Journal of International Business Research (Print ISSN: 1544-0222; Online ISSN: 1544-0230 )

Research Article: 2023 Vol: 22 Issue: 2

Governance of Socio-Political Volition

Francisco Espinoza Morales, University of Sonora

Cruz García Lirios, Autonomous Mexico State University

Citation Information: Morales, F.E., & Lirios, C.G. (2023). Governance of Socio-Political Volition. Journal of International Business Research, 22(2), 1-14.


Vocational training is a theoretical and practical system that determines the capabilities opportunities; skills and knowledge about the local organizational culture. In this sense, the speeches of the characters; teachers, administrators and students are factors to clarify the meaning and the meaning of a network of knowledge and collaboration, however in the context of vocational training, networks and knowledge capital form fields discursive power that inhibit criticism and self-knowledge from which the ties of solidarity with other groups are established. Indeed, the debate on ethnocentrism and alter centrism is relevant to the emergence of new middle management systems knowledge technologies and electronic devices.


Training, Knowledge Management, Networking, Discourse.


A network is a set of central and peripheral nodes around which symmetric or asymmetric interaction relationships are established. In the first case, the central nodes are distanced from the peripheral nodes. The informational gap between the nodes is explained by the discontinuous transfer of knowledge. In the second case, the differences between the central and peripheral nodes are reduced to their minimum expression, facilitating the exchange of information.

In the educational organizational field, professional training is the process around which it is expected to develop the skills that will allow the student's labor insertion. In this sense, collaboration agreements between universities and companies are aimed at adjusting the skills and knowledge of students to the requirements of the local and global market. This supposes symmetrical relations between the participants since trust, cooperation, commitment, satisfaction and facility are indicators of entrepreneurial training.

In contrast, when asymmetric relationships prevail over the members of a network, mistrust, selfishness, dissatisfaction and stress emerge as a limiting paradigm of task and collaborative relationships.

In the present work, both relations are analyzed from the speeches of professors included in a collaboration agreement between a public university and a for-profit organization. The analysis of the meanings around the knowledge network by teachers shows a work environment of asymmetric relationships. Around which the absence of professional entrepreneurship is a factor to consider evaluating the effectiveness of the professional internship program.

Knowledge Network Theory

The theoretical frameworks that explain the behavior of knowledge networks through information and communication technologies have established evaluative principles, beliefs about information and normative principles of the socialization of the Internet and electronic devices as determining factors. The relationship between these variables with respect to technological behavior has been established based on the assumption that attitudes, perceptions and intentions are mediators of the impact of values, beliefs and norms on the use of a technological device.

The Knowledge Network Theory (NRT) posits that universities and companies are nodes of information exchange that become productive relationships through their exchange of knowledge, development of interdisciplinary projects and training flows (Adeniji, 2011).

Innovation, from the NRT, is an effect of the exchange of information between research and technology projects and the strategic planning of knowledge. In this sense, a knowledge network implies the collaborative participation of specialists and technologists around a productive-technological activity. Therefore, the configuration of a network is carried out from the organizational-collaborative structure between universities and industrial sectors (Borjas, 2010).

In terms of organizational networks, two types of knowledge converge: codified and tacit.

The first refers to the productive relationships in which the communication of procedures, recruitment and training are responsible for implementing the mission and vision of the organization among human resources.

The second type of knowledge is articulated from the exchange of procedures not written in a manual, but transferred by the most experienced staff to the new staff. These are beliefs and values around the execution of tasks, the use of technical equipment and production-distribution procedures.

Both knowledges symbolize the construction of an organizational-labor-technical culture around which trust is essential. The NRT considers that in the absence of the trust factor, the configuration of a network could not be carried out since collaborative learning requires a distribution of responsibilities where whoever does not follow the work dynamics or organizational climate is excluded (Cuesta, 2012).

In this sense, knowledge networks require three conditions to survive: horizontal power, redistributed among the members of the network, and the burden of responsibility, aimed at each and every one of the members of the network. The solution to the problems after the configuration of the network is in the network itself. For this reason, decisions are established through a mechanism of induction rather than selection.

An essential factor of the network is the translators who have skills and knowledge about the needs of the operational staff and the requirements of the administrative staff regarding the strategic planning of the goals (Gargallo, 2010).

If different languages are considered between the growth needs of a company and basic research, translators are essential since their transdisciplinary training and their theoreticalapplied experience are a link between businessmen, administrators and staff (Gil, 2010).

Self-efficacy is a perception and/or a belief motivated by personal or impersonal trials of successes and errors carried out deliberately or discursively. Given that self-efficacy refers to failure, but mainly to success, even despite those failed trials that encourage achievement, the perception and belief of self-efficacy is based on the achievement of expected objectives rather than on competitiveness, recognition or learning. If self-efficacy is a system of perceptions and beliefs focused on success, then the group to which the self-efficacy agent belongs or wants to belong is related to success. Because groups are diverse, self-efficacy varies as a function of this diversity. A competitive group attributes success to one of its members when he has surpassed the antecedent achievements that by the way were set by the group. In this sense, the concept of self-efficacy seems reliably adjusted to the influence of a group on the goals, system and achievements of an individual.

