At present, Thailand and many other countries attach great importance to the development of sports with the development of the countries in all areas from the beginning level. Opportunities to play sports and exercise for good health are available until they develop into excellence in joining the Olympic Games. In both developing and developed countries, sports are tools to create happiness, unity, and strength of family and community. The success of sports competitions is considered one of the ways to promote happiness, harmony, and reconciliation with each other, and even more with international competition can be regarded as publicity of the country's reputation both in sports and tourism. Therefore, in all countries, including Thailand, the process of sport is a significant part of the country's development.
In terms of sports with disabilities, the development has taken place both nationally and internationally. This can be seen from the importance of organizing sporting events in tandem with ordinary people. For example, when any country hosting the Olympic Games has to hold the Paralympic Games concurrently. As for the Asian level, when any country organizes the Asian Games, they must also host the Asian Para Games, or even at the ASEAN level. When any country is hosting the SEA Games, they must be hosting the ASEAN Para Games concurrently. In the past, disabled sports have built a strong reputation for Thailand, and there were gold medalists in many levels of competition. The development of sports for the disabled in Thailand is currently under the supervision of the SPADT. Its main objectives are to support, promote opportunities and develop people with disabilities to play sports according to their potential. The SPADT has been active in enhancing sports for people with disabilities from the basic level to excellence by 24 sports associations under its supervision. All have operated by the policy framework and strategic plans of the Sports Authority of Thailand under the Sports Act of Thailand, 2015.
The researcher is currently the secretary-general and public relations of the SPADT. In the implementation of management, there were problems and obstacles in the operations: to be specific, various sports associations for the disabled still lack a decent management system in many aspects. Examples are administrative management, general administration, creating a new generation of athletes, people responsible for maintaining personnel in sports associations, staff's experiences working in sports with disabilities, continual change in management leading to no continuity of the operation, lack of dissemination of knowledge in sports science and sports technology, lack of systematic and continuous participation in monitoring and evaluation, no state-of-the-art information system for planning or making decisions for further development of the sport. These are similar to the study of problems and obstacles in the performance of the Sports Association of Thailand (Sports Authority of Thailand, 1993). Therefore, the researcher, as an administrator of the SPADT and is involved in formulating policies for the management of the SPADT. The results of the study of factors affecting the success of the SPADT are useful information for the development of sports for the disabled in Thailand. It is equally effective and internationally recognized in the future.
- To study the conditions and problems affecting the success of the SPADT.
- To study the factors affecting the success of the SPADT.
- To apply the results of this research study as a guideline for the administration of the SPADT.
Management Theory Concept
Bridges & Roquemore (2004) has defined the Function of Management referring to the main activities that the manager performs to achieve the goals of the job, consisting of 4 main functions, namely Planning, Organizing, Implementing and Controlling; details are as follows:
- Planning is to set goals and objectives of the organization. It then develops a detailed methodology for achievement in a given period by minimizing the problem and achieving efficiency and success or effectiveness (Bridges & Roquemore, 2004). Good planning should look futuristic. It is divided into short-term or long-term plans and prevent or reduces problems that occur. For example, an amateur sports coach plans sports training sessions for young athletes to develop into championships over four years. Professional sports managers plan training sessions before, during, and after competitions to enable athletes to showcase their best abilities and recover from the competition as quickly as possible. Fitness center managers plan annual performance for all employees to create customer satisfaction and profit for the fitness center. Pool managers come up with a plan to prevent the risk of cramps in the pool for visitors.
- Organizing is a system of working personnel and resources in the organization under planning. The focuses are on setting the hierarchy to achieve good coordination in the organization that covers the chain of command, responsibility, monitoring, and communication (Bridges & Roquemore, 2004). For example, amateur sports coaches organize the duties and responsibilities of each group of team officers in caring for young athletes, such as teachers, sports scientists, nutritionists, etc. Professional sports team managers organize the chain of command of all team officers, namely the Coaching Division consisting of the head coach, coach for each position, and assistant coaches. The Sports Science Department consists of the head of the Sports Science Department, sports scientists, pathologists, psychologists, physical therapists, and massage therapists. The Sports Business Department consists of the head of the Sports Business department, field manager, field staff, sports equipment manager, sports equipment officers, marketing and public relations manager. Athletes Support consists of the head of Support, sports nutritionists, sports biomechanics specialists, sports technology specialists, scouts, hairdressers, cleaners, etc. Fitness center managers organize the financial organization of the fitness center to support employees to receive welfare and training to develop knowledge; manage the complaints methods of the service users and arrange the communication between the service users and the staff; or the pool managers sort out pool access times according to the needs of users and the number of employees, etc.
