Research Article: 2018 Vol: 21 Issue: 2
Muhammad Jufri, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Haedar Akib, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Syamsu Ridjal, STIEM Bongaya Makassar
Romansyah Sahabuddin, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Farid Said, Akademi Kepariwisataan Nusa Tenggara Barat
The family environment, especially the parents of the students play an important role as a guide for the future of his son, in this case students in school. Indirect parents can also affect the work that children choose in the future, including to become an entrepreneur. Parents or families are also the basic layers for the preparation of children for the future to become effective workers. The family environment of Public Vocational High School (SMK) students in Makassar City shows a very big role in teaching and motivate their children to choose educational institutions that lead them to know entrepreneurship. This study aims to analyze and explain the influence of family environment on entrepreneurship attitude of students of SMK in Makassar City. The approach used in this research is an explanatory survey. The total population of 9,162 students of SMK in Makassar, with 369 samples studied, the sampling is done through proportional random sampling technique. Data collection techniques used observation, questionnaires, and documentation. Data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis technique. The results showed that there was a significant positive influence of family environment factors on entrepreneurship attitude of students of SMK in Makassar City. The results of this study in addition to strengthen the opinion of experts about the strong influence of environmental factors around, especially the family environment as the "first school" that can shape the attitudes and behaviors of students entrepreneurship, as well as directing the general understanding that each student has the potential for creativity and innovation as a basis for entrepreneurship worth.
Family Environment, Entrepreneurship Attitude, Creativity Potential, Innovation.
The challenge of vocational education is to prepare the workforce in certain quantities and qualities according to the needs of various sectors, in particular the industrial and service sectors. In this era of competitive globalization in the various fields of life today, it seems that vocational education becomes very important, given the demands of human resources in the increasingly high labour market. To prepare graduates of Vocational High School (SMK) who meet job market qualifications, the competency of SMK graduates needs to be improved or improved.
Vocational High School is one of the formal educations that can overcome the problems of employment, especially uneducated unemployment at the secondary level. Vocational education (SMK) is aimed at developing skills, skills, work habits and knowledge for prospective workers to meet and develop job skills to be able to become truly useful and productive workers.
Implementation of education in vocational school is a process of learning and guidance in schools and added the process of job training in the real business world. The learning process in schools primarily aims to equip students in developing strong, true personality, academic potential and basic skills through normative, adaptive, productive programming. The normative program aims to form the character and personality of students as citizens of Indonesia and adaptive about the ability to develop themselves in a sustainable, while productive concerning the basis of certain skills for the provision of work. While the job training process in the business world aims to equip students to master the competence of standardized productive skills, internalize attitudes, values and business world culture oriented to quality standards, economic values, critical, productive and competitive and entrepreneurial attitude.
Vocational High School as part of the secondary education system that has a role in printing the young generation of development fillers should be able to prepare human resources ready to work and ready to compete. This is in accordance with the specific objectives of the SMK curriculum (Pengembangan Kurikulum Nasional, 2007), as stated by Sumarni & Tamsah (2017) that SMK is basically aimed at:
1. Preparing learners to become productive human beings, able to work independently, fill vacancies in the business world and the industrial world as a middle-level workforce in accordance with competence in the program of expertise it chooses.
2. To equip learners to be able to choose a career, tenacious and persistent in competence, adapt in the work environment and develop a professional attitude in the field of expertise of interest.
3. To equip learners with knowledge, technology and art in order to be able to develop themselves in the future either independently or through higher education level.
4. To equip learners with competencies in accordance with the chosen skill program.
Experts and researchers agree that there are a number of factors that influence the formation of students' attitudes towards vocational high school (SMK). The following presents a summary of the results of the study that focus on SMK students in Indonesia as follows.