If self-efficacy is a system of perceptions that encourage achievement by defining effective capacities, self-efficacy would also be a system of perceptions and beliefs, but unlike self-efficacy, these would be oriented towards the execution of a procedure or technology. The factors driving self-efficacy would be identical in the case of self-efficacy. If competitiveness, recognition and vicarious learning drive self-efficacy, then self-efficiency would also have that drive.

Attitudinal psychological studies have focused on its conceptualization, formation, activation, accessibility, structure, function, prediction, change, inoculation, identity, and ambivalence. Attitudes have been defined from affective and rational dimensions. Both dimensions are the result of experiences and expectations. This implies its structure: onedimensional or multidimensional that is configured in exogenous and endogenous factors. That is, when attitudes activate decisions and behaviors, they cause a peripheral, emotional, spontaneous, heuristic and ambivalent process. In contrast, when attitudes transmit the effects of values and beliefs on intentions and actions, they are endogenous mediators of a central, rational, deliberate, planned and systematic process (Berdecia et al., 2012).

Psychological studies have shown significant differences between attitudes towards people and attitudes towards objects. The former refer to stereotypes or attributes and the latter refer to evaluations or dispositions. In both, ambivalence is an indicator of change when beliefs and evaluations interact, forming negative and positive dispositions towards the object. Conflicts are formed within the components formed by beliefs towards the object. Resistance to persuasion is a consequence of attitudinal ambivalence. If the environment threatens the formation and function of attitudes, these will adapt the individual to contingencies. Thus, attitudes have two essential functions: selfish and utilitarian.

There are three theories that use attitudes as a predictor variable of intentions and behaviors: Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior and Theory of Spontaneous Processing.

The Theory of Reasoned Action holds that attitudes mediate the effect of beliefs on intentions and behaviors. An increase in beliefs increases dispositions toward specific and deliberate decisions and actions. It is a process that goes from the general, in terms of beliefs, to the particular in terms of intentions and actions. However, the predictive power of general beliefs is limited by the specificity and unidimensionality of attitudes. Since attitudes transmit the effect of beliefs, they delimit their indicators in dispositions likely to be carried out.

The Theory of Planned Behavior warns that the effect of beliefs on behavior is mediated by attitudes and perceptions of control. Faced with a contingent situation or event, the perception of control increases its predictive power of intentions and behaviors if and only if it interacts with specific dispositions. To the extent that the perception of control decreases, its relationship with attitudes predicts a minimal effect on decisions. Necessarily, the deliberate and planned process of decision making and implementation of strategies requires a perception of control consisting of dispositions towards the object.

The Spontaneous Processing Theory posits attitudes because of the activation of experiences with the attitudinal object. Attitudes are associations between evaluations of objects. A negative evaluation increases disposition and thus the spontaneity of behavior (Caykoylu et al., 2011).

Attitudinal change refers to emotions and affections consequent to individual acts and for which people feel responsible. It is also about the social influence that teaching groups exert on students. Or, the reception of persuasive messages aimed at central reasoning, or persuasive messages aimed at peripheral emotionality. In general, the attitudinal system is sensitive to the instability of the object and to cognitive variations that affect the individual's consistency, stability, prediction, competence, or morality.

The consistent change of attitudes is related to its multidimensional structure resulting from majority pressure. The diversity of dimensions implies a consistent construction of attitudinal change. That is, attitudes assume a function of internalized responses to constant situations framed by the mass media.

Attitudinal change is related to the dissuasive principle of inoculation. Before the attack of persuasive messages, the perception of threats, risk and uncertainty is induced. In general, overexposure to persuasive messages induces high elaboration and thus persuasion. The massive broadcast of persuasive messages, motivation and consequent management skills can lead to helplessness. In other words, faced with the wave of information, people reduce their perception of control and tend to believe that events are immeasurable, unpredictable and uncontrollable. Alternatively, individuals form an identity consisting of identifying with an administrative group in reference to a teaching group. In the process of helplessness, the individual builds the change of attitude and its reinforcement of hopelessness. In the identity process, it is the group that influences the attitudinal change of the person. Helplessness is a process of self-validation or self-fulfilling prophecy In contrast, identity is a convergent validation of group norms (Chinchilla & Cruz, 2010).

The social influence of the teaching group or administrative group refers to the majority norms and the minority principles oriented to attitudinal change. Majority influence fosters individual conformity and minority principles, conflict, and attitudinal change. Recently, the style of the minority has turned out to be the most permanent factor of social influence and attitudinal change. That is, the construction of majority consensus seems to have an ephemeral effect and the construction of dissent seems to offer constant change.

