Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2019 Vol: 25 Issue: 1S

Implementation of the Principles of Innovative Entrepreneurship in the Field

Burov Aleksey Gennadyevich, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

Diego Agüero, Universidad de Buenos Aires


Aim of the study: Extended theoretical propositions about the innovative activities from the standpoint of clarification of its essence and content. It is proved, in contrast to the well-known points of view, that innovations are phenomena, processes that have no analogues in the reproductive chain, following the results of which the economic system develops new value, which allowed to identify a set of practically significant basic characteristics of innovations: type; degree of novelty; scope; purpose; effectiveness; scale; nature of connection with the previous samples of values; nature of implementation; the degree of progressivity. Methodology: The features of macroeconomic, institutional and organizational-economic conditions of development of innovative activity in Russia in the context of opportunities of development of the small innovative enterprises created at higher education institutions are revealed Conclusion: In contrast to the known points of view, the organizational and economic conditions necessary for the transformation of the internal environment of the University in the field of innovation development are presented in the form of two blocks: target and process, which allowed to justify the composition of the basic goals and processes that provide the full range of innovation reproduction - from the development.


Socio-Economic, Alternative, Innovative Entrepreneurship, Structure Development.


At the core of innovation, the key word is "Value", highlighting the difference between innovation and other categories. This definition allows you to include innovation in the value chain of products and services. For any socio-economic system, innovation is the end result of the creation and implementation in the organization of a product or process that has no analogue in the reproductive chain, following the implementation of which the economic system develops a new value (Acs, 2013).

For business, innovation is a product, process, business concept, or a combination of these that have been introduced into the market and have led to or potentially lead to an increase in the value of the organization's performance (Marsili, 2002).

Literature Review

The presence of the process component in the innovation leads to the need to consider it not only in the resulting, but in the managerial aspect. From the point of view of management, innovation should be considered not only and not so much as a response to a specific market challenge, but as a preventive action produced by the General situation in any sphere of the socio-economic system, which (situation) involves a plurality of innovative solutions, specified by the subjects of innovation (Amoroso, 2018).

From the point of view of the object of objectification (in the resulting aspect), innovation can appear in the form of a product, a technology introduced into production, presented on the market, or even an idea that the consumer perceives as completely new or possessing certain, only inherent properties (Abramov, 2015).

In accordance with the proposed process-resulting approach, each innovation includes a number of basic substantive features: type; degree of novelty; scope; purpose; effectiveness; scale; nature of the relationship with the previous samples of values; nature of implementation; degree of progressiveness (Wennekers, 1999).


In Russia, the share of innovative goods, works and services in the total volume of shipped goods, performed works and services of small enterprises, despite the tendency to increase, is growing at an extremely low rate (Abramov, 2017). This shows the wide possibilities of using the strategy of "blue oceans", because the competitive space in this segment of economic activity, in contrast to the sphere of traditional technologies, is free (Del Monte, 2019).

Large, capital-intensive segments in which Russia's share in the world markets of high-tech goods and services (nuclear power, aircraft, space technology and services, special shipbuilding) is increasing are promising for small innovative enterprises in terms of fragmented participation in the form of scientific developments, patents and other scientific products (Staniewski, 2016).

Private investors 'investment preferences have also changed, business angels' attention to the consumer goods and financial services sectors has weakened, and health care projects have increased (Abramov, 2016).

Results And Discussion

In the subsystem of macroeconomic conditions, there are weak pronounced trends of increasing business attention to innovation: an increase in the share of industrial enterprises engaged in technological innovation; a reversal of the trend of innovative activity of organizations; growth in the production of innovative goods and services by small enterprises; an increase in the share of exports of Russian high-tech goods in the total world exports of high-tech goods; maintaining the trend of increasing the share of innovative products in the total volume of industrial products (Baboshkina, 2018).

Institutional conditions are considered in the structural and process plans.

In the structural aspect, the most significant changes relate to organizational forms and methods of supporting innovation.

Institutional structures have been established and are in place to provide organizational and financial support to small innovative enterprises (Anokhin, 2011). Among them: Fund of assistance to development of small forms of the enterprises in the scientific and technical sphere - the state non-profit organization in the form of Federal state budgetary institution; National Association of business angels of Russia; the Russian Association of venture investment (RAVI) and JSC RUSNANO (Herrmann, 2019).

The practice of development and implementation of innovative development programs of Russian state-owned companies is developing (Akhmetshin, 2018).

In process terms, institutional changes are described as follows (Koshkin, 2018).

There is a constantly reproducible gap in the levels of fundamental training of Russian students and researchers and the practice of implementing ideas (Mrożewski, 2017).

There is a transition to the plane of adaptation to the deteriorating economic situation of the infrastructure of the market of commercialization of innovations: reducing the number of random and speculative transactions; increased competition between projects and between investors for high-quality innovative projects; fast response of venture investors to the incentive signals from the state (Abramov, 2018).

