness, and sports training (Zapalska & Brozik, 2014).

Small and successful tourism entrepreneurs are usually those who create a strong competitive advantage by focusing on a specific product, service or market, and hospitality. Tourism entrepreneurship in villages with the purpose of tourism in the rural areas of Kerman province is a solution for empowerment and capacity building to the purpose of reducing the gap between the city and the countryside is to create economic, social, environmental and institutional equality and is an important tool to achieve sustainable development. On the other hand, women's tourism entrepreneurship can be a new strategy in the development of villages in this region. The goal of tourism with the entrepreneurial approach of rural women in this region, due to the nature of employment and high-income generation, can be a solution to solve the economic problems of the villagers through productive employment and temporary employment, especially for women, and to facilitate permanence in the village. slow Therefore, according to the importance of tourism and its role in the development of entrepreneurship, the main goal of the current research is to evaluate the performance of women entrepreneurs in the field of tourism in the villages of Kerman province and to identify the most important factors affecting its development. The necessity of conducting such a study comes from the fact that, on the one hand, this research can be the beginning of a purposeful and coherent movement in order to institutionalize tourism entrepreneurship, and on the other hand, by evaluating women entrepreneurs in tourism in the villages of Kerman province. Being able to respond to the needs of the villagers, especially in the economic aspect.

Theoretical Framework

Several researches have been conducted at the international and national level in the field of entrepreneurship and tourism, in the field of foreign studies:

(Newbery et al., 2017) defines rural entrepreneurship as harnessing innovation, maintaining and developing communities, providing job opportunities and adjusting the relationship between agriculture, land use, society and economic development.

The city of Miandoabzanan entrepreneurs play an increasing role in the tourism sector (Fernando et al., 2013; Buultjens et al., 2016). But compared to male entrepreneurs, as pointed out by many researchers, they face gender restrictions (Vossenberg, 2013; Madurawala et al., 2016). Starting a business is one of the ways to increase the activity of women, which results in self-reliance, having the right to choose and control resources (Ratten & Tajeddini, 2018).

(Connelly, 2018) has mentioned in a conceptual article about the entrepreneurial ecosystem in Guyana with special emphasis on the role of cultural support and its possible impact on the tourism industry in this country until 2025; The emphasis of this article is on natural tourism and agricultural tourism. (Ajake et al., 2018) Ecotourism attractions have been considered as one of the most important factors in attracting tourists and from the point of view of tourism development marketing. (Kumari & Shankar, 2020) rural women should be aware of the various opportunities available in the tourism sector. Also, information about emerging opportunities in the tourism sector suitable for rural women should be communicated to them. Secondly, necessary training is necessary for women before starting tourist activities. During the training, they must understand the reception method to be adopted towards their customers. They should also be trained in communication skills Mansouri et al. (1401). Thirdly, since these women do not have the necessary capital to start a business, they must be guided through the process of obtaining a loan. They should be informed about the advantages of forming and working in cooperatives for easy provision of capital Khaleque (2018).

(Maduraiveeran & Sudha, 2017) has mentioned about the role of non-governmental organizations and government support in empowering women in rural areas. The most important basic problems of rural women entrepreneurs are: finding new customers due to the instability of demand, product pricing, Planning for market expansion, dealing with legal problems, determining and maintaining product quality, diversifying and decentralizing the needs of women entrepreneurs are different. (Ramija, 2019) Women entrepreneurs in India either lack social acceptance or they work hard to obtain funds and government support for their business investments. The lack of women entrepreneurs in India is due to lack of resources and environmental prejudices.

(Handaragama & Kusakabe, 2021) showed in their research that women's participation in tourism entrepreneurship in Sri Lanka, women's jobs in tourism are smaller than men's because the number of women with statistics (33.8%) compared to men (48.2%) in land ownership and women's access to bank loans, and this limits the growth of women's jobs. More access to land and property than women in the other two sectors. Access to financial resources is still a challenge., while deeply entrenched gender biases and other gender norms. Traditional gender norms put women entrepreneurs at a disadvantage with respect to customers, neighbors, and employees alike Gholamhossein & Hadi. (2016).

