Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2020 Vol: 26 Issue: 2

Factors Influencing E-Wom Online Consumer Goods Purchase Behavior Evidence from Vietnam

Pham Hung Cuong, Foreign Trade University


This study analyzes the factors that influence electronic Word-Of-Mouth (e-WOM) on online consumer goods purchase behavior: Evidence from Vietnam. Developed on previous quantitative and statistical findings, the theoretical model and assumptions for the study were developed. To retrieve raw data, a sample was conducted with 380 participants. The study concepts were tested using multiple correlation and path evaluation. As a response, customer experience, relative value, confidence, and attachment to the company had a significant and significant impact on e-WOM and brand recognition. Also, the findings showed that confidence in e-WOM implicitly influenced brand awareness. Business entities in the consumer retail sector should instead pay close attention to the important functions of these variables to determine and react to the expectations and standards of consumers.


Consumer Contentment, Relative Value, Trust, Consumer Allegiance, E-WOM, Brand Awareness.


The velocity and easiness at which customers can communicate with retail outlets have a significant influence on customer decision-making. To decrease the effort linked with making a choice, several customers turn to the Web for purchases (Beauchamp & Ponder, 2010). Although shopping customers devote time and effort to accomplish different tasks and also as the contemporary consumer is much more time-consuming than ever, consideration should be given to the advantages of offering comfort for internet shopping. One of the leading promoters of consumer susceptibility to embrace online shopping has been online practicality (Jiang et al., 2013). Seiders et al. (2000) suggest that the value motivates merchants that consumers place on functionality. To restructure the operating structures of the supermarket and highlight the efficiency of the service offered. At a different level, merchants would concentrate on increasing the number of mobile devices and also how they supported power and how customers value duration and resources. The current research suggests that customers are in favor of retailers saving them period and funds. Online merchants are entirely able to provide more simplicity as store destination has become meaningless, and customers can shop 24 hours a day, seven days per week from any area (Beauchamp & Ponder, 2010). Organizations, therefore, need to establish a more thorough comprehension of the consequences of digital accessibility. The percentage of individuals using the Internet across the globe in June, 2016 had been 3,611 billion, in particular, with the amount of 49,063 million individuals, Vietnam ranks 15th throughout the world. Numbers have indicated that the online world plays an essential role in advertising and connectivity as a valuable tool. Several users explicitly or implicitly take part in one or maybe more online forums (Albors et al., 2008). Therefore, the digital world alluded to a relatively new and increasingly common component of worldwide digital mouth word (Hennig-Thurau & Walsh, 2003). Online forums, in specific, as well as the Rest of the internet, offer customers not just the opportunity to share their services and products thoughts, as well as the company’s high marketing streams and instruments (Chen & Xie, 2008). It is expected to hit 7,943,600 global purchasers with a rate of growth of 0.9%, 57.00 domestic customers with an expansion rate of 48% and 338 billion Vietnamese dongs total revenue in 2015. E-marketing is becoming a fundamental method, together with the growth of the websites and visitors and therefore, more exposure to lure contemporary travelers.

As a medium to share information among internet users, e-WOM is discussed in detail. This intervention has a direct connection with customer allegiance, thus affecting the cumulative value of the company. Therefore, currently, more and more attention has been paid to the impacts of e-WOM on customers (Gruen et al., 2006). E-WOM is distinct from traditional advertisement since it is called user-created non-commercial communications. Such messages provide all the preceding purchasers’ perspectives and directly impact the other customer purchase decision. These results can be true or false, and offer brand analyses with each other; unhappy customers tend to notice only brand deficiencies and propagate feedback of such weaknesses. The action will impact the conduct of consumers purchasing, particularly the particular product brand identity and also the business. In the meantime, the packaging is regarded to be one of the sectors of the economy’s essential projects. Powerful brands can increase business confidence in products and services and cause them to get a deeper understanding of all the other concealed determinants. Brand image will also be the views and opinions of customers on the quality of the service produced by businesses, in particular, the engagement of the corporation to the products provided, customers are provided (Finato et al., 2014).