Based on the result of Vemmy's research (2012) it can be understood that the entrepreneurial intentions of SMK's Automotive Engineering Expertise Program in Tabalong Regency of South Kalimantan are classified in moderate level. The hypothesis test found that the needs variable would have a positive and significant effect on entrepreneurial intentions of 0.299 (sig. 0.003). Similarly, creativity is 0.384 (sig. 0.000); independence of 0.292 (sig. 0.006); courage took the risk of 0.380 (sig. 0.012); the tolerance of the magnitude of 0.491 (sig. 0.011); parental influence equal to 0.242 (sig. 0.049) and self-efficacy equal to 0.493 (sig. 0.000) influential positive and significant to entrepreneurial intentions. In the F test finds the need for achievement, creativity, independence, courage, patient tolerance, parental influence and self-efficacy simultaneously have a positive and significant effect on entrepreneurial intentions with values 34.415 and sig. 0.000. Adjusted R2 of 0.674 indicates that independent variable collectively contributes 67.4 percent to student entrepreneurial intentions of SMK Automotive Engineering Expertise Program in Tabalong District, South Sulawesi, the remaining 32.6 percent is explained by other factors other than the factors discussed in this study.
Then, Maulida & Dhania (2012) research reports reported that there was a significant relationship between self-esteem and parental support with entrepreneurship motivation in vocational students. The main hypothesis proposed was thus received in this study. Self-confidence and parental support predicting the entrepreneurship motivation at 23.1 percent. The correlation coefficient between the self-confidence and entrepreneurship motivation was 0.438 (p <0.01). It means that there was a significant positive relationship between self-confidence and entrepreneurship motivation in vocational students. The correlation coefficient between the variables of parental support and entrepreneurship motivation was r=0.449 (p<0.01). It showed a significant positive relationship between parental support and entrepreneurship motivation in vocational students. Similarly, the results of Jusmin's research (2012) report that, firstly, there is a significant influence of family background variables on entrepreneurial readiness with a contribution of 19.3 percent. Secondly, there is a significant influence of practice activities in the school production unit on SMK students’ entrepreneurship readiness with a contribution of 21.7 percent. Third, there is a significant influence on entrepreneurial learning implementation of entrepreneurship readiness with a contribution of 18.5 percent. Fourth, there is a significant impact together with the family background, practice activities in school production units and entrepreneurial learning implementation with a 34.7 percent contribution.
Another result of the research was also reported by Erfikas (2013) that:
1. There is a positive and significant entrepreneurial spirit of entrepreneurial interest in SMKN 1 and SMKN 2 Wonosari students in Gunungkidul.
2. There was a positive and significant influence of family culture on entrepreneurial interest in SMKN 1 and SMKN 2 Wonosari in Gunungkidul.
3. There is a positive and significant influence of entrepreneurship and family culture together entrepreneurial interest in SMKN 1 and SMKN 2 Wonosari students in Gunungkidul.
4. There is a difference of entrepreneurship spirit, family culture and entrepreneurial interest between SMKN 1 (daughter) and SMKN 2 (son) Wonosari in Gunungkidul.
A study conducted abroad on advanced school students is conducted by Elert, Andersson & Wennberg (2015). The result is by using propensity score matching; we compare three Swedish cohorts from Junior Achievement Company Program (JACP) alumni with a matched sample of similar individuals and follow these for up to 16 years after graduation. We find that while JACP participation increases the long-term probability of starting a firm as well as entrepreneurial incomes, there is no effect on firm survival.
The results of the study presented above, besides indicating the existence of various factors affecting entrepreneurship attitudes of SMK students in Indonesia and abroad (Sweden), also provide important information that one of the determinant factors for the establishment of student entrepreneurial attitudes is family environment factor. Research on family environment is given different terminologies, such as family culture, external environment or family background factors. Whatever the terminology used, in the article the result of this study is assumed that the family environment influenced the entrepreneurial attitudes of the State Vocational High School students in Makassar City.
Based on the objective, it can be understood that the students of SMK in addition has been equipped with various knowledge, technology and special skills that can be used as capital or incentive to become an entrepreneur, the attitude of entrepreneurship of vocational students is also not separated from the influence of family environment or household one contributing factor. According to Suryana (2003, p. 39), that the behaviour or entrepreneurial attitude of students is influenced by internal factors and external factors that include aspects of the environment. The environment in question includes the family environment, in addition to other environments, such as the school environment and the community environment in general. This is because the family environment, especially the parents obviously act as a guide for the future of their children, so indirectly the parents can also affect the interest of the child to work chosen in the future, including in the case of entrepreneurship (Sumarni, 2005, p. 5).