Studies of attitudes toward behavior have focused on its ambivalence. People try to balance favorable and unfavorable information towards that dispositional object by maintaining ambivalent attitudes. That is, attitudinal objects are part of the environment in which people find themselves and their need to order, predict and control it. Therefore, although the attitudinal object is consistent with their perceptions, values, and beliefs, people must contrast these objects with the behaviors associated with them (Figeiredo et al., 2012).

Education is a system of knowledge networks that make up a teaching-learning cycle. At the beginning of the educational cycle, knowledge networks are just a blueprint. Production strategies are guided by an emerging rather than dominant paradigm. It is about the plausibility of theories because knowledge is hardly supported by ideologies. The second stage of the educational cycle is peer evaluation, which consists of adjusting the projects to the policy of the administrative group. Subsequently, in the third stage, the dissemination of knowledge in institutional academic spaces is observed (Fuentes et al., 2010).

Studies on knowledge networks warn that the formation of groups and project planning are as important as trust and identity around an organization, institution or university.

The formation of groups has its origin in the social psychological processes of categorization, comparison, representation and social identity around which conflict and change are the foundations of knowledge networks.

Conflict precedes change. These are asymmetric relationships between the members of a group in reference to members of another group considered as alien to the common interests of a group. The conflict emerges when the differences between the groups are evident.

In the case of UAEM students and Nissan employees, there is no underlying conflict since the transition from UAEM students to Nissan employees is perceived as normal and there is no disagreement in this regard.

However, the conflict emerges at the moment in which one of the students transgresses the practice regulations, affecting knowledge transfers. Since teacher-researchers are responsible for managing and training students in their insertion into the mission and vision of organizations, they have to ensure compliance with the regulations and punish those who violate the rules of collaboration.

Another type of conflict, that related to innovation defined as the influence of a persevering minority in their actions with the intention of persuading or dissuading an administrative group. It underlies the interior of the organization or the university; it is the conflict in which the students involved perceive a greater use of their capacities and resources. Consequently, they demand greater management and training to achieve objectives focused on administrative-technological innovation.

On the other hand, change is a consequence of conflict. It is a process in which the conversion precedes the persuasion that triggered a conflict and a central or peripheral attitude of need for cognition.

The attitudinal change around the questioning of convictions alludes to a dissuasive process in which the information can be rationalized or emotional. In the first case, the need for cognition can lead to a dissonance in which information does not match expectations. In the second case, the information fosters emotions that increase expectations towards the informational-attitudinal object (Morales et al., 2012).

In this sense, change is also synonymous with conversion in which attitudes towards an object lead to a modification of the behavior of the individual before the group.

In the case of knowledge networks, conflict and change are essential processes to understand the barriers and facilities for knowledge transfer between symmetric and asymmetric groups around the information of an object, process, institution or organization (Rodríguez et al., 2011).

Individuals establish categories, comparisons, identities and representations around themselves in relation to members of a group and in reference to other individuals belonging to other groups.

By establishing parameters of comparison, conflicts within an academic group can translate into conflicts between organizational groups. This is the first step in defining identity or belonging to a group (Shrrof et al., 2011).

Intra and inter group categorization consists of a set of perceptions around the resources, abilities and capabilities within a group in reference to another group. If perception is the biased ordering of objects, groups and their individuals, they bias their appreciations when evaluating their actions and those of others. This is the case of the attribution bias around which individual perceptions attribute their achievements to their abilities and attribute their failures to the abilities of others.

In both cases, UAEM and Nissan construct attributive biases in which knowledge is compared in relation to its application to categories of specialization or strategic planning of knowledge. This process is also inherent to the teaching and administrative groups around the knowledge transfer system (Tayo & Adeyemi, 2012).

After categorization and comparison, identity underlies. These are membership decisions based on biased attributive judgments. If a student perceives greater possibilities for personal growth in a group to which he does not belong, he will decide to change or convert his ideas to those of the favored group. In this sense, the network of knowledge would be the one most favored by individual judgments and attributions. At this point in the group formation process, two types of reference are constructed: a teaching group and an administrative group.

The administrative group builds its identity underlying the capabilities of the teaching group. In other words, the constitution of a knowledge network is not only carried out based on the perceptions of capacity of the members of a group, but also on the perceptions of incapacity of the teaching group (Vargas & Arenas, 2012).

To the extent that an administrative group biases its evaluative judgments, it transfers its conflicts to the teaching group. Perceptual bias transforms into attributive bias and ends up as selective bias. By focusing the bias on the teaching group, the individual from the administrative group builds a network of representations around which the capacities, resources and limits of the administrative group are interpreted in reference to the teaching group.

The representation of the teaching group competences supposes an evaluation of their behaviors by the individual and his teaching group. It is a set of emotions and cognitions around the causes of the actions of the teaching group compared to the actions of the administrative group. That is, individuals only want to observe the acts that contradict the administrative group and try to minimize their effects on people's decisions (Zampetakis & Moustakis, 2013).