Brand identity is indeed a resource, as well as a great brand image that would provide a robust strategic benefit through customer engagement, quality of products and improve the performance of the corporation. Customers are more probable to have a better brand identity to buy products. However, just the one that is vigorously examined by customers can convince the other customers and induce their purchasing intentions throughout the process of establishing up brand awareness. A positive message of the brand is commensurate to the specific intent of the customer (Arslan et al., 2014). Therefore, to analyze the factors that influence customer purchasing behavior, eWOM and brand recognition are essential. Examining the literary works on practicality, it is apparent that there are several aspects of simplicity. There was no consensus, nevertheless, on what these measurements are (Seiders et al., 2007). The paper intends to strengthen the comprehension of the complexities of online practicality as well as its parameters, provided the above rationale. Depending on the model suggested (Rani et al., 2018), the ongoing investigation makes a conceptual improvement by extending the potential of the previous model by introducing simplicity of responsiveness to the original definition. Besides, the current research offers an evaluation of the essential aspects of practicality for customers when making purchases. Finally, since most online simplicity surveys focused mainly on the connection with buying intentions, the present study is in line with the study of Roy et al. (2014) as well as closes the discrepancy by examining the partnership, respectively, online practicality, cognitive motives, contentment and e-WOM. In a technical sense, defining aspects that positively influence purchasing behavioral intentions and performance will help management overcome the challenges to an outstanding execution. Contentment can assist executives in overcoming barriers to delivering an outstanding and affordable customer experience that is a critical driver in strengthening the competitively of internet companies. Over the past couple of years, the digital business proliferated. Using IT for core functions, including personalized destinations, airline as well as hotel suite bookings and bookings bought through computing systems has prompted tourism companies to develop more up-to-date techniques to boost their dynamic advantages. The online business is a reasonable way for the retail industry not just to stretch purchases but also to acquire more market dominance.

Companies have gained a massive number of clients in search of a one-stop-shop operation. For chain platforms, consumers with high brand value often book their transport services. Usually, these consumers are brand lovers or drawn by reward programs to particular brands. On the other extreme, several consumers get to third-party platforms to evaluate traveling options and make the right decision to serve their needs. Therefore, in the modern internet age, customers are looking for online data derived from contact with each other regarding products or services–the outcome of their individual experiences in deciding to buy a brand (Silverman, 2001).

According to Mittal et al. (2001), the potential customers are likely to discuss their positive experiences with others. While fulfillment is described as the distinction, respectively, assumption and efficiency, quality and contentment vary considerably. Contentment is said to be a choice made after practice, though consistency may not be the same (Parasuraman et al., 1991). Besides, customer loyalty varies from case to case. A consumer might be pleased with goods or services, and interaction, a buying choice, a seller, a utility provider or any of such attributes. In other words, customer experience has become a highly individual evaluation that has been heavily influenced by expectations. Every institution has to identify the fulfillment of consumers concerning their industry in the contemporary competitive market ecosystem. Stakeholders much appreciate the attempts to satisfy consumers’ demands and expectations. Then, to prevent a significant gap around delivery quality and service standards, some professionals urge businesses to focus on an objective that is closer to the capital of the client. So, rather than inquiring if clients are content, they encourage firms to assess how proactively consumers hold them (Wreden, 2004). Consumer satisfaction is determined not just in terms of product specification or performance, but also in terms of consumer interactions and a product. Communications between the client as well as the goods or services and also the utility provider provide customer satisfaction (Cengiz, 2010).

Literature Review

Recognized Value

The actual value applies to the general assessment of the customer from the attractiveness of a particular product dependent on expectations of what he/she is getting and also what he/she is providing for it (Zeithaml, 1988). The interpretation of value by consumers is a trade-off across the price and advantages that consumers find throughout the products or services. The actual amount, in specific phrases, has been the trade-offs between the benefits or what is obtained as well as the expenses or what is offered (Monroe, 1990). There are two essential interpretations of the relative value of the consumer. First, it is a culmination of the pre-purchase understanding (assumption), examination during the payment (assumption versus obtained) as well as after-sale (after-use) examination (assumption versus earned) of customers. Second, the actual value of the consumer requires a disparity across the benefits given and the sacrifices made. The advantages include all the intended interest of the customers (Monroe, 1990). Compromises comprise of financial imperatives (price) as well as anti-monetary considerations.