In the family environment, the parent or family is the foundation for preparing children for the future to become workers, including effective entrepreneurs. Therefore, this study assumes that the family environment, especially the parents of students of SMK Negeri in Makassar City shows a very big role in teaching and motivating to their children to choose an educational institution that can direct him to know the entrepreneur. The assumption is based on the level of public interest or parents to send their children to a vocational school. It is seen that the number of registrants in SMK that experienced a significant increase from year to year. Thus, the article of this study aims to analyse and explain the formation of entrepreneurship attitudes and behaviours of students based on entrepreneurship values in the family environment/households of vocational students in the city of Makassar.
Entrepreneurship comes from the term entrepreneurship which comes from the word entrepreneur which means an ability (ability) in creative thinking and innovative behaviour that is used as the basis, resources, driving forces goals, tricks and tips in the process of facing life challenges. Oxborne & Gaebler (1995) says that in the development of today's world is demanded by the entrepreneurial government. By having an entrepreneurial spirit, bureaucracy and agencies will have innovation, optimism and competition to create new ways that are more efficient, effective, innovative, flexible and adaptive (Kuriloff, Hemphill & Cloud, 1993; Kao, 1997; Coulter, 2001). Then entrepreneurship is defined differently but in principle the intent and scope are the same. Entrepreneurship comes from the word wira means brave, prime, noble. Business means commercial and non-commercial business activities. So entrepreneurship is defined literally as matters concerning the courage of a person to conduct business and non-business activities independently (Kuratko & Hodgetts, 2004; Iversen & Lurås, 2000). Entrepreneurship is an attitude, a soul, a noble spirit in an innovative, creative person, working toward personal and community progress. So it would be nice if the entrepreneurship is in everyone (teachers, employees, government officials, students, students, housewives, etc.,) is not limited to entrepreneurs only (Meredith, Nelson & Neck, 1982; Drucker, 1985; Coulter, 2001).
Education in formal schools (secondary schools) today is demanded not only able to produce graduates only, but education must also have a clear orientation towards which graduates will contribute in society (Chauhan, 1979; Prakash, Jain & Chauhan, 2015). Middle-level education, especially at Public Vocational High School (SMK) has a unique character in producing graduates who are ready to work. The potential of vocational graduates is not only ready to work, but has a great opportunity to develop the economy through entrepreneurship (Leete, 2000; Iversen & Lurås, 2000; Ropke, 2004). Vocational students who are taking education should be prepared not only to fill job opportunities as workers in the business and industry, but also educational efforts that provide graduates of vocational schools have the soul and behaviour or entrepreneurial characteristics.
The government of Republic of Indonesia through the Ministry of National Education since early 2005 began to re-develop the role of SMK and SMK graduates to be ready to work and ready to become entrepreneurs. This policy certainly needs to be welcomed, especially amid the imbalance between employment, job seekers and qualified job seekers (Jarolimek, 1977; Bruce & Pepitone, 1999; Cooper & Alvarado, 2006; Ryan, Cooper & Bolick, 2015). However, of course every policy is not all effective and direct synergies with educational institutions (SMK) itself, especially in the aspects of learning that are relevant to the school. It is enough to realize that the current SMK in Indonesia has a wide range of learning that aims to produce graduates ready for work and entrepreneurship.
Graduates who are ready to work and ready for entrepreneurship is a challenge to education in vocational schools, this is not separated from the low level of the labour market when compared with the labour force (Meredith et al., 1982; Coulter, 2001; Hendro, 2005). Therefore entrepreneurship is believed to be one solution to overcome the imbalance of supply and demand in the field of workforce in Indonesia. Nevertheless, of course with the same learning model will produce graduates who graduate and have interest in entrepreneurship (Killen, 2006; Killen, 2007).
