Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences (Print ISSN: 1524-7252; Online ISSN: 1532-5806)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 1S

How Crisis Incident and Post-Crisis Management Affect Employees' Performance at Oil and Gas Industry in Yemen

Saad Darwish, Kingdom University

Ghadah Mansoor Al-Ariki, Lebanese International University Mohammed

Saleh Al-Abed, Impact Research Centre

Keywords

Employees' Performance, Post-Crisis Management, Crisis Incident Management, Crisis Management, Oil and Gas companies, Yemen

Abstract

This research will explore incident crisis management and post-crisis management on employees' performance in the Yemeni gas and oil industry. The research used a descriptiveanalytical approach, with data gathered from six oil and gas companies where the researchers conducted a survey using questionnaires items. The response rate was 74.23per cent, and statistics showed that out of 351 participants, 268 responded. Additionally, examined reliability using the Cronbach's Alpha test resulted in an outstanding reliability outcome of.906. The findings indicate a significant relationship between crisis incident management, post-crisis management and employees' performance. However, there is no significant effect among crisis incident management and employees' performance; instead, there is a significant effect among post-crisis management and employees' performance. Although this research faced some limitations, the researcher managed to cover Yemen's oil and gas companies. Therefore, companies covered by this research should make appropriate adjustments on how they react to potential crises. Furthermore, they should invest in the latest innovative technologies accessible to identify early warning signs to avoid catastrophic mishaps.

Introduction

According to (Bos-Nehles & Veenendaal, 2017), employees' performance does not entail the outcomes of an employees' behaviour but rather behaviour per se. The performance includes what employees get involved in doing instead of the results of their performance or work. Employees' performance refers to job-related activities expected from an employee in an organisation to complete with quality (Susskind et al., 2018). Furthermore, employees' performance associated with the need to accomplish organisational goals, employees are more productive when they have secure tenure terms, and their social and psychological needs are within reach (Krause et al., 2015). Employees' performance is driven by underpinning objectives that inform how individuals accomplish certain milestones or targets for a particular department or company within a stipulated timeframe and the level at which the employees are engaged (Nawaz et al., 2014).

In this research, the authors demonstrated that training and empowerment initiatives made employees feel appreciated and helped organisations exhibit dynamic behaviour. Dynamic behaviour motivates workers and encourages creativity and performance (Nawaz et al., 2014). It is also important to mention that employees who do not undergo training are likely to less perform within an organisation. Therefore, organisations can curb these shortcomings by implementing effective practices like well-designed training programs and empowering techniques that positively affect performance.

Different authors discuss employees' performance in the gas and oil industry. For instance, previous research by Uzochukwu, Obiageli, Jonathan & Olohi (2018) investigated the effects of job establishment on workers' performance in Nigeria's oil and gas firms. The research found that with militia activities in the Niger Delta, job embeddedness can motivate employees in oil and gas companies. In this research, the authors also demonstrated that financial incentives are not adequate to retain employees, especially in oil and gas companies located in war regions (Uzochukwu et al., 2018). On the other hand, employees' performance is measured in different ways. Akinbowale, et al., (2014) focused on evaluating completed tasks, time taken and achievements compared to the targeted goals.

Palvalin & Vuolle (2016) studied strategies used by different firms to measure and identify different implications of a dynamic workplace. Findings indicated that management could employ three approaches, including questionnaires, interviews, and multidimensional performance measurement. Lastly, firms can utilise ranking methods to gauge the performance of their personnel (Rajeev, 2012). Based on Pradhan & Jena's (2017) research, the research addresses the three dimensions to evaluate employees' performance, including contextual performance, adaptive performance, and task performance.

However, because of Yemen's disaster situation, which has caused some corporations to leave the region, this research focused on crisis management, particularly incident crisis management and post-crisis management. Bundy, et al., (2016) confirmed that the process of crisis management involved using different techniques to solve unexpected occurrences that affect the normal functioning of any organisation.

The managing crisis is a crucial denominator that works best with an effective response and enables the mitigation of adverse outcomes (Sutcliffe, 2018). Furthermore, according to Comyns (2016), a company that does not have a crisis management strategy in place and cannot tweet within ten minutes of an arising crisis, it is not prepared to succeed successfully in the technical environment. Employees who have been prepared to deal with emergencies would be well equipped to make swift and correct choices, supported by effective communication (Boin et al., 2016).