The confidence of consumers in service companies throughout the profession of service merchandising has been one of the aspects that impact their potential behaviors. Trust corresponds to a tendency to depend on a trustworthy exchange partner. Trust also occurs when another individual has value in the performance and honesty of an interaction partner. The confidence of consumers, whether in the entire company or among workers, is significantly impacted by their satisfaction (Kau & Loh, 2006). The result indicates that even an institution's greater or lesser customer loyalty is, combined, his confidence throughout the institution would be the greater or lesser. Trust does have a significant impact on consumers’ behavioral architecture, specifically on the policy of giving up or be obedient to a product provider (Singh & Sirdeshmukh, 2000). Nevertheless, results from statistical studies have shown that high concentrations of consumer confidence in a company have positive interactions with the stronger brand value tendencies (Ranaweera & Prabhu, 2003). Trust creates advantages in trade for consumers, such as reduced stress, anti-assurance and insecurity. Such benefits affect brand image fulfillment, particularly across the more complicated product field (Thurau & Walsh, 2002). Customer loyalty is an emblem of a meaningful mind towards a product that contributes to the product’s continuous purchase over time.


The loyalty of the consumer is characterized as a personal commitment to buy the desired brand or continuous delivery throughout the future, notwithstanding contextual impacts and marketing strategies that may trigger switching behaviors (Oliver, 1997). Allegiance could be regarded as among the variables in brand awareness. Consumers remain committed to a goods or services company. The service providers are also much more inclined to buy more often (price callousness), experiment with new goods or services of the company (buyback inclination), and indicate services and products to anyone else (word-of-mouth), make recommendations to businesses (grievance conduct). E-WOM could be characterized as all private correspondence targeted at customers via Web-based technology linked to the use or features of specific services and goods or their suppliers. This involves communication around businesses and consumers and also between clients themselves (Litvin et al., 2008). Interaction with e-WOM could take place in different environments. Customers can publish their perceptions, feedback, and feedback on goods and services on online forums, rating pages, social bookmarking sites, chat rooms, and social media. E-WOM applies to manufacturer-talking on the Internet that enables individuals to write regarding their interpretations in reality. Discuss their perspectives, product or service experiences, thoughts or suggestions. These views are readily available to other customers seeking information regarding a specific product or service (Sen & Lerman, 2007). However, e-WOM interactions are much more observable than conventional communications. These have been made progressively measurable by the delivery method, the volume and the quality of e-WOM interactions. The amount of WOM information present on the internet is much more substantial. Brand identity is indeed a collection of product revenues and expenses associated with a brand, its title, and emblem, which improves or reduces the quality of the excellent or service, delivered to a company itself.

Brand Equity

Brand equity exists once the customer knows the product and has some beneficial, transparent, and unique remembrance brand associations (Sen & Lerman, 2007). This contains not just the product’s interest, as well as the importance of development tools, licenses, logos as well as other intangible assets, including know-how in manufacturing. There have been a variety of different brand image perspectives and they are all mostly consistent with both the fundamental idea of brand awareness as the additional value to a good and service as a matter of previous branding and marketing activities. Brand identity offers a common factor to perceive marketing campaigns and evaluate a brand’s value. It is recognized that there are several different aspects of expressing and exploiting the significance of a product to the advantage of the company. Brand equity creates standards for consumers and businesses alike. Brand equity creates value for consumers by the productive production and purchasing of knowledge, gaining confidence throughout their decision-making, improving buying and adding to self-actualization. Brand image generates wealth for companies by strengthening advertising operational efficiency, developing brand awareness, enhancing market share, acquiring influence over distributors and distinguishing itself from the competition (Bagozzi et al., 1998).