With the concept of entrepreneurship learning in integrated SMK is expected to provide understanding to students of the importance of attitudes and entrepreneurial behaviour in the face of employment challenges. Various government programs are offered in support of integrated entrepreneurship learning that is with industrial work practices (PRAKERIN) in the business world and the industrial world; opening alfamart class; units of production; and implementation of teaching factory program.
The approach used in this research is an explanatory survey that attempts to analyse the influence of Family Environment variables (X1), to Entrepreneurship Motivation (Y). This study was conducted at SMK Negeri Makassar City with the consideration that SMK Negeri students in Makassar City with heterogeneous characteristics can reflect students within the scope of South Sulawesi Province and can also get varied, accessible data.
The independent variables in this research are family environment (X1), while the dependent variable is Motivational Entrepreneurship (Y). The family environment (X1), referred to in this study is the family education environment in which the first student is educated. In this study the family environment indicators are:
1. Parental way of educating.
2. Relationships between family members.
4. Parenting economy.
Entrepreneurship Motivation (Y) is the encouragement and effort of students to make creative, innovative and useful efforts by developing ideas and resources to find opportunities and improvements in life and jump into business competition. Meanwhile, the measurement of motivation variables, which are examined in the indicators:
1. Creativity and innovative.
2. Have a leadership spirit.
3. Effective and efficient.
Likert scale is used to measure social phenomena, in which this research is specifically specified by researchers who are referred to as research variables. The answer of each instrument item using the Likert scale has degradation from very positive to very negative (Sugiyono, 2012, pp. 136-137). The Likert scale is included in the interval scale (Supranto, 1997, p. 29), which is scaled from 1 to 5, summated scale, using five categories of options: 1) Strongly agree (score 5), Agree (score 4) (Score 3), Disagree (score 2), Strongly Disagree (score 1).
The population in this study is all SMK Negeri students in Makassar City, as much as 9162 (Makassar Education and Culture Office, 2016). While the withdrawal of the sample in this study refers to the formula proposed by Isaac and Michael in Sugiyono (2000) with a 5 percent error rate, namely:
S: Number of samples; X2: Chi squared with a degree of freedom and error rate of 5%; N: Population count; P: True opportunity (0.5); Q: False opportunity (0.5); d: Difference between expected sample (0.05) = 68.68=369
Based on the formula, the sample was obtained by 369 students. The determination of the number of samples was done proportionally random sampling (Population after Processing, 2016). The data collection instrument used in this research is in order to obtain valid and real data as follows:
1. Observation that is observation of research object.
2. The questionnaire, conducted by spreading the question to the selected respondents.
3. Documentation, documenting data based on documents and other written reports (secondary data) related to this research.
To answer the problems proposed in this research, the data analysis used is inferential statistical analysis. The approach used to complete the research goal is quantitative i.e., to test how much the influence of independent variables on dependent variables analysed by using complete Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) basically consisting of Measurement Model and Structural Measurement Model or Measurement Model is intended to confirm a dimension or factors based on its empirical indicators. Structural Model is a model of relationship structure that forms or describes causality between factors.
To make complete modelling, the following steps need to be taken:
1. Development of a theory-based model.
2. Development of path diagram to show a causal relationship.
3. Convert the flow diagram into a series of structural equations and specification of the measurement model.
4. Selection of input matrices and estimation techniques of the built model.
5. Assess identification problem.
6. Evaluate the model.
7. Interpretation and Modification of the model.
Data collection instruments are tools used and used by researchers in their activities to make the activities systematic and simplified by them (Arikunto, 2006). Research instruments used in collecting field data by using questionnaire sheets. Procedures used to measure all variables investigated using the Likert method, which is a method for expressing respondents' feelings toward the work by selecting alternative answers available. The answers used to capture the data consist of five positive statements that strongly agree with score 5, agree with score 4, agree with score 3, disagree with 2 and disagree with score 1, otherwise negative statement is strongly agreed score 1, agree score 2, enough to agree on score 3, less agree on score 4 and disagree score 5. For variable motivation entrepreneurship consists of positive statement alternative i.e., score 5, score 4, score 3, score 2 and score 1, score 2, score 3, score 4 and score 5.