To the extent that the individual has contact with the teaching group, they increase their emotions and cognitions around the actions of the teaching group. Precisely, based on these experiences, it is possible to infer attitudinal processes that explain the exclusion of the teaching group because they are attributed different resources and capacities compared to the administrative group (Yuangion, 2011).

In this process of exclusion, underlying the emotional-cognitive-behavioral consistency that explains the differences between the groups. If the administrative group excludes the members of the teaching group, then it will have shown a high consistency that threatens the consistency of the administrative group. Therefore, individuals who belong to an administrative group tend to see significant differences with respect to the teaching group and its members (Vargas Téllez, 2012).

However, the consistency of the administrative group is biased when compared to the teaching group since a biased idea can only be a prejudice rather than an argument (Prada, 2013).

In the field of knowledge networks, the consistency of the administrative group and the teaching group is incompatible. For a knowledge network to work, an administrative group is required that can link its knowledge with a teaching group that is inconsistent in its emotions, cognitions and actions, reasons for which the transfer of knowledge from the administrative group would come to justify the synergy of the groups because it corrects the inconsistency of the teaching group. This process can also be observed if the administrative group is inconsistent and the teaching group is consistent.

However, individuals who perceive emotional-cognitive-behavioral inconsistency around the production of knowledge in their administrative group end up migrating to the teaching group since it will allow them greater personal growth. This migration process is of an emotionalcognitive order since the emotions around the teaching group produce aversion to the administrative group, affinity and adherence to the teaching group (Omar, 2010).

Translators, those who have the knowledge, skills and abilities to manage synergies between the administrative group and the teaching group, tend to look for data that corroborates their knowledge management. However, inaccessibility to the teaching group prevents knowledge management, the formation of synergies and the transfer of knowledge. If individuals have restricted access to a teaching group, they can mimic it with the administrative group and fall into the assumption of natural compatibility of the knowledge of both the teaching group and the administrative group. The consequence of this compatibility will be the inhibition of the knowledge network and its evolution into corruption, simulation or nepotism around the production and transfer of knowledge. That is, an increase in inaccessibility to the teaching group increases the chances of failure of organizational, scientific and technological programs between the administrative group and the teaching group (Medina, 2010).

Translators, as knowledge managers, are mediators of relationships between teachers and students. When the organizational climate between the administrative group and the teaching group turns into ambiguity and adversity rather than transparency and loyalty, those involved in the knowledge networks manipulate the information to pursue their interests, the translators must persuade both groups of the unsustainability of their relationship. It is not enough to diagnose group differences, it is also essential to reduce risks and uncertainty by enhancing the benefits of each link and node of the knowledge network (Manning, 2010).

Now, the affective-behavioral consistency between both groups implies creativity which introduces both groups into an innovative dynamic. It is a flexible organizational climate in which ideas around the production and transfer of knowledge are potentiated. Since knowledge networks are diverse, in each link or node it is necessary to heterogenize the production and transfer of knowledge. To the extent that the organizational climate is soft, it increases trust and identity within both groups (Long, 2013).

Trust and identity are the result of a type of persuasive information known as belief and the organizational environment in which beliefs are spread is known as attitude towards the knowledge network, its members and processes. An increase in information related to the network increases the certainty, production and transfer of knowledge. In contrast, the decrease in information inhibits the group relationship. Therefore, collaborative and innovative relationships have repercussions on productivity, however, stress such as exhaustion, depersonalization or frustration can emerge as a result of the increase in productive demands (Gil, 2010).

State of Knowledge

However, more recent research has shown that the socialization of information in knowledge networks spreads its effect on perceptions of usefulness and risk, as well as on attitudes linked to anxiety and addiction to networks, the main determinants of behavior.

In this way, technological behavior is determined by the processing of information around a knowledge network. This effect, being mediated by collaborative decisions, increases the predictive power of beliefs about task and interpersonal relationships in an organization (Adeniji, 2011).

On the other hand, collaborative intentions suppose attitudes of trust, perceived capacities and informative beliefs that, when interrelated, determine favorable or unfavorable decision-making for a knowledge group (Borjas, 2010).

However, the knowledge construction process would not be feasible without the formation of attitudes of trust in which collaborative groups disseminate information that will be categorized into learning tools or motivation aimed at achieving objectives and goals.

In parallel, the perceived abilities complement the formation of information categories since it is about skill and knowledge around the construction of a professional training network.

However, some studies suggest that professional training and the construction of a network are different processes since they imply selfish values that contradict altruistic values. It is a series of group norms around which individuals are professionally trained or are emotionally oriented when forging an identity (Cuesta, 2012). However, it is the socialization of information that will determine the behavior of an individual in a collaborative group (Gargallo, 2010).