Electronic Word-of-Mouth

Word-of-Mouth is a substantially robust communication method with a unique marketing role. The customer has been the one who begins the speech contact phrase. Persons share their rational or irrational views and send one another and recommendations about such a cafe where they can have dinner, a novel they find amusing or a shop where they purchase high quality products at such a reasonable price. Since word of mouth is conducted among associates, friends or relatives, customers have never considered WOM to be promotional and that it plays an essential role in a consumer’s purchasing decision-making strategy. Social networking cuts across and grows above communication clutter as it is given from a medium like a friend or a colleague. Social networking is a leading factor behind so many buying decisions by 20 to 50 percent of consumers. Its impact is most potent when customers first purchase a product or even when brands are comparatively expensive and several other variables which generally make individuals explore further and pursue more thoughts. WOM’s impact is indeed strong once there is a strong association between the people exchanging knowledge. The technology has altered the business model of conventional correspondence. Web 4.0 technological innovations allowed users to communicate the internet socially through content generation and to exchange, sharing opinions and ideas. Electronic reviews and assessments, such as an analysis of a publication, are successful ways to support a product through engagement through digital recommendations from friends. Hennig-Thurau et al. (2004), the advancement of communications technology has expanded the possibilities for customers to collect impartial product details from several other customers, thus enabling customers to deliver their consumer-related advice through e-WOM. E-WOM has a critical role to play in the decision-making process for consumers to buy. People’s opinions have a much more significant impact than traditional advertising. The possible explanation for WOM’s achievement is clear: WOM is considered by customers as dependable, particularly in comparison to marketers' interaction endeavors since information is offered to them through another customer’s impartial statement. Because the addressee of recommendations from friends trusts the recipient, it reduces any discomfort, fragility, and confusion about such a particular operation (Augusto de Matos & Rossi, 2008). Although WOM has often played an essential function in the creation of customer perceptions, thanks to the digital proliferation of casual social media platforms, including the Web, text messaging, blogging, it is now a much more valuable tool over the past few decades. The interactive online system rendered the user more involved. The user decides which domains he/she is going to investigate and determines who he/she is allowed to interact with or even how he/she wants to switch to someone else. The social and emotional element reflects the Web's position as a communication skills intermediary. Customers view the internet as a means of socialization and contact with persons with common areas of interest. EWOM, which is also the expansion of the conventional Word-Of-Mouth, could be characterized as any favorable or unfavorable comment made by prospective, current or former consumers regarding a product or service provided through the network to a large number of individuals and establishments’ (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2004). Customers can share on blog sites, social media, discussion boards, research blogs, their thoughts and comments about a brand (Cheung & Tadani, 2010). The conduct of Word-Of-Mouth fulfills persons’ prerequisite to make a significant portion for other customers. The sensual purpose of supporting persons in creating a much more appropriate buying decision is the justification for the transmission of details by customers to other persons. Customers need to pay attention to other people’s views, suggestions before and during shopping. While doing this for existing relatives, extended family members in traditional WOM, the knowledge they want can be accessed by engaging with customers they don't know. However, with others, they hold similar preferences in virtual WOM. Today, virtually every platform which renders online sales offers a chance for customers to identify online customer reviews and also provides the opportunity.

To write/read various customer reviews to the manufacturer as well as provides an opportunity to receive/give advice and guidance. Most buyers are affected by these reviews and ratings when considering the buying decision and develop a rational or irrational outlook towards the brand. Supportive consumer analysis is a peer-generated brand assessment which promotes the decision-making process for purchases by the customer (Mudambi & Schuff, 2010). As indicated by Lusky (2012), 70% of customers globally entirely trust online feedback, while only 47% believe conventional print and transmitted ads. Consumer confidence in customer reviews has indeed been reported to have risen by 15%.

The Hypothetical Model

Many conceptual and quantitative studies have indicated that there is a direct relationship on the influence of e-WOM across brand development. The four factors are affecting e-WOM, including consumer’s satisfaction, given value, trust and consumers’ perspective, e-WOM as well as brand equity. An illustration of this current study theoretical correlation system, introduced from prior hypothesized designs.

H1: The fulfillment of the consumer, the relative value, the respect as well as the allegiance of the consumer is assumed to have a constructive and direct effect on e-WOM.

H2: The fulfillment of the consumer, the relative value, the trust as well as the allegiance of the customer is assumed to have a beneficial and direct impact on brand awareness.

H3: E-WOM is assumed to have a positive and direct impact on the equity of the product.

H4: Consumer's contentment, actual value, trusts as well as clients allegiance is speculated to influence brand recognition via e-WOM implicitly.