(Hassan et al., 2014) showed in research that determination, willingness and initiative, vision, creativity and innovation, social networks and strategic thinking) that affect the success of rural women entrepreneurs in business. The findings indicate that in order to succeed in business, women entrepreneurs must have self-confidence and determination. (Zapalska & Brozik, 2014) Research conducted in Poland on the tourism industry shows how the focus and strategies of female entrepreneurs in the tourism and hospitality business have made them successful in a challenging business environment. (Singh, 2012) titled "Women's entrepreneurship issues, challenges" by stating that more than 56% of Indian women are unemployed, it lists the fields of women's employment in India to create entrepreneurship and solve the mentioned problem, which is one of the most important of them is entrepreneurship in the field of tourism. The most important strategies for the development of ecotourism include the promotion of European Union standards and the participation of universities, non-governmental organizations, and the empowerment of the local community in the development of ecotourism.

In the field of internal studies, Biranvand et al. (2017) in the research of entrepreneurship development in the field of tourism (case study: village of Bisheh station in Khorram Abad city) reached the conclusion that the reason for the insufficient personal capital of individuals is the lack of ownership of agricultural land. Lack of access to agricultural equipment and... is the most important factor in the lack of tourism development Bastian et al. (2016).

Fallah and Parhizgar (2019) in research on weakness in marketing (pricing, advertising, product quality), statistical and managerial issues, raising the bank interest rate, bureaucratic problems, social and cultural, geographical, individual and family factors. They pointed out the most important challenges of rural women's entry into entrepreneurship Deborah de longe & Doddas rachel. (2017).

Karimzadeh & Valai. (1400). that rural entrepreneurship based on local capacities, social capacities in remote villages with less population has been more than in densely populated villages close to the city (Kumari & Shankar, 2020).

The results of Akbari et al. (2019) in connection with the evaluation of rural tourism entrepreneurship ecosystem, showed that economic indicators, participation and role of the government and empowerment of rural residents in terms of knowledge and education can pave the way for rural development. In this connection, Aghajani & Alizadeh (2016) mentioned cultural and accommodation opportunities as the first opportunity of tourism in Mazandaran province. Heydari et al. (2018) providing indicators of marketing dimensions and entrepreneurship development in tourism sample areas leads to the emergence of new jobs, revival of traditional jobs, business prosperity and prevention of migration and marginalization of big cities Akbar & Mozafari (2017).

Mansouri and Baghai Ardakani (1400) in a study conducted by educational experts on entrepreneurial activities of rural women. Personality factors and characteristics, work experience, psychological capital, creative thinking and empowerment at the first level, factors of personality differences, institutional-organizational factors and economic factors at the second level, factors of the social cultural environment of the village at the third level and education factor. They placed entrepreneurship in the fourth level Hossein et al. (2019).

Hashemi & Derakhsh (1400), the results of his research show that women entrepreneurs have a high motivation and need for success, a motivation and a low need for dominance, a motivation and a moderate need for independence and dependence. To two components, work experience and sufficient capital in the field of entrepreneurship of female nurses, especially in the field of health tourism, which should be provided in addition to the special services provided to tourists outside the medical centers after their discharge from the hospital. The service itself requires a high investment and deserves attention. Mohammadi et al. (2018) stated the following factors as the most important obstacles affecting women's tendency to become entrepreneurs in the field of rural tourism: weakness in planning, executive performance of government institutions and limitations of financial resources, weakness in marketing and service inadequacies. Infrastructural, social and cultural obstacles of the rural environment, individual weaknesses and educational limitations, and technical and scientific obstacles.

Shiri et al. (1400) research results showed that the sense of self-efficacy had a positive and meaningful effect on the entrepreneurial behavior of the respondents. Considering that the feeling of self-efficacy refers to a person's understanding of the ease or difficulty of engaging in various actions and behaviors, therefore, a person's positive understanding of his abilities leads him to pursue difficult activities (such as entrepreneurial activities). Slow down because people usually tend to perform behaviors that they think or expect that they can control and manage well Vaso Škrbi? & Sr?an (2017).

Asadi et al. (2018) reflects the factors affecting the development of rural entrepreneurship in Manojan city in the form of nine main categories and in accordance with the structuralist model of the basic theory, under six theoretical components as follows: factors such as educational, institutional, political and economic factors as well Mediator and intervener moderates the process affected by said causal conditions Saman & Kyoko (2021).

Mouradzadeh et al. (2017). In an article, political, social, economic, and psychological empowerment were investigated in the development of entrepreneurial ecotourism, and community empowerment was placed in the fourth dimension (Guaita Martíneza et al., 2019) shows in Table 1.