Specification of Relations

However, the model put forward by the state of knowledge, assuming that the socialization of knowledge consists of general information beliefs, assumes general effects in each of the mediating factors of its relationship with behavior. Therefore, the specification of the behavioral dimensions could indicate that there are other intermediate factors with respect to socialization.

These are eight indicators of technological behavior which explain the formation of a collaborative group from information processing.

In the case of trust, technological behavior is indicated by collaborative relationships in which the benefits would not be based on costs, but rather derived from interdependence when carrying out a specific task (Gil, 2010). In other words, the professional training that involves the intensive use of technologies comes from symmetrical relationships that a group establishes to distribute skills and disseminate knowledge. These are committed relationships because if a member does not develop job skills, then they will be excluded from a group that has established a culture of high productive quality. In this sense, collaboration is the result of shared goals, while individualism would be an effect of the goal system that rewards personal effort (Manning, 2010).

In the case of cooperation, unlike simple normative collaboration, technological behavior assumes specialized skills and knowledge for the fulfillment of purposes. That is why groups are forced to establish cooperative relationships since the group itself must exchange information, process strategies or implement techniques that involve continuous support among its members (Medina, 2010).

However, another indicator of technological behavior is empathy among its members, since intensive work and the achievement of objectives or the fulfillment of goals implies affective and emotional relationships to reduce personal conflicts to the absence of communication (Omar, 2010).

Regarding solidarity, unlike collaboration or cooperation, it involves professional training based on the dynamics of collaborative teams within the knowledge network. While collaboration and cooperation are determined by social values, solidarity goes beyond the normative or evaluative principles that unite groups; it is an awareness of scarcity and uncertainty that allows anticipating shortage situations by sharing resources.

Consequently, the propensity for the future is the result of solidarity behaviors that anticipate risk scenarios. Indeed, collaborative groups are motivated by prevention and coping strategies in situations that are unfavorable to groups with whom they share objectives and goals (Prada, 2013).

Finally, the quintessential indicator of technological behavior is entrepreneurship or dissident spirit. Indeed, the use of a technology and even more the formation of collaborative networks would not make sense if only short or medium-term gains were pursued. Professional training consists of anticipating scenarios of scarcity, risk and uncertainty for which knowledge groups form networks that are essentially entrepreneurs, dissidents of the situations that are coming or the catastrophes that are expected (Vargas Téllez, 2012).

What symbols, meanings and meanings are developed in a network of knowledge established by a public university, a set of organizations guided by values, norms, beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, skills, knowledge, intentions and behaviors closely linked to information and communication technologies? What do task-specific organizational styles entail?


The public university, since its foundation, assumed a critical identity towards productivelucrative organizations, companies and industries were perceived as spaces of labor exploitation and ideological alienation. For the most part, the organizations had a perceptual bias that identified them as scenarios to produce surplus value that would come to implement automated processes, replacing operational personnel and promoting massive unemployment.

However, the benefits granted by the State and the organizations, the unions shaped as inalienable achievements; 8-hour working hours, medical coverage, pension security, distribution of profits and training to improve salary.

Between social benefits and union conquests, a collaborative climate emerged in transnational companies and a conflictive climate in local companies. In the cases of the automotive companies, each one of them activated by foreign capital with a minimal participation of national capital, adapted organizational models of their parent companies in their countries of origin. This was the case of Nissan, which was in Mexico at the end of the fifties and whose influence in the maquiladora and sales sectors has been decisive in the growth of the country's productive and services economy, mainly in the city of Cuernavaca, Morelos, the automotive company has its main points of sale.

The relationship between university and business has a long tradition since universities and human resources departments have implemented training programs, training and exchange of scientific and technological information with their university counterparts.

In the case of Nissan, the updating of production processes wields opportunities for collaboration with institutes and universities. Specifically, the areas of automotive engineering and human resources have built collaborative synergies to update knowledge and even innovate technology transfer processes as well as organizational development.

In this sense, Nissan and both public and private universities have developed strategic scientific-technological training programs through scholarships or financing competitions that have resulted in professional internship programs for students and, at the end of these, a contract.

In the city of Cuernavaca, the UAEM has managed to strengthen collaborative ties between the institution and franchises that distribute semi-new cars and auto parts maintenance. Being a city in which the services sector predominates more than the maquiladora sector, the branches of direct sales to the client have requested the UAEM the possibility of training students in their areas of human resources and sales to form collaborative teams of workforce sales in each branch that is projected to expand in an increasingly competitive market.

This is how the relationship between UAEM and Nissan has proliferated since 2005, the year in which the curricula of the faculties were modified to strengthen collaboration with automotive franchises and services in general.

The current study plan contemplates an integral formation for the student. Carry out their professional practices and their theoretical training at the university. These are two phases in which the student can carry out basic research on the organizational climate and its intervention for organizational change.

This study aims to explore the knowledge transfer process without considering its internal organizational aspects, but rather, those in relation to the collaborative processes between UAEM and Nissan.