The empirical model approach was used across the research to examine the empirical data gathered through sample survey responses. The metric was predicated on a Likert magnitude of five points that anchors from “1–Disagree” to “5–Agree”. For this study, the sample population was customers who live in Ho Chi Minh City and also have an understanding of online transactions. With further research findings, 380 incidents of data were gathered and analyzed in acceptable quality in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Data Analysis

The research used edition 20.0 of that same Social Sciences Statistical Package (SPSS) technology to process data. First, Experimental Factor Assessment (EFA) and Efficiency Testing were carried out to define the interconnections between collections of study parameters and to assess their dependability and credibility. Multiple Regression, as well as Path Assessment, has been used to investigate the causal connection between parameters and then verify the assumptions of the studies.

Factor Assessment and Dependability

Throughout this research, two experimental factor assessment (EFA) were evaluated Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin As well as Bartlett’s sphericity measure and Varimax Velocity of 25 separate factors products and 16 reliant parameters products. For both factions of predictor variables (KMO= 0.942) as well as contingent variables (KMO= 0.939), the KMO measurement of sample appropriateness was higher than the lower limit on an excellent determinant assessment of 0.59 (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001). Besides, the sphericity test by Bartlett proved essential (Sig=0.000), suggesting the adequate association among variables. The summary results of independent parameters grouped into four parts (CUSA, PEVA, TRUST and CUSLOY) are shown in tabulation 1. All residual product factor loads meet the required specification of 0.39 between 0.513 to 0.836 (Hair et al., 2006).

The Table 1 shows Alpha principles of the Cronbach’s Alpha projected the logical consistency of 0.921, 0.932, 0.850, 0.781 products into each component. As per Pallant (2007), the alpha significance of the Cronbach’s Alpha above 0.59 differentials is deemed acceptable, whereas the more appropriate usefulness must surpass 0.69.

Table 1 Summary of Independent Variables and Reliability Coefficients
Variables No. parameter loadings Cronbach’s Alpha
Consumer Satisfaction (CUSA) 8 0.921
Perceived Value (PEVA) 6 0.932
Trust (TRUST) 5 0.850
Customer loyalty (CUSLOY) 2 0.781

Likewise, the loading measure of remaining units of contingent parameters varying from 0.518 to 0.832, categorized into two elements (e-WOM and BE) as indicated in Table 2. The Alpha attributes of the Cronbach have been 0.939 as well as 0.889.

Table 2 Summary of Dependent Varialbes and Reliability Coefficients
Parameters Number of items loading Cronbach’s Alpha
E-WOM 10 0.939
Product Equity (PE) 6 0.889


In the Table 3 application to investigate the connection between parameters, factors influencing e-WOM as well as Brand recognition, Pearson’s Correlation Assessment and Linear Parametric Assessment were introduced.

Table 3 Descriptive Statistics
  Frequency Percentage
Male 160 42%
Female 220 58%
Age group    
18-25 120 32%
26-30 110 29%
31-40 80 22%
41-60 70 18%
Vocational school 80 21%
College degree 100 26%
Bachelors degree 130 34%
Post University 70 19%
Above 5 Million 130 34%
5-10 Million 110 29%
10-20 Million 80 21%
20-29 Million 60 16%

Table 4 indicates that there have been strong associations between four explanatory variables (CUSA, PEVA, TRUST and CUSLOY), the arbitrate (e-WOM) and also the conditional (BE). The results mean that the greater e-WOM as well as brand recognition level is the higher engagement, actual value, confidence and acquisitions.

Table 4 Correlations Among Varialbes
  E-WOM 1 2 3
CUSA 0.539      
PEVA 0.578 0.683    
TRUST 0.630 0.601 0.702  
CUSLOY 0.534 0.679 0.641 0.543
MEAN 3.39 3.53 3.51 3.38
S.D 0.724 0.721 0.722 0.731

Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

H1: The happiness of the client, the relative value, the confidence as well as the commitment of the consumer is believed to have a significant and specific effect on e-WOM. The outcome showed that the interactions were strongly positive.

H3: E-WOM is presumed to impact brand recognition strongly and explicitly. The mediating variable (e-WOM) as well as the independent parameter (BE) were positively correlated with (r= 0.717, p < 0.001). The determinant factor (average= 0.549, p= 0.000) showed that e-WOM had a positive impact on brand awareness at the confidence interval of 99%.

H2: Consumer satisfaction, relative value, convinces, and brand awareness is assumed to impact brand awareness strongly and effectively. The observations showed significant causal links among four explanatory variables (CUSA, PEVA, TRUST and CUSLOY) and the reliant parameter (BE), with (r= 0.537, p < 0.001).