- Implementing refers to the implementation of the plan through the organization's employees by leading motivation focusing on solving problems that arise during the operation to bring the best benefits to employees and the organization (Bridges & 17 Roquemore, 2004). For example, amateur sports coaches are taking the lead in starting to care for young athletes by organizing readiness meetings for each team official. Professional sports managers solve problems arising from the practice between the coaching department and the sports science department. Fitness center managers embark on fitness center finance plans and provide incentives by increasing benefits for top-performing employees. Pool managers solve problems with dirty swimming pools or have an accident during use.
- Controlling is the follow-up of performance over time to confirm and know the accomplishment of the plan outlined in solving problems or improving operations to be effective by providing reward or punishment (Bridges & Roquemore, 2004). For examples, an amateur sports trainer monitors the performance of a sports scientist weekly; a professional sports manager assesses a sports nutritionist's performance after ten matches; a fitness center managers track monthly sales of fitness trainer's training hours for promotion consideration; a pool manager controls the pool staff to have the least leave days. The function of management is connected cyclically, when planning, organization, practice, and controlled, after finding out that the problem was unable to make the operation efficient or effective. Managers should address the problems beginning with another cycle of planning, organization, action, and control.
Information about Sports with Disabilities in Thailand
At present, sports with disabilities can be divided into 5 categories according to their disabilities: physical and mobility sports, blind sports, sports for mentally disabled people, sports for intellectual disabilities, and sports for the deaf. With support from the National Sports Development Fund and Sports Authority of Thailand to support, promote and develop many dimensions more by leaps and bounds. One of the key factors for this is the greater understanding of the nature of sports for people with disabilities by relevant agencies and organizations. In addition, there is a relatively large budget from the fund, resulting in continuous development in the past 3-4 years, through the structure of the National Sports Act of 2015, causing the said budget to be sent down and meet the needs, also in accordance with the national sports development plan strategy. The development that is evident today is
- Disabled athletes in almost all sports under the care of the SPADT are programs or matches that are more competitive than ever before, by leaps and bounds. In 2018, the association sent athletes with disabilities to participate in 42 international competitions from all sports, and this year 2019, there are 56 international competitions.
- There are also more international sporting events for people with disabilities in Thailand. 6 international sporting events were organized in 2018, and another 10 international competitions were held in 2019.
- There is a training and development of personnel for sports with disabilities in Thailand and abroad, such as coaches, referees, assistant coaches, athletes’ helpers for competition and everyday life, physiotherapists, muscle builders, psychologists, massage therapists, disability inspectors, etc. And sending personnel who have been trained at the national level to practice or take higher-level examinations both at home and abroad.
- Organizing more sports competitions for people with disabilities in the country since the National Games for people with disabilities are scheduled to be held 2 years per 1 time, causing the development and creation of new athletes to be interrupted and the lack of arena continually. Which the association has received support from the National Sports Development Fund and other sponsors to organize the 2019 Thailand Disability Sports Championship in Suphan Buri Province on September 9-13, 2019. There are a total of 15 sports also it is the first time and can be considered as a model of managing sports competitions that have elevated the standard of competition management. Disabled athletes that participate in the competition have convenient accommodation provided, no need to sleep at the temple or sleep at school, but sleep in a “hotel”. 3 other sports have separated as the Thailand Championship for the Disabled and have got athletes with basic disabilities and gain experience. For people who organize competitions that have to work, turn heads, and coordinate more than 10 directions.
- Developing the structure of the management system of the association, we have received a budget for this part from the Sports Authority of Thailand through various indicators of the association.
With more jobs and more problems, it also allows us to know how the management should change to complete the work according to the set goals. How will we know where the sports for the disabled will develop? The necessary thing, that is, we need to know the management structure for sports for people with disabilities in Thailand by the disabled sports structure according to the Sports Authority of Thailand Act 2015 are as follows:
- 1. Ministry of Tourism and Sports
- 2. Sports Authority of Thailand
- 3. Sports Association for the Disabled of Thailand under the Royal Patronage of his Majesty the King (SPADT)
- 4. The Deaf Sports Association of Thailand
- 5. The Sports Association for the Blind of Thailand
- 6. The Sports Association for Intellectual Disability of Thailand
- 7. Cerebral Palsy Sports Association of Thailand
- 8. The Paralympic Committee of Thailand
The Sports Authority of Thailand supports the budgets of the 5 associations in the following categories:
- Organization Management
- Personnel development (meaning personnel in all aspects of sports), different levels of training, sending in duty according to the mission to accumulate level and level up
- Compensation support of annual coaching for disabled sports and team preparation for each tournament.
- Supporting the preparation of teams of athletes with disabilities in various levels of competition, sporting events, and tournaments.