Lachlan, et al., (2016) discussed that crisis incident management is an event that leads to the loss of business operations, services, and functions. This type of incident can lead to a crisis. Moreover, (Christensen et al., 2016) analysed that post-crisis focused on recovering and managing the crisis.

According to Sanchis (2018), crisis management is composed of four dimensions. The locality is the first dimension that describes how much of an internal matter it is. The fault is the second dimension and the organisation's accountability for the crisis. The third dimension is preventability which is the degree to which the organisation can avoid the crisis. The last dimension is intentionality, which pinpoints how a member of the organisation intentionally created the crisis.

In addition, some studies connected crisis management with other variables. Chaurasia, et al., (2016) examined how strategic financial crisis management can affect employees' performance in the gas and oil companies. Moreover, the authors claimed that reduction in oil costs has permanently harmed firms that produce and import oil and different jurisdictions. In such an environment, positive operations can only emanate from empowered employees (Chaurasia et al., 2016).

The focus of this research is on the gas and oil industry. However, research on employee's performance and crisis management in Yemeni gas and oil companies are hard to come across. Yemen primarily relied on the already diminishing oil and gas revenues for income before the 2014 wars, accounting for about 25% of its GDP and 65% government income (Yemen Market Profile, 2019).

According to Yemen Economic Monitoring Brief (2018), the restoration of the oil and gas industry is complex, to say the least, due to both political and security uncertainty. The escalation of the conflict resulted in substantial fiscal revenue losses and the exodus of international operators. It also caused widespread infrastructure damage. Both of these factors would have an impact on how quickly the oil and gas industry recovers. Hence, this research aims to investigate the effect of crisis incident management and post-crisis management on employees' performance in the gas and oil industry in Yemen.

Figure 1: Yemen Crude Oil Reserves. Adopted From Yemen – Crude Oil Including Lease Condensate Reserves by Knoema: World Data Atlas, 2018.

Figure 2:Yemen Crude Natural Gas Production from 2010 till 2018. Adopted from Yemen Restoring Crude, lng Production 2019

Literature Review

Employees’ Performance

Employees' performance involves how well an employee performs duties assigned to them. There is no specific method to determine an employee's performance (Zameer et al., 2014). However, analysing employees' performance in specific areas can help grade them (Khan, et al., 2018,). Companies must recruit new talents to keep the operational mechanism running smoothly. Despite facing many challenges, including constant changes in business strategies, lack of skilled workforce, approaching retirement by the current workforce, and attraction of talents to other destinations, employees' performance is practised to ensure companies efficiently achieve ultimate goals (Rachmaliya & Efendy, 2017).

According to Uzochukwu, et al., (2018), employees' performance results from employees' contributions towards attaining organisational goals. As such, masterful performance comes with organisations that can plan and work way ahead of time. Before scheduling tasks, the organisation must set expectations for undertaking the work. In the perspective of (Uzochukwu et al., 2018), employees' performance is pertinent because it enables firms to align personnel, resources and structures in meeting strategic goals. Employees' performance is critical because organisations with high productivity are usually highly competitive.

Additionally, (Pradhan & Jena, 2017) asserted that employees work towards accomplishing particular tasks evaluated against predictable or predetermined benchmarks of completeness, accuracy, speed and price. Kappagoda (2018) affirmed that work-related performance is the capability of personnel in achieving their objectives. The author further posited that employees' performance entails a blend of talents, resources, and experiences utilised proficiently towards realising objectives. According to the author, personal performance is an essential issue in the current work setting, but somewhat different organisations implement some of the best models to evaluate and manage it.

Based on Bos-Nehles & Veenendaal (2017), the performance includes what employees get involved in instead of their performance or work. In this regard, performance epitomises the broad-spectrum belief of the employee concerning deeds and contributions geared towards the success of firms. Employees are, therefore, primary agents that facilitate innovative work behaviour, especially when the work setting is appropriate. While great ideas enhance innovative approaches, employees are integral in the process since they conceptualise and process these novel ideas.

Research indicated that employees' performance is essential as there is a need to accomplish organisational psychological needs. It implies that when employees lack the stimulus, the morale to perform best on expectations dwindles along the way, affecting productivity negatively. Personnel become productive when they feel secure. Thus, employees' performance becomes more genuine and capable of achieving objectives (Krause et al., 2015). Other research contended that employee resourcing enables companies to initiate learning and development programs that lead to high performance. Essentially, the authors found that resourcing strategies are correlated significantly with employees' performance (Onyeizugbe et al., 2016).