This research type is quantitative and the approach used is an explanatory survey. The total population of 9.162 students of SMK in Makassar, with 369 samples studied, the sampling is done through proportional random sampling technique. Data collection techniques used observation, questionnaires and documentation. The questionnaires referring to a Likert scale and each alternative answer was given a score with criteria 1-5, respondents were asked responses to the statements given. Technique Data analysis using Structural Equation Modelling/SEM (Augusty, 2005).
For the benefit of instrument validity, before the instrument is distributed to the respondent, it is necessary to test the reliability and validity of the instrument to determine the reliability coefficient and the validity of the instrument. Also, the test results are used as a basis for considering the existence of instruments, dropped or retained with some changes.
Based on the conceptual framework and research design, this research uses the Structural Equation Modelling Analysis (SEM) technique through the SEM Program Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) technique, Ferdinand (2002), allowing researchers to examine some exogenous variables, as well as some endogenous variables. Complete SEM modelling consists of Measurement Model and Structural Model (Ferdinand, 2002). Measurement Model or measurement model is proposed to confirm the dimensions developed on a factor. While the Structural Model is a model of the relationship structure that forms or describes causality among factors.
This research uses primary data and secondary data, collected and arranged in cross section. Hypothesis testing was performed by using inferential statistical tools at a degree of accuracy of 0.05. Data analysis to test the hypotheses of research using SEM AMOS which is procedural covering seven steps (Hair et al., 2006; Solimun, 2004; Ferdinand, 2002), namely:
a. Development of concept and theory based models.
b. Path analysis.
c. Flow diagram conversion into structural model.
d. Choosing input matrix and model estimation.
e. Assessing identification problem.
f. Goodness of fit evaluation, interpreter and modify models.
The result of the research is a description of respondent's answer about student's family background variable and attitude variable forming entrepreneurship behaviour of students at State Vocational High School (SMK Negeri) in Makassar City. Then, described the results of an analysis of the development of attitudes that shape the entrepreneurial behaviour of vocational school students based on the background (education in) family environment.
Based on the results of the research, it is found that from 369 respondents, the first indicator of "how to educate parents" in the household environment of students, generally respondents (81.57 percent) agree or experience it, that is in student family environment is strongly influenced by the way parents/guardians educate, both from the aspect of laying the foundations of religious education and the basic cultivation of moral education, as well as the basic provision of social education. Then there was 14.63 percent of respondents said strongly agree and then there is 1.90 percent of respondents expressed doubt, while there is also 1.36 percent of respondents said disagree and 0.54 percent of respondents said strongly disagree about the way people parents educate about entrepreneurship that shapes attitudes and behaviours as aspiring entrepreneurs. The results of this study are consistent with the assertion that parents are the first teachers for their children. This is stated by (Hasbullah, 2006) that, the family environment is the first child's education environment, because in the family the child first obtained education and guidance from the parents/guardian or the nearest person in his life.
The second indicator of family environmental factors is "relation among family members", where respondents agree (82.66 percent) because of this in their family environment. Then, there are 41 respondents (11.11 percent) stated strongly agree, then there are 11 respondents (2.97 percent) expressed doubt, there are also eight respondents who disagree (2.17 percent) and there are four respondents (1.09 percent) stated strongly disagree with this experience. The results show that the family environment is the first and foremost environment in education, so guidance for children requires good communication, the closeness between family members and the openness of each family member.
The third indicator of family environmental factors, namely "the atmosphere within the student's home" is measured by three criteria, namely comfort, joy and the emotional life of a guaranteed child. The result of the research shows that in general the respondents or there are 306 people (82.93 percent) stated agree, there are 41 respondents (11.11 percent) stated strongly agree, there are 10 respondents (2.70 percent) expressed doubt, it was also 8 respondents (2.17 percent) stated disagreed and 4 respondents (1.09 percent) stated strongly disagree about the atmosphere of the environment at home students.