- Support training equipment for people with disabilities
- Support to organize the competitions the at national level (Thailand Championship), International level in Thailand, from the friendly level, Asian Tournament and World Championships (in 2019, the Sports Association for the Disabled of Thailand under the Royal Patronage of His Majesty the King has organized 10 competitions)
In this regard, the Sports Authority of Thailand supports the budget each year for the 5 Sports Associations for the Disabled of Thailand to support the management, personnel development compensation, sending competitions and training abroad, sports equipment support including training equipment and sports equipment, support to organize competitions both domestically and internationally, etc.
THE STRUCTURE OF SPORTS MANAGEMENT FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES IN THAILAND.
Source: SPADT (2019)
Sports with disabilities is one of the missions within the Ministry of Tourism and Sports by the Sports Authority of Thailand according to the Sports Act of Thailand 2015 and the Sports Act of Thailand (No. 2) 2017 additional. By which the Sports Authority of Thailand will manage and support the budget through the structure of 5 Sports Association of the Disabled of Thailand. It is assigned to take care, support, promote and develop sports for the disabled in Thailand from basic to excellence. In addition, the SPADT has also worked with sports organizations at the international level, which has the following sports structure for people with disabilities:
INTERNATIONAL PARALYMPICS COMMITTEE STRUCTURE DIAGRAM
Source: SPADT (2019)
International Paralympics Committee Structure Diagram consists of
- International Sports Federation (IF’s) - currently in Thailand has a total of 8 sports as follows.
International Sports Federation is a sport that competes in the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games with a total of 8 sports.
- International Organizations of sports for the Disabled (IOSD’s) - There are four types of sports under the International Organizations of sports for the Disabled (IOSD).
- IPC Para Sports in Thailand has a total of 4 sports that the National Paralympics Committee (NPC) acts as IF.
- A sport that has its own world federation by not working through any federation and is a sport that competes in the Paralympic Games.
- Recognized IF's is an evolving sport. The current location is not in the Paralympic Games but it's a kind of sport that has a chance to develop and be included in the Paralympic Games in the future.
Information about the SPADT
The Thai Disabled Sports Association was founded in 1983 by the founders of Dr. Boonsom Martin, Mr. Teera Romyakom, and Mr. Sanchai Poolsawat, with the correct registration by name Thai Disabled Sports Association. The first president of the association was Professor Dr. Boonsom Martin and Mr. Preeda Rodphothong as secretary-general until the year 1988 was granted permission from the Sports Authority of Thailand to be the Sports Association of Thailand under Section 59 of the Act Sports Authority of Thailand, 1985, since 1988. The Thai Disabled Sports Association hence the name Sports Association for the Disabled of Thailand, later on September 6, 2001, the Sports Association for the Disabled of Thailand received royal grace from His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej to be under the Royal Patronage therefore the name was changed to SPADT.
The first objective of the Thai Disabled Sports Association is to support and encourage people with disabilities to play sports to enable people with disabilities to participate in sports and recreational sports only. Later, sports with disabilities began to have more countries organize more competitions, and Thai disabled sports participated in the competition and were able to build a reputation for Thailand. Until 1999, Thailand was honored to host the Asian Games and the host country must also host the 7th FESPIC Games. This is a great opportunity for Thai disabled athletes to participate in the competition. Thai people and people with disabilities in Thailand had the opportunity to know that people with disabilities can play sports which results from the 7th FESPIC Games. Thai disabled athletes were able to make medals in the 2nd place after the People's Republic of China and make Thai people with disabilities come out to play sports and exercise more. In addition, the 3rd National Sports Development Plan has arranged for disabled sports to aim for excellence. Thus, the objective of the SPADT is to promote and encourage people with disabilities to exercise and play sports to rehabilitate their physical, mental, emotional, and social abilities in order to build confidence, capacity building for people with disabilities and to show the potential in sports education of Thai people with disabilities both in the country and abroad.
Changes in the objectives of the SPADT have results the SPADT to have more missions as they have to perform their duties simultaneously as follows:
- Representing Thailand in international sporting events for people with disabilities, which is the National Paralympic Committee of Thailand (NPC-THAI), acting in coordination with the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) in the Asian Para Games and the ASEAN Para Games.
- Being a sports federation according to the type of disability by liaising with the International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation (IWAS), International Blind Sports Association (IBSA), Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA), and International Sports for Persons with Intellectual Disability (INAS-FID) in the World Sports Championship for ranking and collecting points to be eligible to participate in the Paralympic Games.
- It is a sports association for people with disabilities by acting as an association or a sports club to develop each sport.