Table 1
Some Research Done In This Field
Researcher Emphasized factors
Hosseini Nia & Falahi (2014) Effective factors in the development of rural entrepreneurship in Manojan city were classified in the form of 9 main categories: individual, social, structural, natural, legal, educational, institutional, political and economic factors.
Omidi & Amin Charsoughi (2017)
Among the functions of greater freedom and independence of home businesses, the low cost of setting up home businesses, compatibility with the physical characteristics of disabled and disabled people, greater physical success of disabled and disabled people in doing home business, compatibility with different classes of home businesses, not requiring a license. There is a significant relationship between home businesses and rural poverty reduction
Karimzadeh & Valai (2017) Creating a new business in the target area has three obstacles, which are "social-economic obstacles", "infrastructural" obstacles and "weakness of social capital and preference of deposit to investment". "Economic and social" barriers are the most important factor
There has been no new business creation
Moradzadeh et al. (2017) Psychological empowerment, political empowerment, economic empowerment, social empowerment
Asadi et al. (2018) The relationship between agricultural industry, economic development, local participation, transformation and complementary industries, agricultural development
Mohammadi & Mohammad Sharifi (2018) Environmental obstacles (educational, environmental, infrastructural, financial, socio-cultural), individual obstacles (weakness in motivation, lack of risk-taking, dependent personality, weakness in skills, lack of self-confidence)
Peroff et al (2017) Tourism managers should evaluate the limitations of empowerment and participation, especially in rural areas where marketing for economic ecotourism development is not strong.
Arsic et al. (2017)     The most important strategies for tourism development are the promotion of European Union standards and the participation of universities, non-governmental organizations and local community empowerment
Matinz et al (2019) Tourism is an important part in the sustainable development of rural areas and has a significant ability to create sustainable employment, steady profit and increase investment.
Dinis et al (2019) The role of economic enterprises and entrepreneurs is largely underestimated in the development literature and factors such as residence, success in business, manager's residence, level of education and past professional experience are influential in the success of economic enterprises.

In the new perspective, the local communities themselves are considered as part of the tourist attractions, this helps the sustainability of rural tourism a lot. They are rural areas. But the performance of third world countries in this field has not been commensurate with the position and importance of these businesses. In Iran also, despite the emphasis of the third, fourth, fifth and sixth plans on small and medium-sized enterprises, the establishment of these units is still progressing slowly, and the studies conducted in this field indicate the predominance of the urban attitude. It is rural. Therefore, identifying the fields of creating new businesses in this area is an inevitable necessity, which is the focus of this research (Karimzadeh & Valai 1400).


The methodology of the current research is based on pragmatism (mixed method) and is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of nature and method. In order to collect information, library and field studies (observation, interview and questionnaire) were used. The geographical area is the villages of Kerman province and women who are active in the field of tourism and ecotourism. According to the statistics obtained from the cultural heritage organization and the governorate of Kerman province in 2019, 370 are active in the field of tourism, and of these statistics, 219 women are active in the field of tourism and ecotourism, which was estimated to be 139 according to the Cochran formula Hossein & Totakhana (2018) shows in Table 2 Tajeddini et al. (2017).

Table 2
Participants In The Research
Executive and career records Row
Governorate of Kerman province  
Senior consultant of Technical and Vocational Education Organization of the country  
Director of the agricultural jihad of Kerman province  
Head of Entrepreneurship Department, Office of Rural and Nomadic Women, Ministry of Agricultural Jihad  
Education expert of the Office of Rural and Nomadic Women, Ministry of Agricultural Jihad  
International Relations Expert, Office of Rural and Nomadic Women, Ministry of Agricultural Jihad  
Local entrepreneur in the tourism sector  
Head of the Research Institute for Planning and Agricultural Economics and Rural Development  
Director of Cooperative and Labor and Social Welfare Department of Kerman Province  

In order to achieve theoretical saturation, the number of participants is limited to 139 people shows in Figure 1.

Figure 1: The Final Pattern Of Research Findings.

Study Area

Kerman province is the largest province of Iran with Kerman as its center. Kerman province is located in the southeast of Iran and its population in 2015 according to the statistics of Iran Statistics Center was equal to 3,164,718 people. Covering more than 11% of the area of Iran with about 183,193 square kilometers, Kerman is the first vast province of Iran. Kerman is the ninth most populated province of the country. With its diverse climates, Kerman province ranks first to third in many horticultural products, such as pistachios, dates, walnuts, and citrus fruits. Due to the hard work of Kerman, in agricultural supply, this province has the largest non-oil exports in the country. And take a high position in the global market shows in Figure 2.