According to Pradhan & Jena (2017), employees' performance can be demonstrated through improved productivity, the efficacy of using new technology and a highly motivated workforce. Since employees' performance remains essential when it comes to productivity, the firm's success is also dependent on how well trained and motivated employees can get. At that point, performance is about the availability of raw materials and tools and the right incentives to motivate employees. Besides, the readiness of human capital and facilities determines companies' performance in executing their tasks. Companies must recruit and attract the best talent to maintain operations going smoothly in this respect. Embracing such a technique will aid in the promotion of employee innovation. The research further indicated that human resource development eventually culminates into employee satisfaction, commitment, and overall organisational success (Rachmaliya & Efendy, 2017).

Crisis Management

Above and beyond, Pathranarakul & Sae-Lim (2018) suggested that companies currently face a crisis from external and internal environments such as war. Therefore, organisations should have a management plan to help in the personal incident report among crisis management personnel during the crisis. These findings by (Tang et al., 2017; Flin et al., 2017; Kasamatsu et al., 2017) showed that effective management of complex events requires incident skills to ensure the safety of the personnel and operations. In oil and gas companies, incident skills help deal with critical operations (Tang et al., 2017).

Similarly, Patel & Sohani (2016) said that industrial accidents must be analysed using safety policies and procedures. Additionally, organisations can attain crisis management through incident events. These crisis recognition practises primarily focused on evaluating the goals, and early detection of the issue is the first step in the dimension (Bundy et al., 2016). According to Crandall, et al., (2013), the executive team must develop a warning mechanism that assists in recognising the potential for incidents or crises to be successful. Typically, the method begins with the early detection of signals and indications to prevent problems with their handling if discovered later. Early detection of symptoms and alerts of an incident is essential for effective management (Jaques, 2007).

Following the implementation of crisis recognition strategies, the next move is to activate and react to the framework inside the company's activities (Jaques, 2007). Process activations, backup configuration, and callout methods are only a few of the tasks that need to be completed at this stage. The next move involves integrating processes that will adapt quickly and handle the event (Wilkinson & Kupers, 2013). In some instances, an organisation's willingness to respond quickly during an incident aids in reducing the damage.

For the effective management of a crisis, appropriate techniques for characterisation and categorisation of emergency indications and alerts are needed (Crandall et al., 2013). Salvador & Ikeda (2018) have noted that the move should include elements of media response and the overall installation of the brand name.

Sommer, Howell & Hadley (2016) suggested that effective team building can help build resilience and stimulate how crisis management personnel can respond. On the other hand, Crandall, et al., (2013) posited that it is the prerogative of the leadership to activate or stimulate how crisis management personnel respond. Baxter, et al., (2013) asserted that having the right technology can help detect the crisis and mobilise a swift response long before creating severe damage.

Post-Crisis Management

Post-crisis management is purely centred on doing everything within the power of an organisation to ensure the business runs effectively or returns to normalcy. At this point, past experiences become hard lessons that the organisation should familiarise itself with and restructure how future disasters can be tackled and, if not avoided. The feature begins with an emphasis on rehabilitation and company continuance activities. On the other hand, the postcrisis topic effects are mainly concerned with limiting the crisis's consequences. Finally, these are the post-crisis management activities of assessment and adjustment (Nobert et al., 2016).

Similarly, the work of Fearn-Banks (2016) stated that the remedial phase begins with retaliation and modifying procedures in order to cope with potential events. The resumption of regular activities, maintaining the demand, resetting the traction, and the financial costs, among other things, are all issues of focus at this stage (Johansen et al., 2012). In general, the move involves implementing main tasks that assist the company in resuming regular operations after an incident. The damages and injuries suffered after the incident must be addressed. According to Austin, et al., (2012), the problem that affects management practices in post-crisis operations are critical in boosting the crisis' image and preventing long-term consequences. In addition, Lee, et al., (2013) affirmed that evaluating the impact of a crisis helps the company get back on its feet once again. However, business resumption should be based on decisive leadership and resilience, and map the seriousness of the impact to minimise casualties (Sydnor et al., 2017). Finally, these are the post-crisis management activities of assessment and adjustment. According to Fearn-Banks (2016), evaluation and adjustment procedures include a forum for learning the suitable approaches to avoid potential occurrences. Furthermore, Lee, et al., (2013) concluded that this final phase of crisis management serves as a roadmap for oil and gas company executives in developing strategies and practices that offer the basis for resolving crises. Tanaka, Ito, & Wakasugi (2017) affirmed that although the strategy used to mitigate crises by organisations remains paramount, lessons learnt can help companies be well prepared to counter future crises.