Currently, the SPADT have 24 sports associations under supervision and responsibility, consisting of Thai Wheelchair Fencing Association, Athletics Association for the Thai Disabled, Thai Para Cycling Association, Thai Disabled Petanque Association, Thai Lawn Bowls Sports for Disabled Association, Swimming Association for the Thai Disabled, Taekwondo Sport Association for the Thai Disabled, Chess Sport Association for Thai Disabled, Takraw for Disabled Thai Sport Association, Badminton Association for the Thai Disabled, Powerlifting Association for the Thai Disabled, Volleyball Sports Association for the Disabled, The Shooting Sport Association for Thai Disabled, Thai Wheelchair Tennis Association, Thai Para Table Tennis Association, Archery Sport Association for Thai Disabled, Thai Para Rowing Sport Association, Thai Para ESport Association, Thai Bowling Sport Disabled Association, Thai Paratriathlon Association, Sport Association for Wheelchair Basketball Thai, Wheel Chair Rugby Sport Disabled Association Thailand, lastly, Ice Hockey and Wheelchair Curling Association Disabled Person Thai.
In this research, the researcher has defined the research process into 4 steps as follows:
Step 1: Study the concepts and theories in order to formulate a research framework on factors affecting the success of the SPADT.
Step 2: Create tools for this research, including a questionnaire and interview form on factors affecting the success of the SPADT.
Step 3: Study the factors affecting the success of the SPADT.
Step 4: Examine and analyze opinions on the factors affecting the success of the SPADT.
2.1 The population in this research is 17 executives of the Sports Association for the Disabled of Thailand, 24 team managers, 48 trainers, and 214 disabled athletes under the association, totaling 303 people.
2.2 The samples were randomly selected for the following sample groups:
Part 1: The samples used for the interview were 10 executives of the SPADT acquired by purposive sampling.
Part 2: The samples used for the questionnaire consisted of the association's executives, team managers, trainers, and athletes. This particular group was acquired by stratified sampling, proportional followed by purposive.
Step 1: Calculate the total number of samples from the population of the PADT in 2021 by using Taro Yamane's calculation formula (Taro Yamane, 1973). A total of 173 samples were obtained.
Step 2: Once the 173 samples were acquired, they were classified into groups, with uneven numbers, by percentage calculation (details are shown in Table 1).
THE POPULATION AND THE SAMPLES USED IN THE RESEARCH
Executive of the SPADT
Athletes under the association
Source: The SPADT
Step 3: Based on the computation of 4 groups of samples, consisting of executives of the SPADT, team manager or head coach, coach and assistant coach, and disabled athletes under the association. The researcher determined to find samples in each group as follows:
- 10 executives of the SPADT, by purposive sampling.
- 14 team managers, by purposive sampling.
- 27 trainers, by purposive sampling.
- 122 athletes, by purposive sampling after the percentage calculation of uneven samples across sports.
The tool used in this research was the interview, questionnaire on factors affecting the success of the SPADT created by the researcher as follows:
Interview form on conditions, problems, and development guidelines of the SPADT is divided into 2 parts:
Part 1: General information of the interviewee
Part 2: Asking for opinions about the condition, problems, and guidelines for the development of the SPADT and information about the problem and obstacles in the management of the SPADT
Questionnaire on factors affecting the success of the SPADT, divided into 3 parts:
Part 1: A checklist asking about the status of the respondents.
Part 2: The 5-point Likert Scales concerning factors affecting the success of the SPADT.
Part 3: An open-ended query for other comments and suggestions section.
Tool Building Process and Tool Quality Determination
Interview form: The researcher used the interview form created by the researcher presented to 3 experts to consider the content validity. The content validity was scored by the terviewing samples using the interview form concerning conditions, problems and item having an acceptable conformity index value of not less than 0.60 considering the criteria of Puangrat Thaveerat (Puangrat Thaveerat. 2540: 1170). It was found that all items were consistent.
Questionnaire: The researcher used the questionnaire for quality assessment.
The questionnaire created by the researcher was presented to 3 experts to consider the content validity. The content validity was scored individually by having an acceptable conformity index value of not less than 0.60 considering the criteria of Puangrat Thaveerat (Puangrat Taveras. 2540: 1170). The conformity index for the whole issue was 0.86, which was considered individually, found that all items were consistent.
The revised questionnaire was tested with a group of 30 people who did not use the sample group to determine the reliability of the reliability questionnaire by using the Alpha Coefficient. By using the criteria to consider the Alpha Coefficient from 0.50 and above, the confidence value of the whole questionnaire is 0.87.
The data collection process was as follows:
- Contacting to request a letter requesting cooperation from the graduates and King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang to request assistance in using a sample of the location and data collection facilities.
- Sampling and collecting data.
- Interviewing samples using the interview form concerning conditions, problems, and development guidelines for the SPADT.
- Distributing questionnaires on factors affecting the success of the SPADT to the sample group and waiting for all the questionnaires to be returned for data collection.
Processing and Analyzing Data
In this research, the researcher performed a sequential analysis.
- The data obtained from the data collection by interview form concerning the condition, problems, and development guidelines of the SPADT were synthesized for content analysis. They were arranged in order of frequency and presented in the form of an essay.