The indirect impact of an exponential function on the predictor variables through both the arbitrate parameter has been the cumulative combination of the effects on the arbitrate variable of a specific independent parameter, and the impact of the arbitrate variable across the explanatory setting. Consumer satisfaction, relative value, confidence, and customer experience are believed to have an indirect effect on brand awareness via e-WOM. As discussed, customer loyalty has positively influenced e-WOM.


The quantitative findings of this research-backed the conceptual model, which established the theoretical framework for the analysis of excellent quality to clarify and forecast the brand value of consumer retail companies 'digital ordering and purchase service. First, the study revealed that relative importance had been an essential consideration influencing e-WOM, accompanied by confidence and lastly, customer experience. Even though the satisfaction component of the consumer has a positive association with e-WOM, this contingent parameter can't be anticipated. Moreover, while e-WOM consumers spread quickly, they are much more probable to expect high brand recognition since e-WOM is favorably linked to brand recognition.

On the other direction, when consumers have sharply relative value, confidence, and commitment, they may have a favorable brand equity evaluation because these three attributes are strongly related to brand awareness. While the fulfillment aspect of the consumer is a significant association with brand awareness, it may not influence the primary reliant variable. Depending on the magnitude of the results of these aspects, this research may indicate that the e-WOM variable has been the most crucial consideration affecting brand recognition in Vietnam’s electronic purchasing and payment business. The findings of this study, in other words, suggested that e-WOM has been the most critical need.

To guide them to determine brand recognition, accompanied by the trust as well as relative value and lastly, engagement and experience of the consumer. To conclude, the quantitative measurements of this study on the dating relationship between client satisfaction, actual value, confidence, customer retention, e-WOM and brand awareness are meaningful to most preliminary conceptual and scientific evidence. The result supports and acknowledges specific analysis theories. They offer additional morally defensible scientific proof that perhaps the theoretical model of the research on the Vietnam electronic retail sector is deemed statistically appropriate. The work helps to expand the conceptual and objective evidence on the consumer satisfaction effect, price and confidence, loyalty to the consumer, e-WOM and brand worth.

The findings indicate some definite guidelines for retail customer businesses. The research provides functional scientific proof on the serious relationships among consumer satisfaction, relative value, trust and brand awareness, e-WOM and brand recognition through the empirical studies observations. Trust has been an essential consideration affecting internet sales product brand recognition in Vietnam, accompanied by a relative value, e-WOM, consumer satisfaction and satisfaction, according to the results of the research.

As a response, administrators and promoters have more understanding of the needs and interests of their consumers by identifying and acknowledging the essential and essential functions of these causes. The managers can then model marketing campaigns to change their practices and instead boost the brand recognition of the corporation. For illustration, digital retail businesses are recommended to reduce selling expenses in a year for specific particular prolonged periods to deploy advertising initiatives. Raise repeat transactions from current customers by building and maintaining a productive computer system with information gathered from all networks and customer marketing channels or personalize brands, facilities and notifications and replies to each consumer, encourage quicker roll-out and expansion of new items and services including the corporation provides different paths in such a technological project, strengthen promotional fulfillment levels to attract more consumers, create comparison summaries to capture user accounts.


This study analyzes the factors influencing e-WOM on online consumer goods purchase behavior: Evidence from Vietnam. The theoretical methodology and theories for the study were developed based on previous empirical and statistical studies. Most study assumptions were endorsed and acknowledged after analysis, which offered tenable scientific proof that the theoretical structure of the survey of the Vietnam retail market is regarded as statistically justifiable. Consumer satisfaction indicators, relative value, confidence, customer experience have a meaningful and positive impact on e-WOM and brand recognition from the research findings. The contentment of customers, relative value, respect, and commitment of consumers are indeed the critical tools to illustrate and anticipate brand awareness, e-WOM. Major corporations are operating in the retail sector in Vietnam. In particular, they must, therefore, pay close attention to the essential functions of these variables to fully understand and adjust to the needs and anticipations of consumers when making a reservation for their product. The findings of the study can be employed as essential and relevant information for location executives and marketing companies to introduce techniques and schemes to modify and improve their brand awareness throughout the prospective future, to entice more potential clients.


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