Research Model & Hypotheses

H1: Crisis incident management has a significant effect on employee’s performance

H2: Post-crisis management has a significant effect on employee’s performance

Figure 3:Conceptual Framework

Research Methodology

A quantitative analysis approach is used to achieve the researcher’s goal and the data was collected from the employees of Yemeni oil and gas industry through survey questionnaires. The measurement of crisis incident management and post-crisis management were adapted from (Cronin, 2015; Özdemir, 2010; Renschler et al., 2015; Bilić, Pivčević & Čevra, 2017). For crisis incident management and post-crisis management, seven and eight questions were used respectively. Employees’ performance as a dependent variable was measured by adapting three dimensions; namely; adaptive performance, task performance, and contextual performance from Pradhan & Jena (2017). The employees’ performance was assessed using eighteen questions. According to figures released by the Republic of Yemen's Ministry of Oil and Minerals, General Department of Yemenization (2014), there are six oil and gas industries (OMV, Jannah Hunt, Safer, YLNG, Petro-Masila & Calvalley) with a total of 4339 employees, which was the targeted population. The sample size for this research is 351, according to the sampling table provided by Krejcie & Morgan (1970). The participants were identified using a random sampling method from the targeted Yemeni oil and gas industry. The reliability of the instrument was examined and Cronbach's Alpha was 0.906, which indicates outstanding consistency.

Findings

The overall number of valid responses obtained was 268 out of 351 participants. As a result, the response rate was 74.23 per cent—a description of the participant's frequency analysis characteristics. Petro-Masila had the maximum participation rate of 38 per cent, while Calvally had the lowest participation rate of just 2 per cent. The majority of respondents (85 per cent) were men, with 229 and just 39 (15 per cent) females. Employees between 30-40 scored the highest frequency with 156 participations (58.2 per cent). The range of 41-50 has 82 participations (30.6 per cent). The range 51+ has 24 participations (9.0 per cent). The range of under 30 has 6 participations (2.2 per cent). The bachelor's degree has the most considerable frequency rate, with 172 (64.1 per cent) people participating. The frequency rate for the Master's degree is 68 per cent ((25.4 per cent). The Diploma has a participation rate of 24 (9 per cent).

The PhD is the least frequent group, with just 4 (1.5 per cent) participants. In regards to the staff position, 107 (40 per cent) were from non-managerial employees. While the first line manager has 83 (31 per cent) participation, and the participation rate for the middle manager is 64 (24 per cent). The top management has a frequency rate of 14 (5 per cent). In terms of staff experience in oil and gas companies, the findings indicate that more than ten years of experience received the maximum ranking, with 173 (65 per cent) participating. The category of 6-10 years of experience has 81 (30 per cent) participants. A total of 13 (5 per cent) of those with 2-5 years of experience participated. There is just one participant in the age group of fewer than two years.

The research variables were subjected to descriptive statistics—the descriptive figures of the seven items of crisis incident management as shown in Table 1. From the highest to the lowest mean, the elements are clarified. Respondents agreed with Item 1 ("The crisis has changed our decision-making process"), with a mean of 3.4 and a standard deviation of.975. With a mean of 2.8 and a standard deviation of 1.03989, the participants agreed least with Item 7 ("It has been simpler for the group to achieve its targets despite the crisis"). It is evident from the descriptive statistics that the data is clustered around the mean with negative skewnes

Table 1
Descriptive Statistics of Crisis Incident Management (N=268)
Crisis incident Management Mean Std. Deviation
1 Our decision process has been improved by the crisis 3.4 0.97549
2 During the crisis, coordination has become sufficient 3.2 0.96204
3 My company have been better prepared during crisis 3.2 1.03270
4 My Company were well organized during the crisis 3.2 1.03358
5 Level of the relations between departments has been improved during crisis 3.2 1.07187
6 During the crisis company has produced its potential 2.9 1.04574
7 It has become easy for the company to reach its goals during the crisis 2.8 1.03989

Table 2 is basically showing the descriptive statistics results of post crisis management. The results show that the mostly participants agreed with Item 1 ("Crisis let us learn how to reduce costs in company") with a standard deviation of 87518 and a mean of 3.9. The participants least strongly agreed with Item 8 ("Crisis created new job opportunities for the company"), with a mean of 2.3, and a standard deviation of 1.11372. The trend that emerges from the descriptive statistics shows that since the mean is greater than the standard deviation, data points are clustered around the mean with negative skewness.