- The data obtained from a questionnaire on factors affecting the success of the SPADT were used in the analysis.
Part 1: The status of the respondents: the data were analyzed in frequency and percentages, then, presented in the form of a table and essay.
Part 2: Information concerning factors affecting the success of the SPADT: the data were analyzed to find out the mean and standard deviation (S.D), and presented in the form of a table and essay.
Part 3: The opinions and recommendations were summarized and presented in an essay form to interpret the average score obtained from the 5-level estimator of the participant of part 2. The researcher divided the scores by using the midpoint criterion between classes (Boonchom Srisaat, 2002 as follows:
4.51 – 5.00 means that the factor affects the success at the highest level.
3.51 – 4.50 means that the factor affects the success at the high level.
2.51 – 3.50 means that the factor affects the success at the moderate level.
1.51 – 2.50 means that the factor affects the success at the low level.
1.00 – 1.50 means that the factor affects the success at the lowest level.
For the research results of factors affecting the success of the SPADT, the researcher analyzed the research findings into 2 parts: an in-depth interview and collecting data from questionnaires. The results were categorized as follows:
Part 1 Results of an in-depth interview with 10 executives of the SPADT on issues related to conditions, problems, and development guidelines for the SPADT from the research revealed that
- Regarding conditions and past performances in the administration of the SPADT from the interview, it was found that the SPADT are sports organizations for people with disabilities responsible for 24 sports associations under supervision. The association has a mission and duty to promote and support people with disabilities to exercise and play sports to rehabilitate their physical, mental, emotional, and social abilities in order to build confidence and capacity for the disabled and to show their potential in sports education both in the country and abroad, as well as to represent Thailand in international sporting events for the disabled. Currently, the SPADT management structure is led by the Board of the SPADT, which has a 4-year term of office. As for the roles and duties of the committee, it determines the policy guidelines, with the president of the sports association and the association secretary, to drive, control, and monitor the operations of the association for more leapfrog development. As a result, in the past, the SPADT has achieved a good level of success. It can be seen that during the past 2 years, the association KIP assessment by the Sports Authority of Thailand has remained at A-level with a score of 100 full points. In addition, athletes with disabilities of the Association have been continuously developed to succeed in international competitions; the ASEAN Para Games, Asian Para Games, Paralympic Games, and other global competing events. This has brought the reputation to the nation and the happiness to Thai people, especially with 6 gold medals achievement from the Paralympic Games at the Republic of Brazil.
- Considering the problems affecting the success of the SPADT from the interviews, there were many problems in managing the SPADT. In terms of organization management, the problematic issues were the roles and duties of the association executive committee, the internal communication and public relations for the operations, and the determination of operational indicators. Regarding budget management, there were problems with budget disbursement, lacking flow in operations as the guidelines did not facilitate the operations. Additionally, there were problems with the absence of the sports science and technology center, the lack of an international standard for sports training centers for the disabled, and the inadequate and low quality of training and competing equipment. These factors are the fundamentals of preparing athletes to participate in international competitions. There was also a problem in the development of athletes, specifically in recruiting new athletes as a significant force in the development of disabled sports for the associations. The personnel development also found that the sports coaching personnel were not as skilled as they should be. In addition, there was still a very shortage of classifiers for disability. These were because the current situation is not conducive to the potential development of the involved personnel. Examples were organizing training, sending personnel to perform duties at the national and international levels, recruiting personnel to train the athletes, etc. Another factor was the insufficient welfare for the personnel occurring along with the problematic issues of governance, control, and follow-up assessment. As the Association currently has set indicators that are not clear and cover the implementation, it resulted in the impossibility of the follow-up and evaluation of the performance.
- On guidelines for the management development of the SPADT, it was believed that the disabled sports association can be successful. There must be promotion, support, and development in all areas, both athlete development as the heart of the matter and the development of personnel to even more increase the ability of athletes. The management of sporting events to help organize experiences and increase the potential of athletes. Management within the association, including the supervision, control, and monitoring of the performance of the association systematically and continuously in order to use the information to improve and develop even more.
Part 2 The results of the analysis of data from the collection of questionnaires on factors affecting the success of the SPADT by collecting data from 173 samples involved in the SPADT using questionnaires created by the researcher. The research results are as follows:
- On general information of the 173 respondents, it was found that there were 10 executives representing 6.00 percent, 14 team managers representing 8.00 percent., 27 trainers representing 16.00 percent, and 122 athletes representing 71.00 percent. Most of them were male, 133 representing 77.00 percent. 40 of them were females representing 23.00 percent. 52 respondents accounting for 30.20 percent were 41-50 years of age, 49 of them accounting for 28.10 percent were aged 31 - 40 years, 40 of them or 23.00 percent aged 21 - 30, 18 of them or 10.60 percent were 51 - 60 years old, 8 of them accounting for 4.70 percent were aged less than or equal to 20 years old, and 6 of them or 3.40 percent were aged 61 years and over. Most of them graduated with a bachelor's degree, 83 people, or 48.10 percent, followed by 49 of those with below a bachelor's degree or 28.10 percent, 18 people accounted for 10.60 percent with Master's degree, and 23 of them accounted for 13.20 percent with others. Most of the respondents have worked with the SPADT for 1 - 5 years, 76 people representing 43.80 percent, followed by 43 of them or 25.10 percent with 6-10 years working period, and 21 of them or 12.30 percent with less than one-year period, respectively.