Figure 2: The Geographical Of Kerman Position.

Tourism Fields

After collecting the information, the data was encrypted. Coding of the interviews led to the identification of 29 general concepts, and central coding was done in the form of 32 categories of rural youth, returned immigrants, tourism, and industry, services, and agriculture, which are presented in Table 3.

Table 3
Selective Coding Of Research Findings
risk taking psychological factors
tolerance of ambiguity
Internal control
The need for success
education knowledge and awareness
Indigenous Knowledge
Low self-confidence
Skill in local handicrafts
Local norms based on the non-acceptance of women in the tourism labor market social norms
Development of women's entrepreneurial networks
Balance between professional and family life
People's disbelief in women's ability and as a result not trusting women and avoiding cooperation with them
Involvement of spouses in related matters
Motivating people to sell products or provide tourism services Technical and managerial capabilities
Team building of entrepreneurs
Participation of rural women in local decision-making
The power of negotiation and interaction with the environment
Ecotourism and tourism houses and groves
Inviting the private sector to work in the direction of selling products or providing services in the tourism industry
Motivating people to sell products or provide tourism services
Seasonal tourism Environmental factors
Access to roads and communication ways
Environmental vulnerability in tourism
Distribution of suitable space for accommodation centers and markets, focusing more on variables such as physical appearance, environmental perspectives
Distance from the city and access to the market
The landscape architecture and the beautiful landscape of promenades such as parks and gardens.
Flexibility in prices to attract tourists for all seasons Economical
Eliminating intermediaries to adjust the travel and accommodation costs of tourists
Establishing rules and regulations to control and stabilize the price of goods and services offered to tourists
Customer Orientation
Women's inability to provide collateral to start an entrepreneurial activity
Introducing the attractions and facilities of tourism and ecotourism of women entrepreneurs through social networks and booklets and brochures Advertising
Production of cultural and artistic works by the tourism organization of the Broadcasting Organization in order to introduce ecology and tourism
Installation of guidance facilities and facilities such as signs
The existence of knowledgeable and informed experts in tourism roads to inform

The paradigm model of creating new businesses with the development of tourism is described below. The studies conducted in the fields of tourism in the villages of Kerman province showed that there are educated women with different specializations who have a desire to be entrepreneurs in the field of industries and rural tourism, there are different strategies such as creating local markets, processing agricultural products, building houses Eco-friendly restaurants and restaurants, off-road rides and handicrafts are the most important of these strategies. According to the mentioned contents, the paradigm model of entrepreneurship with tourism development is given as follows shows in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Paradigmatic Model Of Rural Women's Entrepreneurship With Tourism Development.

The statistical population has the highest age group in the category of 25-35 with a frequency of 80 with a percentage of 57.6, age above 56 with a frequency of 6 and a frequency of ¾ is the lowest.

And the level of bachelor's education is the highest with a frequency of 68 and a frequency of 48.2, and the level of doctorate education is the lowest with a frequency of 8 and a frequency of 5.8.

Effects of Rural Tourism and Rural Ecology on Rural Women's Entrepreneurship

In the continuation of the research, in order to answer the first research question and examine the relationship between the expansion of tourism and rural ecotourism in the villages of Kerman province and rural women's entrepreneurship, Spearman's correlation test was used. In Spearman's correlation test, Spearman's correlation coefficient is used to determine the significance of the relationship between variables. If the significance level of the test (sig) is less than 5 percent, the relationship between two variables can be determined with 95 percent confidence. Therefore, the findings show that between the expansion of rural tourism and ecotourism in these villages and the entrepreneurship of rural women in the dimensions of knowledge and awareness, management capabilities, environmental and economic factors, advertising and psychological factors on the surface. 0.05 percent alpha, there is a significant relationship. There is no significant relationship between social norms and rural women's entrepreneurship shows in Table 4.