The thesis proves that the organizational and economic conditions necessary for the transformation of the internal environment of the University in the field of innovation should be presented in the form of two blocks: target and process (Brouwer, 2000).

In the target block it is advisable to highlight: the implementation of the "Market" approach to the commercialization of innovations; commercialization of the brand of innovation, the formation of the communication component; the complexity and permanence of innovation; rapid adaptation of innovation to changing environmental conditions; the formation of fundamentally new innovations; the development of University innovation in areas fixed in the strategic documents of the Russian Federation; ensuring the ownership and use of intellectual property; reducing overhead costs; the lower the barrier of entry into the market; establishing proper contact with consumers; increased levels of business activity and the turnover of capital; realization of creative potential of the innovator; the reduction of the gap between the needs or expectations of customers and their implementation in products and services; the creation of new jobs (Morozov, 2018).

In the process block of paramount importance are: the development of business and increase entrepreneurial activity and University students; the formation of an effective model of interaction of the University with business angels, venture funds, technology parks, business incubators; increasing internal costs of research and development; moral and material incentives for authors; the development of new methods of organization of labor and production; the use of innovative marketing tools; the formation of a flexible, project-oriented management system; formation of training programs in universities that use modern approaches to project work; creation and increase of activity of scientific and innovative communities of students, University staff and research institutes, providing the creation of the concept of innovative product; creation of technology transfer centers, funds to support the development of small business (Lorne, 2009).

Generalization of theoretical and methodological approaches to the assessment of factors limiting the development of commercialization of University innovations in Russia allowed to identify those that do not enjoy due attention of researchers (Fritsch, 2018). Without duplicating what has already been noted by the researchers, we have identified the following as factors that significantly limit the development of the process of commercialization of University innovations in Russia:

1) The share of the higher education sector in domestic research and development expenditure and in the number of researchers is relatively low (compared to developed countries).

2) There has been a marked decrease in the share of grants (grants) and competitive (programme) funding in the financing of domestic research and development expenditures in the higher education sector in recent years.

3) Limited opportunities of production organizations for introduction of high school innovative technologies, and accordingly, for financing of their order to the small innovative enterprises determined by lack of the investment resources necessary for financing of the changes in technical base of production connected with these innovations.

4) Underdevelopment of the practice of financing the development of human resources for innovative infrastructure of higher education by potential consumers of its services - commercial organizations of the real sector of the economy.

5) Underdevelopment of the process of integration of resources and actions to ensure the creation and operation of interuniversity centers, providing expensive, including unique equipment for rent to small innovative enterprises.

6) Sustainable reproduction of mainly autonomous existence of small innovative enterprises. Their market transactions, as a rule, is limited to the transmission of earlier received results of intellectual activities of industrial organizations. Other phases of the innovation process (research - pilot production) do not become the object of long-term partnerships of universities created by them MIP with economic entities of the real sector of the economy. Their role as clients and investors in innovation is not in high demand.

7) New opportunities of the external environment for the development of innovative activities of universities associated with the introduction of promising forms of spatial business organization (clusters, technoparks), most small innovative enterprises are not used, which significantly limits the growth of the potential of commercialization of innovations and its results.


Theoretical analysis made in the work allowed to conclude that the transformation of the internal environment of the University for development of innovation activities must be implemented through the creation of small innovative enterprises, allowing to obtain the following advantages: flexible, project-oriented management system aimed at rapid implementation of management decisions; fast adaptation to changing environmental conditions; low overheads; low entry barriers to the market; a more intimate contact with the consumer; high level of business activity and capital turnover; realization of innovator's creative potential; creation of new jobs.

It is established that the innovative activity of universities is a weakly structured system, which causes the existence of a number of economic and organizational problems, among which the following are of paramount importance: the complexity of the fundraising procedure; the risky nature of investments; the high level of competition from external firms-violents; the lack of the necessary experience in the commercialization of new products, services and technologies; the limited sources of information; the lack of managerial experience; the narrow specialization of innovative activity of the University.

To solve these problems, a cognitive model of innovative activity of the University, including the following provisions.

1) Definition of the cognitive map of concepts on the basis of which it is necessary to focus attention at the organization of activity of MIPS. The concepts include: the volume of output of innovative products by small innovative enterprises; the volume of investment in innovative projects; the innovative potential of small innovative enterprises; the share of innovative products in the total volume of products; the competitiveness of innovative products of MIP; the number of employees in small innovative enterprises; the qualification of personnel of small innovative enterprises; directions of state support of MIP; labor efficiency in MIP; time of development of innovative products (services); degree of development of innovative infrastructure; speed of transfer of innovations; profitability of enterprises of innovative infrastructure; the share of MIP, entered the mass market.

2) The formation of a cognitive matrix that defines the interrelationship of concepts and ensure the commercialization of innovation and small innovative enterprises.

3) The cognitive transformation matrix in the cognitive map of commercialization of innovations Miami. The analysis of the cognitive map allowed us to conclude that the target is the concept "The volume of output of innovative products by small innovative enterprises".


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