- Information on the factors affecting the success of the SPADT can be summarized as follows:
- The overall factors affecting the success of the SPADT overall by aspect were at a high level ( = 4.02 and S.D = 0.85). When consider each aspect, it was found that all aspects were thought to be factors affecting the success of the SPADT at a high level, namely athlete development system ( = 4.15 and S.D = 0.82, organizational management system ( =4.12 and S.D = 0.77), sports competition ( = 4.07 and S.D = 0.86), control ( = 3.96 and S.D = 0.87), and personnel development ( = 3.82 and S.D = 0.93), respectively.
- Regarding the athlete development system, it affected the success of the SPADT at a high level overall (=4.15 and S.D = 0.82). The most crucial point was the association plans, to send athletes to compete in international competitions, assigned in the association's program or calendar of events and goals, and aligned with the Sports Association Strategic Plan (= 4.25 and S.D = 0.79). It was followed by sending athletes to participate in international competitions to gain experience and continuous development (= 4.24 and S.D = 0.77).
- Regarding the organizational management system, it affected the success of the SPADT at a high level overall as well (= 12 and S.D = 0.77). The most significant factor was that the association created and developed a sports network for the disabled (= 4.20 and S.D = 0.72). It was second by the association has written financial regulations regarding compensation, travel, and accommodation expenses (= 4.17 and S.D = 0.77). The third most significant point was that the association has established plans for sponsorships and benefits (= 4.17 and S.D = 0.76)
- Regarding sports competition, all points affected the success of the SPADT at a high level overall (=4.07 and S.D = 0.86). The first point was that the association hosts the Thailand Sports Championship for the Disabled yearly (= 4.10 and S.D = 0.81. The second one was that the association has organized international sports competitions for people with disabilities with appropriate standards (= 4.10 and S.D = 0.87. The third point was that the association has planned to organize international competitions in various sports (= 4.06 and S.D = 0.85).
- The control aspect also affected the success of the SPADT at a high level overall ( = 3.96 and S.D = 0.87). The first point is that the SPADT controls the operation to meet the specified goals ( = 4.01 and S.D = 0.85). The second point was that the results of the reports are used as data in planning for further development of operations in the following year ( = 4.01 and S.D = 0.89). The third point was that the SPADT has control over financial management by preparing a financial balance sheet quarterly, semi-annually, and annually to check its budget expenditure ( = 3.96 and S.D = 0.92). The last point was the requirement that the results of problems and obstacles must be reported to the supervisors continuously ( = 3.96 and S.D = 0.84).
- In terms of personnel development, there were four points affecting the success of the SPADT at a high level of importance overall ( = 3.82 and S.D = 0.93). They could be arranged in respective order as the point that the associations send disabled sports personnel to perform in international competitions ( =3.86 and S.D = 0.94), the one that the association regularly organizes training for disabled sports personnel such as trainers, referees, etc. ( = 3.84 and S.D = 0.93), the one that the association sends sports personnel to train for knowledge development at the domestic level ( = 3.84 and S.D = 0.95), and the one that the association sends sports personnel to develop knowledge at the international level ( =3.84 and S.D = 0.93).
From the questionnaire, the recommendations on the factors affecting the success of the SPADT were as follows:
- The SPADT should continually and regularly organize sports competitions for the disabled throughout the year. This is to provide athletes with competition experiences and to increase their potential.
- The association should recruit trainers who are competent in coaching the people with disabilities.
- The association should continually provide training to educate the disabled sports personnel.
- The association should continually monitor and assess the performance of coaches in each sport.
- The association should provide adequate medical welfare for athletes.
- The association should improve the disbursement system of athletes and trainers to be faster and more agile
- The association should push for prize money and compensation for athletes, coaches, and personnel to be suitable and equal to that of normal athletes.
- The association should adopt sports science such as psychology, physical fitness to be used with athletes with disabilities thoroughly and continuously.
- The association should provide additional equipment for the rehabilitation of athletes who have been injured or strengthening the athletes after sports training at the sports training center for the disabled and all sports teams.
- The association should recruit more of the new athletes for their development as well as to replace the retiring disabled athletes in the future.