Table 4
Measuring The Degree Of Correlation Between Tourism And Rural Ecotourism Factors And Rural Women's Entrepreneurship (Research Findings, 1400)
Dimensions Spearman correlation Spearman correlation Abundance
knowledge & awareness Correlation value 0.250**  
  Significance level 0.003  
psychological factors Correlation value 0.520**  
  Significance level 0.000  
social norms Correlation value 0.115  
  Significance level 0.176  
Management capabilities Correlation value 0.97**  
  Significance level 0.000  
Economical Correlation value 0.920**  
  Significance level 0.000  
Environmental factors Correlation value 0.780**  
  Significance level 0.000  
Advertising Correlation value 0.805**  
  Significance level 0.000  

In order to investigate the role of rural tourism and ecotourism in the entrepreneurship of rural women in the villages of Kerman province, first of all, the average of each of the dimensions of rural tourism and ecotourism has been investigated. Therefore, the numerical mean analysis based on the t test after the social norms with the single sample mean shows that this component is at the upper level with the t-statistic (73/638) and then the environmental factors with the t-statistic (43/534) in It is the lowest level. This difference is significant at the alpha level of 0.05, they are estimated from numerical desirability (Table 5).

Table 5
Examining The Effects Of Rural Tourism And Ecotourism On Rural Women's Entrepreneurship Using T-Test (Research Findings, 1401)
Components Average T test statistic Degree of freedom ) df) Sig confidence interval 95%
lower limit upper limit
Psychological factors 70.676 66.584 139 0.000 68.557 72.775
social norms 65.669 76.638 139 0.000 63.905 67.432
Environmental factors 43.920 43.534 139 0.000 41.926 45.915
Management capabilities 43.863 45.662 139 0.000 41.963 45.762
knowledge and awareness 36.496 68.629 139 0.000 35.444 35.547
Economy 31.187 41.561 139 0.000 29.703 32/670
Advertising 23.856 32.246 139 0.000 23.393 25.319

In continuation, the results of the variance analysis of the impact of the development of rural tourism and ecotourism on the development of rural women's entrepreneurship showed that the development of rural tourism and ecotourism in the villages of Kerman province had a positive impact of 0.896 percent on the development of entrepreneurs. Likewise, the table below shows the significance of all the indicators examined in the analysis of variance test. On this basis, the regression can be continued. Also, the level of significance is less than 0.50, according to the 95% confidence level. Therefore, the obtained correlation is confirmed and it can be generalized to the entire statistical community. The results of the regression test show that the tourism and ecotourism dimension of rural development has a positive effect on rural women's entrepreneurship with a significant level of 0.461 Mohadi et al. (2013) shows in Table 6,7,8.

Table 6
Summary Of The Results Of The Linear Regression Equation Between Tourism Development And Rural Ecology. Rural WOMEN's Entrepreneurship 1 (Research Findings, 1401)1
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 0.821* 0.673 0.671 9.678
Table 7
Rural Women's Entrepreneurship
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Squares F Sig
Regression 264411.85 1 264411.85 282.263 0
Residual 12833.89 138 93.867    
  39275.741 139      

                               The independent variable of tourism and ecotourism

Table 8
Entrepreneurship Regression Coefficients
Model B Coefficients Std. Error Standardized Coefficients Beta t Sig
(Constant) 0.637 0.159   5.637  
Tourism 0.461 0.27 0.821 4.203 0

Identifying the most important effective factors of tourism and ecotourism development on rural women entrepreneurs

By using the factor analysis technique in the method of principal components analysis, six factors with eigenvalues higher than 0.5 have been extracted, and the variables of dimensions affecting rural women's entrepreneurship, based on the factor load and after rotating the varimax method, in this Agents are packaged. The four factors are 64.720% of the relationship between tourism and rural ecology from the perspective of rural women entrepreneurs. Named. The mentioned factors along with the specific value of each factor, the cumulative percentage of each factor in the commonality of rural tourism indicators shows in Table 9&10.

Table 9
The Results Of Kmo And Bartlett Test In Measuring The Degree Of Validity And Significance Level Of Indicators. (Kmo And Bartlett's Test)
KMO Bartlett's Test of Sphericity df Sig.
0.728 1759.344 300 0
Table 10
The Number Of Extracted Factors Along With The Special Values Of Variance Percentage And Cumulative Percentage
Name Special amount Percentage of variance Cumulative percentage
1 Human Capital 6.682 26.793 26.729
2 Protection 2.74 10.96 37.689
3 Cultural 2.406 9.625 47.314
4 Infrastructure 1.675 6.701 54.015
5 Political 1.438 5.752 59/767
6 Development 1.193 4.772 64.539

The first factor: This factor explains 26.729% of the total variance and based on the final filtered matrix, it is correlated with the indicators of education, local knowledge, customer orientation and has the highest correlation shows in Table 11.