Table 2
Descriptive Statistics of Post-Crisis Management (N=268)
Items Mean Std. Deviation
Crisis let us learn how to reduce costs in company 3.9 0.87518
Crisis let us determine the strength of our company. 3.8 0.82542
My company will recover quickly after a crisis situation 3.7 0.94953
We become well prepared for future crisis 3.4 0.95393
Since we are big enough, the probability of survival after a crisis is high 3.4 0.92713
Crisis created chance opportunities for us 2.7 1.11417
Crisis have positive impacts on my company 2.6 1.16330
Crisis created new job opportunities for the company 2.3 1.11372

The descriptive figures of the employees' results are shown in Table 3. With a standard deviation of.60 and, a mean of 4.45, the participants strongly agreed with Item 1 ("I used to give support to my colleagues when requested or required.") The item 18 with the lowest ranking ("I used to lose my patience while confronted with feedback from my team members") had a standard deviation of.94 and a mean of 2.51, according to the statistics.

Table 3
Descriptive Statistics on The Employees’ Performance
Items Mean Std.Deviation
I used to extend help to my co-workers when asked or needed. 4.45 0.60
I used to maintain high standard of work. 4.35 0.79
I always believe that mutual understanding can lead a viablesolution in organization. 4.35 0.74
I communicate effectively with my colleagues for problem solving and decision making. 4.33 0.65
I used to complete my assignments on time. 4.32 0.74
I used to praise my co-workers for their good worker. 4.32 0.66
I know I can handle multiple assignments for achieving organizational goals. 4.27 0.69
I used to make sure that my colleagues were all on the same page. 4.25 0.62
I used to maintain good coordination among fellow workers. 4.21 0.66
I extend my sympathy and empathy to my co-workers when they are in trouble. 4.17 0.70
I am very passionate about my work. 4.16 0.86
My colleagues believe I am a high performance in my organization. 4.10 0.65
I could manage change in my job very well whenever the situation demands. 4.08 0.69
I can handle effectively my work team in the face of change. 4.01 0.71
I love to handle extra responsibilities. 3.96 0.87
I am very comfortable with job flexibility 3.90 0.75
I use to cope well with organizational changes from time to time. 3.87 0.72
I used to lose my temper when faced with criticism from my team members. 2.51 0.94
4.09 0.72

Furthermore, relationship between post-crisis, crisis incident management, and dependent variable employees’ performance were examined by Pearson Correlation as describe in Table 4. The results reveal that there is a significant positive correlation between crisis incident management and employees’ performance (r=+0.215, p=0.000). Moreover, the results reveal that there is a significant positive correlation between post-crisis management and employees’ performance (r=+0.243, p=0.000).

Table 4
Correlation Analysis(N=268)
Items Employees’ Performance Crisis Incident management Post-crisis management
Employees' Performance Pearson Correlation 1 0.215** 0.243**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.000
N 268 268 268
Crisis incident management Pearson Correlation 0.215** 1 0.593**
Sig. (2-t ailed) 0.000 0.000
N 268 268 268
Crisis post Management Pearson Correlation 0.243** 0.593** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 0.000
N 268 268 268

The effect of crisis incident management and post-crisis management on employees' performance was examined using multiple regression analysis, as seen in Table 5, to examine the hypotheses H1 and H2. The findings show that R Square=0.067, indicating that crisis incident management and post-crisis management account for 6.7 per cent of the difference in employees’ performance.

Table 5
R Square Of The Proposed Model
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error
1 0.258a 0.067 0.060 0.3576

Predictors: (Constant), Post crisis management and Crisis incident management Dependent Variable: Employee Performance

The results from the ANOVA test are shown by Table 6. It shows that (F test =9.465; at Sig.=0.000) which indicates the very strong significant relationship between the employees’ performance as independent and dependent variable.

Table 6
ANOVA Test
Model (1) Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Regression 2.421 2 1.210 9.465 0.000b
Residual 33.891 265 0.128
Total 36.311 267

a. Dependent Variable: Employee Performance

b. Predictors: (Constant), Post crisis management and Crisis incident management

Table 7 coefficients result shows that post-crisis management has a significant effect on the performance of employees and its significant level is (Significant level= 0.017) less than 0.05 while crisis incident management has an insignificant effect on the performance of employees since its significant level is (sig=0.138) greater than 0.05. Thus, Hypotheses H2 is accepted and H1 is rejected.