Summary, Discussion And Conclusion
In this research, the researcher has summarized the research results according to the research objectives as follows:
- The results of the study on conditions, problems, and guidelines for the development of the SPADT in this research found that
- Conditions and past performance in the administration of the SPADT in the past 2 years were great. This is possibly from the A-level grade of success assessed by the Sports Authority of Thailand. In addition, athletes with disabilities of the association have been successful in international competitions including ASEAN Para Games, Asian Para Games, Paralympic Games, and other global competitions. This has continually built a great reputation for Thailand as well as serve the Thai people with happiness.
- Current problems affecting the success of the SPADT exists in various management areas. In organizational management, there are problems with operations, such as determining the roles and duties of the association executive committee, internal communication and public relations, determination of operational indicators, budget management, lack of sports science and technology center, sports training centers for people with disabilities that do not meet international standard, and inadequate and low quality training and competing equipment. Additionally, there are problems with athlete and personnel development; recruiting new athletes, and welfare arrangements for personnel as well as governance, control, and follow-up evaluation.
- For development guidelines for the SPADT management, the association was believed to be successful. There must be promotion, support, and development in all areas; the athlete development which is the heart of the matter, the development of personnel to enhance the potential of the athletes, the management of sporting events to gain organizing experiences and increase the potential of athletes, the management within the association, and the continual and systematic supervision, control and monitoring of the performances in order to use the information in development.
- The results of the study on factors affecting the success of the SPADT showed that that the factors affecting the success of the SPADT were at a high level overall ( = 4.02 and S.D = 0.85). When considering each aspect, it was found that all aspects were thought to be a factor affecting the success of the SPADT at a high level. The mean as the criterion can be sorted in descending order as follows: athletes development system ( = 4.15 and S.D = 0.82), organization management system ( = 4.12 and S.D = 0.77), sports competition ( = 4.07 and S.D = 0.86), control ( =3.96 and S.D = 0.87) and Personnel development ( =3.82 and S.D = 0.93), respectively.
From research on factors affecting the success of the SPADT can discuss the results as follows:
- Conditions and problems affecting the success of the SPADT found that the SPADT has developed more than in the past. This can be seen from the outstanding results both in the management of the association as well as the achievements of athletes with disabilities in both national and international sporting events. This is because the current executive of the association is a disabled person, which makes it possible for him to understand the context of people with disabilities. Thus, it is not difficult in understanding how to plan operations, supervise, control, and monitor the operations in various fields systematically. However, there are still problems in operations such as management, athlete development, personnel development, governance, and control and follow-up evaluation. These are the problems with possible solutions. It also corresponds to the research of Lam Phuttha (2014) on The Development Guidelines for Cycling Sports Management for Excellence of Sports Association, Sisaket Province. The results of that particular research revealed the problems needed to be solved in descending order: welfare, management, personnel development, and athletes, respectively.
- Factors affecting the success of the SPADT.
- Factors in the athlete development system are the most influencing the success of the SPADT the most. When considering item-by-item, it was found that the most important factors were that the association plans to send athletes to international competitions in the association's plans or calendar of events and had corresponding goals with the sports association strategic plan, and that the association has sent athletes to participate in international competitions for experience and continuous development. The results of the research are also consistent with the Sports Authority of Thailand's Strategic Plan (2021 – 2027) that has set the first Strategic Objective that sports management for excellence focuses on developing excellent athletes from the local level to be an option for preparing potential international athletes, creating, developing and managing the key elements including NTC training, creation and application of sports science knowledge to develop athletes with facilities, equipment, and specialized personnel, and improving the appropriate welfare system for athletes and sports personnel. It is also consistent with the research of Pennipa Poolsawat (2015), which conducted a research study on Factors Affecting Success in the Management of the Sports Association of Thailand. The results showed that the most correlated factor variables were the factors of athlete development and the level of success of the sports association. It was found that sports associations have encouraged athletes to attend training to improve their knowledge, abilities, and experience in managing sports organizations or to increase their knowledge about sports. In addition, the sports association has sent athletes to compete in various programs to develop skills, abilities, and competitive experience, as well as a continuous systematic sport development plan as prescribed by the Sports Association. The Sports Authority of Thailand gained direct experience from athletes and competitions with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.908.
- For organizational management system, the study found that the overall organizational management system was an important factor at a high level. When considering each point, it was found that 3 points being the most significant factors were the association has created and developed a sports network for people with disabilities; the association has a written regulation of the association's finances on compensation, travel, and accommodation cost; and the association has established plans for sponsorships and benefits. The results of the research are consistent with the Sports Authority of Thailand's Strategic Plan (2521 – 2027) that has set strategic objectives (Strategic Objective) in terms of increasing efficiency in organizational management focusing on raising the level of organizational management to meet the standard. It is to develop into a high-performance organization that can create and develop quality operational processes to accommodate future changes. Furthermore, it is also consistent with the research of Kajon Trisophanakorn (2011). He researched on The Causal Relationship Model of Administrative Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Provincial Sports Associations. The results showed that the causal relationship model of the administrative factors affecting the effectiveness of the provincial sports association was consistent with the empirical data at a good and acceptable level.