Table 11
Variables Related To Each Of The Factors Related To Tourism And Rural Tourism From The Perspective Of Women And The Amount Of Factor Loadings Obtained And The Matrix Obtained
Priority Name Variables Operational burden
First Human Capital Education 0.831
-26.279 Indigenous Knowledge 0.756
  Customer Orientation 0.603
  risk taking 0.594
  Experts and skilled people in tourism 0.559
  Work experience 0.431
Second Protection tourism services 0.743
-10.96 Non-governmental support 0.734
  Revival of handicrafts 0.602
  Advertising 0.58
Third cultural Gender norms 0.77
-9.625 Stereotypes about women 0.738
  Social insecurities 0.73
  Investors do not trust women 0.629
  The conflict of the woman's role as a wife, mother, and entrepreneur 0.595
  Women's lack of independence 0.441
  lack of motivation 0.397
Fourth infrastructure Improving the space of accommodation centers 0.823
-6.701 Restoration and reconstruction of tourism 0.7
  Access to transportation 0.626
  Internet 0.578
the fifth political Administrative bureaucracy 0.755
-5.752 Local networking 0.687
the sixth Development (4.772) Access to loans 0.78
Investment in ecotourism and tourism 0.85
Women's participation in local decision-making 0.703

The second factor: This factor explains 10.960% of the total variance and according to the final filtered matrix, it is correlated with the indicators of tourism services, non-governmental support and has the highest correlation.

The third factor: This factor explains 9.625% of the total variance and based on the final filtered matrix, it is correlated with indicators of gender norms, stereotypes about women, social insecurities and has the highest correlation.

The fourth factor: This factor explains 6.701% of the total variance and based on the final filtered matrix, it is correlated with the characteristics of improving the space of accommodation centers, restoration and reconstruction of ecotourism, and has the highest correlation.

The fifth factor: This factor explains 5.752% of the total variance and based on the final filtered matrix, it is correlated with the administrative bureaucracy index and has the highest correlation.

The sixth factor: This factor explains 4.772% of the total variance and based on the final filtered matrix, it is correlated with the indicators of access to loans, investment in ecotourism and tourism, and they have the highest correlation.

Discussion and Conclusion

According to the results obtained from the factor analysis model and obtaining the points or factor load of each of the indicators, 6 interrelated indicators have an effect on the first effective factor on tourism entrepreneurship. Cultural factors such as "gender norms" is the most important factor that is consistent with the results (Ghouse et al., 2017).

The next factor, "Investment Index" is obtained. Entrepreneurship in tourism is an economic activity dependent on the capital process, and the role of investment in tourism entrepreneurship is a vital, main and fundamental role. Among the researches whose results are indirectly related to investment, we can mention. The next effective factors are: education index with a score of (0.831), which is in line with the research results of (Zapalska & Brozik, 2014). The participation of the local community and networking has a high factor in the development of tourism and ecotourism in the entrepreneurship of rural women.

The tourism industry offers various business and entrepreneurial opportunities to generate income for rural women. Rural women can get many opportunities through training in food preparation, craft making, hospitality management for guests. The growing rural cuisine provides enormous entrepreneurial opportunities for rural women.

Rural housing also creates new business opportunities for rural women. Therefore, rural women entrepreneurs can create job opportunities for others while synchronizing with their personal, family and social life.

Considering the gender norms and social obstacles of women, women should increase their awareness and knowledge during entrepreneurial activities in order to manage their activities in a better way. Also, the economic factors of the research, institutional factors - have been proposed as effective factors on women's entrepreneurship, so based on this, it is expected that economic and institutional organizations will try to support women in entrepreneurial activities. In addition to the fact that the creative thinking and empowerment as the role of women are brought up, the entrepreneurship factors of educational organizations in creating creative abilities are also very important and effective for other cultural organizations in this field.

End Note

1 The measurement of rural women's entrepreneurship index has been done using the indicators in Table 5. These indicators have been collected based on field studies, with multiple-choice, two-choice and spectral questions in each village.


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Received: 03-March-2023, Manuscript No. AEJ-23-12629; Editor assigned: 06-March-2023, PreQC No. AEJ-23-12629(PQ); Reviewed: 21-March-2023, QC No. AEJ-23-12629; Revised: 23-March-2023, Manuscript No. AEJ-23-12629(R); Published: 26-March-2023

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