Table 7
Coefficients of The Dimensions
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 3.604 0.116 31.145 0.000
Crisisincident management 0.050 0.033 0.110 1.487 0.138
2 Post-crisis management 0.102 0.042 0.178 2.410 0.017

Discussion and Conclusion

Outcomes revealed that crisis incident management has no effect on the employees’ performance in which Hypothesis H1. Bundy, et al., (2016) found that crisis event management starts by evaluating the crisis manifestation before it happens. Moreover, Crandall, et al., (2013) determined that the leadership ought to implement an alert system to help identify the likelihood of a crisis. It is paramount for oil and gas companies to implement systems for early warning, which respond proficiently. As indicated by Baxter, et al., (2013), the regression model that evaluates crisis incident management and employees’ performance contradicts the findings.

The regression model's results indicated that post-crisis management substantially affects employees’ performance proving hypothesis H2. These findings support previous research that post-crisis response is the last line of defence in containing a crisis. According to Blanchard, et al., (2012), post-crisis threats may have a greater effect on the sector than the real crisis. As a result, the processes for restoring the sense of stability in the organisation after the crisis are critical in order to avoid more detrimental consequences. In Crisis management, it is arguable, that it may negatively influence workers especially if an organisation devises an unsuccessful approach to resolve the problem. As a result, crisis management should still be active in order to deliver management with the ability to formulate effective tactics that can motivate workers to push on in the face of unforeseen critical circumstances (Pop, 2017).

It may be inferred that the current situation is characterised by rapid transitions that result in a variety of emergency situations affecting hierarchical and employee execution. For oil and gas companies to attain rapid growth, they must react strategically and make the right choices. When it comes to delivering required assistance to workers, oil and gas companies will need to use technologies that help them work better. Organizations can also exploit the model of the crisis incident management by evaluating the early signs of the crisis before it becomes evident. This would help put in place the best approach to mitigate the eventuality. Ultimately, post crisis management can enable the organizations to evaluate the damage, review the strategies and be prepared to handle future crises appropriately.

Recommendations

This research aimed to investigate how incident crisis management and post-crisis management affect employees’ performance in the Yemeni gas and oil sector. The results of this research confirm that crisis incident management do not have an effect on employees’ performance while the impact of post-crisis management on employees’ performance has a significant effect. Recommendations were then provided as described. Organizations should invest in the latest innovative technologies accessible to identify early warning signs. It is also wise for the involving staff to closely analyse the situation before seeking to mitigate the issue to prevent more damage. Organizations can provide several alternatives to crisis management if one solution might not seem to be useful depending on the strategy. To act quickly, workers should be briefed about the substance of the crisis response strategy. It means efficient communication modalities will be crucial in handling the crisis, mainly because teams associated with communicating the organization's crisis were in place. They can assist you in making rational choices and answering effectively. Before and through a disaster, the organisation should set a positive action plan that operates across all management layers. Based on past and existing evidence, organizations should make appropriate adjustments on how they react to potential crises. Any crisis can be seen as a learning opportunity that improves the organization's ability to adapt to similar situations in the future. Moreover, employees can sit back and attempt and understand any of the events or conditions that precipitated the crisis, as well as how to react if the situation recurs. Personnel will be expected to consider the capacity to mitigate any crisis and formulate an appropriate plan of action for the organisation to react successfully to potential crises. Finally, organizations should combine roles such as protection, IT, impact review committees, and external consultants to be prepared for possible events.

Future Research

Future research should be directed towards understanding the effectiveness of corporate change in terms of mitigating eminent crises using a repository of current information and previous strategies. Moreover, future studies should investigate how companies can utilize Big Data to mitigate crisis before they become destructive physically. Concerning the issue of preparedness, future research should investigate how effective information channels and agile technology can help oil and gas companies neutralise a looming catastrophe before it becomes uncontrollable. In addition, future research should also investigate the way early warning technology can be bolstered to ensure accuracy of detection and the right response based on how the crisis is interpreted. Ultimately, future research should concentrate more on finding diagnostic capabilities that not only display accurate precision, but also incorporate intuitive capabilities to help the risk management personnel rein in on the exact spot and neutralise the anomaly.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to acknowledge the support rendered by the Research Unit of Kingdom University and University Management for their constant assistance with the research. This work was written by Saad Darwish, Email: [email protected], Kingdom University, Bahrain; Ghadah Mansoor Al-Ariki, Email: [email protected], Lebanese International University, Yemen; Mohammed Saleh, Email: [email protected], Al-Abed Impact Research Centre, Yemen.

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