Regarding professional practices and social service, the professors in charge of coordinating the scientific-organizational collaboration manage the schedules and spaces for training and knowledge transfer. Once the link is established through the exchange of information regarding the number of vacancies and the demand for internships. The professor draws up a list of priorities and proposes courses that encourage the areas of opportunity.

For his part, the student makes a field diary where he highlights the characteristics of the vacancy and asks the teacher to train the skills that, in his opinion, would allow him to perform better.

However, the student also covers four hours of training practice in which he assists the area tutors in administrative tasks; motivation, training and coaching. The university recognizes organizations, administrative staff, research professors, and interns for their participation in extracurricular activities.

Finally, within the inductive process, companies offer interns temporary contracts. This process has allowed the increase of graduates who joined the labor market before graduating.

The main limitation of the knowledge transfer process would be the updating and evolution of the transfer system or professional practice since permanent updating will make it possible to correct the decrease in sales and the increase in hours/sales.

It is also important to consider that the system depends on the degree of teacher specialization, who assumes a fundamental role in the construction of explicit and implicit knowledge to face the challenges of the knowledge transfer system.

The sponsorship of the system is borne by the UAEM. Teachers' payroll and student scholarships are absorbed by its budget.

The technology transfer process would have its greatest success in the UAEM-Nissan synergy since the key administrative staffs are university graduates and interns are incorporated every year.

Now, the analysis of knowledge networks can not only be located in institutions or organizations, but also the training and training sessions that teacher give to practitioners.

Regarding extracurricular training, the UAEM organizes events for the updating and discussion of knowledge around the training of skills, self-efficacy among them.

The UAEM-Nissan knowledge network includes three actors: administrators, teachers and students. Strategic planning, alliance management and professional practice correspond to each group in the network.

Such network organization system is, for teachers, a simulation of knowledge when distrust and rootlessness appear within the administrative group. However, when trust and identity around the administrative group emerge, the production and transfer of knowledge cannot be certified by teachers outside the network, biasing the scientific-technological quality.

The knowledge network between UAEM and Nissan includes hierarchies circumscribed to teachers as translators, researchers, managers, advisors and evaluators of the UAEM-Nissan knowledge network

Teachers assure that strategic planning inhibits conflict and organizational change since it facilitates the simulation of management, production and knowledge transfer by not establishing development parameters for organizational culture, knowledge management, cognitive processes and network complexity. This result in a discretionary supply and demand determined by Nissan rather than by the UAEM translators.

The management, production and transfer of knowledge is supported by organizational theoretical foundations avoiding the complex processes of conflict and organizational change with a view to the innovation of knowledge rather than its simulation and reproduction.

The translators point out the need to reduce the uncertainty of the UAEM-Nissan alliance from its collaborative regulation. For this purpose, they emphasize the preparation of reports so that the administrative area can make decisions aimed at strategic planning around alliances with organizations that meet the minimum requirements for professional practice.

However, the translators are self-critical when pointing out that they do not have sufficient management skills to identify those organizations with whom the production and transfer of knowledge would be managed.

Trust and identity would be the main barriers to the knowledge network since translators, when managing knowledge, do not establish the criteria for the production and transfer of knowledge necessary to encourage a climate of relationships and tasks.

Regarding the transfer of knowledge, the UAEM-Nissan relationship seems to be based on an academic pragmatism: the simulation of knowledge. In other words, the transfer of knowledge is weighted by indicators of efficiency, efficacy and effectiveness that are not always sufficient to demonstrate the evolution of a system of thought or scientific-technological innovation.

Efficiency is considered as the achievement of objectives and goals established by the administrative group in comparison to the participation of the teaching group in a knowledge network. When the transfer system begins, graduates or interns move from social service to professional practice until they are hired. This process is considered as an indicator of terminal efficiency. However, the Knowledge Network Theory explains that since a contract is determined by the formation of impressions and administrative opinions, there is an underlying bias of the administrative group that would consist of hiring the social service provider for the simple fact of having demonstrated their capabilities, skills and knowledge in a group or work area without considering their productivity and its impact on the growth of the organization.

This is the preamble to a monopolistic knowledge simulation system since conflict is reduced by being replaced by a collaborative environment of perceptual rather than conceptual or technological exchange.

In this sense, the evaluation of the knowledge network should not only be limited to selfreporting, but also to the achievement of objectives and their economic, political, social, institutional and organizational impact. That is, the evaluation of the network corresponds to its most basic and specific aspects around those factors that influence the network.

Efficacy is considered as obtaining the objectives without considering the procedures that the means to achieve such ends imply. These are indicators of attendance, punctuality, performance, and extracurricular activities.