- The sports competition factors showed that they affect the success of the SPADT at a high level overall. The factors include the association organized the Thailand Championship for the disabled regularly every year; the association organized international sports competitions for people with disabilities with the appropriate standard; and the association plans to organize international sporting events in various sports. This is consistent with Phennipa Poolsawat (2015). He conducted a research study on Factors Affecting Success in the Management of the Sports Association of Thailand. The research results displayed that factors in the sports management system are factors affecting the management of the Sports Association of Thailand. It is also in line with Davis (2011) who conducted a study on the Strategic Development of the University of Technology in Jamaica. The results signified that organizing national competitions in addition to university competitions is part of the main strategic plan that the University of Technology uses as a pillar, the “Jamaica Model”.
- The control factors affecting the success of the SPADT at a high level include the SPADT controls the operation to meet the specified goals; the SPADT’s results of the reports are used as information for planning develop operations in the following year, the SPADT’s financial management is controlled by preparing a balance sheet quarterly, semi-annually and annually to monitor its budget expenditures and the SPADT requires that the operating results, problems, and obstacles must be reported to the supervisors on an ongoing basis. It corresponds to Wananya Duangplub (2020) who conducted research on Factors Affecting the Development of Netball in the Upper Northern Provinces. The research found out that the control factors affected the development of netball in the upper northern provinces at a high level. it is also in accordance with Ann Mahakita (2014) who conducted a research study on Management Model of Sports Organization for the Disabled in Thailand. The results showed that the controlling model of sports organization for the disabled in Thailand is appropriate and can be implemented.
- Personnel development factors affecting the success of the SPADT at a high level include the association sending disabled sports personnel to perform in international competitions; the association organizes training for disabled sports personnel such as coaches, referees, etc. on a regular basis; the association has sent sports personnel to train to develop knowledge at the domestic level; and the association has sent sports personnel to train to develop international knowledge. This is consistent with Phennipa Poolsawat (2015) who conducted a research study on Factors Affecting Success in the Management of the Sports Association of Thailand. The study found that the personnel development affects the management of the Sports Association of Thailand at a high level. In addition, it is consistent with Cheng. (1993), who conducted research on Assessing Performance in Sports Organization Management for Effectiveness and to Convey the Necessary Knowledge about Leadership and Sports Management for Taiwan. The research results found that personnel management competency is a professional competence for sports managers in Taiwan.
Suggestions for applying the research results
- System factors for athlete development for the SPADT to be successful, the association must develop athletes in all aspects, such as bringing sports science to help in enhancing athletes such as physical development, mental development, etc. In terms of organizing experiences to develop the potential of athletes, the provision of equipment and facilities for athletes to use in training is adequate and standardized, including the creation of new athletes to replace athletes in order to have a real continuity of development, etc.
- Factors related to the organizational management system for the SPADT to be successful, the Association must have a systematic internal management system, such as an office management system, management structure. Establishing rules, regulations, operational planning, and budget expenditure plans, financial management system efficient budget disbursement in terms of providing welfare to those involved in the association in the preparation of information and information systems in sports communication, dissemination of information of the association in the creation of the association's network organization in terms of monitoring, evaluation and reporting systems, etc.
- Sporting factors for the SPADT to be successful, the association must have a plan for organizing sporting events for people with disabilities continuously in order to provide experiences for athletes to develop their potential continuously. There must be dissemination and public relations in organizing sports competitions for people with disabilities at the national level thoroughly.
- Control factor for the SPADT to be successful, the association has to have a defined system, methods of monitoring, benchmarks, audits, and controls in the association's operations and personnel related to for the SPADT and report on operating results to be used for systematic and efficient improvement and development, etc.
- Personnel Development Factors for the SPADT to be successful, the association must develop personnel to work effectively, such as office staff, coaches, referees, athlete assistants, team managers, which must be organized, delivered to training, including sent to join the practice and duty related to the continuous development of sporting potential both nationally and internationally.
Suggestions for Further Research
- There should be a study of other factors that affect the success by considering a model in an equation showing the relationship between variables for more detailed analysis results.
- There should be a comparative study with other sports associations or comparison between sports associations for each type of disabled sports because each sport may face different problems to get more insights.
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Received: 09-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. AEJ-21-8691; Editor assigned: 12-Apr-2022, PreQC No. AEJ-21-8691 (PQ); Reviewed: 25-Apr-2022, QC No. AEJ-21-8691; Revised: 05-May-2022, Manuscript No. AEJ-21-8691 (R); Published: 24-May-2022.