The UAEM-Nissan network establishes its effectiveness based on the number of trainees and interns who manage to graduate by preparing the diagnosis of the area of professional practice or social service. Said report is permanently evaluated by professors-researchers and knowledge managers through seminars and consultancies. It is precisely at this point in the transfer of knowledge that the teacher discretionally defines the qualification of continuous use and with it, the evaluation of the effectiveness of a process inherent in the knowledge network. In the absence of an external judge to the network, the weighting of the teacher loses relevance.

It should be noted that the UAEM only has the certifications of its faculties through its study plans, which are under permanent scrutiny by disciplinary associations. However, the academic associations do not evaluate, much less determine, the agreements and alliances between the UAEM and the organizations around which the students aspire to carry out their professional practices and social service.

From the Theory of Knowledge Networks, it is possible to explain the discretion used by teachers on terminal efficacy. Being a characteristic attributed to the administrative group compared to a teaching group, individuals bias their perceptions about a high efficiency of the administrative group with respect to a low efficiency of the teaching group. Teachers bias their evaluation of the thesis or terminal report of the intern or intern. Such bias is determined by the teaching group rather than by the administrative group. If the teaching group is highly competitive, the teachers will establish a series of beliefs within the administrative group about their ability to command. Such capacity consists of an image of authority in front of the administrative group compared to the leader of the teaching group. The image of the teacher in front of the administrative group is more important than their knowledge and skills. The attribution that the teacher makes his students, defines the evaluation of the teacher always in comparison to the leader of the teaching group. If the teacher has a consistent image between his actions and speeches, he will generate an influence on the administrative group who expect a level of knowledge transfer and demand.

Once an image and its corresponding attribution have been constituted, the teacher assumes the role of researcher, manager, trainer and evaluator. When evaluating the thesis, the final product of the knowledge network, the teacher establishes his criteria based on his self-concept. If the teacher supposes having a strict image in his administrative group, then he will seek to weight the method and results of the thesis with a higher percentage than its epistemological-theoretical aspects.

In short, attribution and self-concept inhibit conflict for nonconformity, creativity and innovation around the production and transfer of knowledge.

Finally, regarding the effectiveness defined as the impact of cost reduction and maximization of benefits on the production and transfer of knowledge between the administrative group and the teaching group. The UAEM-Nissan network, based on the discretionary decisions of teachers, introduces a mechanism for the production and transfer of extracurricular knowledge that mainly benefits practitioners and social workers.

It should be noted that teachers and students have had the opportunity to share knowledge in regular courses of the curriculum of each discipline. However, since the priority of the curricular courses is to reproduce knowledge at a theoretical level, the opportunity to investigate and intervene in a real setting is limited. For this reason, professional practices and social service are an opportunity to encourage future research and intervention cadres with an emphasis on for-profit organizations. Research in these areas is limited and the UAEM-Nissan network comes to fill the gaps in terms of data and training planning for future employees of a sales branch. In terms of teaching-learning, students seem to value extracurricular activities since teachers are constantly monitoring and evaluating their performance, which cannot be done in curricular sessions.

This study has analyzed the UAEM-Nissan knowledge network based on its management, production and transfer. Efficiency, efficacy and effectiveness are indicators that reveal the importance of teachers as translators of scientific-technological and tacit knowledge.

However, it is the teachers who in their speeches notice a simulation of knowledge when distrust and rootlessness underlie their roles as researchers, translators, managers, advisors and evaluators.

The processes of the UAEM-Nissan alliance, production, management, transfer, evaluation or simulation of knowledge, are explained by the TRC as they are considered as results of the asymmetric relations between the administrative group made up of teachers and the teaching group made up of administrative staff and students. If the administrative group is compared with the teaching group, it builds an attributive bias of higher capacities and resources in the administrative group and lowers in the teaching group.

Within the administrative group, this research has revealed the teacher's self-concept as the symbol that grants evaluation criteria for strategic planning, knowledge management, job training and professional practice.

However, the speeches of administrators and students must corroborate, adjust or contradict the statements of teachers. In this sense, the CRT would explain the psychosocial processes, categorization, comparison, identity, representation and attitude inherent in group dynamics. Since the teachers discretionally evaluate the UAEM-Nissan network and even deliver reports and research reports, the management, production and transfer of knowledge is biased despite the academic level of the teachers and the certification of the UAEM curricular system as well such as Nissan's organizational growth rates.

According to teachers, an evaluation system is required in which training and professional practice is weighted from trust and identity.

In this sense, the management, production and transfer of knowledge would not depend only on the discretion of teachers, but also on the weighting of the system based on its efficiency, effectiveness and above all: effectiveness.

Precisely, trust, identity, conflict, creativity, innovation and effectiveness seem to be substantial elements of a positive psychosocial process of specialization for the management, production and transfer of knowledge. Since a network is made up of administrative groups and teaching groups, climates of relationships and tasks are required in which conflict encourages creativity and innovation.

On the contrary, if mistrust and rootlessness underlie, the simulation is based on conformity and complicity between administrative groups and teaching groups at the time of producing and transferring knowledge to future generations.


Professional training in a knowledge network supposes the construction of an identity centered on the intensive and specialized use of information technologies based on an organizational culture of entrepreneurship. This explains the meanings that the agreements between the university and the organizations imply for teachers and administrators, but opens the discussion about the discretionarily of these agreements since they seem to be focused on obtaining short-term goals. In this sense, the social and professional service program implemented has been effective since it inserts the student in the organization, adjusts their skills and knowledge to the labor policy and directs their values to the requirements of the position.

However, administrators and teachers seem to disagree regarding the training of students since the former anticipate an entrepreneurial profile while the latter expect the intern or social server to win a position and open the possibility of directing another student by displacing academic training.

It is necessary to delve into the meanings that both groups in conflict have regarding professional training, entrepreneurial spirit, quality of life and social responsibility inherent in local business organizations. This will make it possible to anticipate contingency scenarios in which the university could establish strategic alliances to remedy the shortage of training and employment opportunities that is coming.


Adeniji, A.A. (2011). Organizational climate as a predictor of employee job satisfaction: Evidence from Covenant University. Business intelligence journal, 4(1), 151-166.

Berdecia, Z., González, J., & Carrasquillo, C. (2012). Leadership Styles for Organizational Success: Multiple Case Studies in Companies. Journal of Advanced Leadership Studies, 1, 21-32.

Google Scholar

Borjas, L. (2010). Entrepreneurship from social representations: Venezuela case. Social Sciences, 5, 149-165.

Caykoylu, S., Egri, C.P., Havlovic, S., & Bradley, C. (2011). Key organizational commitment antecedents for nurses, paramedical professionals and non?clinical staff. Journal of Health Organization and Management.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Chinchilla, N., & Cruz, H. (2010). Diversity and business paradigms: a new approach. Business and Humanism Magazine, 14(1), 47-79.

Cuesta, A. (2012). Integrated model of human and knowledge management: an application technology. Venezuelan Management Magazine, 57, 86-98.

Figeiredo, H., Grau, E., Gil, P., and Garcia, J. (2012). Burnout syndrome and job satisfaction in nursing professionals. Psocthema, 24, 271-276.

Fuentes, A., Herrero, J., & Gracia, E. (2010). Internet and social support: online sociability and psychosocial adjustment in the information society. psychological action. 7, 9-15.

Gargallo, A. (2010). Perceptions of cooperative members and non-members about job satisfaction. Revesco, 103, 33-58.

Gil, C. (2010). Corporate communicators: challenges of professional training by competencies in the global era. Notebooks, 33, 49-59.

Long, H.C. (2013). The relationship among learning orientation, market orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, and firm performance of Vietnam marketing communications firms. Philippine Management Review, 20.

Google Scholar

Manning, R.L. (2010). Development of the Psychological Climate Scale for Small Business. Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends, 8(1).

Google Scholar

Medina, C. (2010). Organization Studies between Unity and Fragmentation.

Google Scholar

Morales, A., Ariza, A., & Muñiz, N. (2012). The social entrepreneur and e-empowerment of social networks. Journal of Public, Social and Cooperative Economy, 75, 152-177.

Omar, A. (2010). Transformative leadership and job satisfaction: the role of trust in the supervisor. Liberabit. 17, 129-137.

Prada, R. (2013). Adaptation to change and service: keys to leadership in improving productivity in organizations. Journal of Advanced Leadership Studies, 1, 45-50.

Rodríguez, A., Retamal, R., Lizana, J., & Cornejo, F. (2011). Climate and job satisfaction as predictors of performance: in a Chilean state organization. Health and Society, 2, 219-234.

Shroff, R.H., Deneen, C.C., & Ng, E.M. (2011). Analysis of the technology acceptance model in examining students' behavioural intention to use an e-portfolio system. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(4).

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Tayo, E., & Adeyemi, A. (2012). Job involvement & organizational commitment as determinants of job performance among educational resource centre personal. European Journal of Globalization and Development Research, 5(1), 302-311.

Vargas Téllez, J.A. (2012). Work organization and job satisfaction: a case study in the footwear industry. Nova Scientia, 4(7), 172-204.

Indexed at, Google Scholar

Vargas, M., & Arenas, M. (2012). Entrepreneurial skills in psychopedagogy students from the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. Journal of Studies Advanced of Leadership, 1, 25-30.

Yuangion, Y. (2011). The impact of strong ties on entrepreneurial intention. An empirical study based on the mediating role of self-efficacy. Journal Entrepreneurship, 3, 147-158.

Zampetakis, L.A., & Moustakis, V. (2007). Entrepreneurial behaviour in the Greek public sector. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 13(1), 19-38.

Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Received: 28-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. JIBR-23-13283; Editor assigned: 02-Mar-2023, Pre QC No. JIBR-23-13283(PQ); Reviewed: 16- Mar-2023, QC No. JIBR-23-13283; Published: 23-Mar-2023

Get the App