The fourth indicator of family environmental factors is the "economic condition of the parents", namely the fulfilment of primary, secondary and tertiary needs. The result of the research indicated that in general respondents or 310 (84.01 percent) stated agree with the condition of their family environment, there were 26 respondents (7.05 percent) stated strongly agree, there were 11 respondents (2.97 percent) while there were 15 respondents (4.07 percent) said they did not agree and 7 respondents (1.90 percent) stated strongly disagree about the economic condition of this student's family.
Entrepreneurship Attitudes and Behaviour
The student entrepreneurship attitude variable as respondent is measured by four indicators, namely self-confidence, initiative, achievement motivation and risk-taking courage. Based on the result of the research, it is found that attitude and entrepreneurship attitude variable based on the respondents' self-esteem indicator is measured through three criteria, namely optimism, non-dependence and determination on student stance. In this case there are 282 respondents (76.42 percent) of students stated agree, there are 55 respondents (14.90 percent) stated strongly agree, there are 19 respondents (5.15 percent) expressed doubt, while there are also 9 respondents (2.44 percent) states disagreed and there are 4 respondents (1.09 percent) stated strongly disagree about students' self confidence in behaving and behaving as entrepreneur candidates. Nevertheless, it is clear that the formation of entrepreneurial attitudes by self-esteem as measured by optimism, non-dependence and persistence in this position dominates the attitudes and behaviours of students as entrepreneurial candidates. This is in line with the findings of Fauzi's (2009) study, that entrepreneurial attitudes are characterized by self-confidence (optimism), task-oriented and result oriented, risk-taking, self-leadership, originality and future-oriented. Entrepreneurship is based on creativity and innovation, so creative and innovative people have a high potential for entrepreneurial attitude and behaviour (Dharma & Akib, 2009).
The second indicator of entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviours is "owning initiative" as measured by three criteria, i.e., full of energy/work spirit, deft in action and proactive action. The result of the research indicated that in general the respondent or 293 people/students (79.40 percent) agreed, there were 48 respondents (13.01 percent) stated strongly agree, 11 respondents (2.97 percent) expressed doubt, there are also 9 respondents (2.44 percent) stated disagreed and there are 8 respondents (2.17 percent) stated strongly disagree about the initiative as an indicator of attitudes and behaviour of student entrepreneurship. The results of this study support the opinion of Kasmir (2003 & 2006) and Dharma & Akib (2009), which one's entrepreneurial attitude is characterized by the initiative and always proactive. Similarly, by the opinion of Drucker (1985) that entrepreneurial attitude is the ability to create something new and different (full of initiative).
The third indicator of entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviours is that students have "achievement motivation" which is measured by three criteria, i.e. results-oriented, the desire to move forward and self-evaluation. The results showed that there were 298 respondents (80.76 percent) agreed, there were 42 respondents (11.38 percent) stated strongly agree, there were 17 respondents (4.61 percent) expressed doubt, while there were also 10 respondents (2.71 percent) stated disagreed and there are 2 respondents (0.54 percent) stated strongly disagree about this achievement motivation as an indicator of attitude and behaviour of student entrepreneurship. The results of this study, in general, have been in line with the theory put forward by McClelland (1987) on achievement motivation, which needs for achievement is the need of people always to improve the work and quality of work and the needs of people always to want to look better among others. People who have high achievement motivation, according to Sastrodiningrat (1986), generally have the following criteria.
1. They are very excited when superior.
2. They set goals realistically in taking calculated risks and do not believe in good fortune.
3. They are willing to take responsibility for their work.
4. They act as entrepreneurs, so always choose challenging tasks/jobs and show more initiative behaviours than most of their peers.
5. They want quick concrete feedback on performance.
6. They work not solely to earn money or power.
7. The necessary motivation for them is the work they make satisfied, giving them autonomy and feedback on successes and failures, providing opportunities for them to grow and they are relied upon as the backbone of the organization and considered necessary in the organization, but their motivation as well need to be balanced with affiliate motivation and power.
The fourth indicator of entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviours is "dare to take risks" as measured by three criteria, which are responsible, courageous and courageous. The results showed that there were 296 respondents (80.22 percent) agreed, there were 51 respondents (13.82 percent) stated strongly agree, there were 14 respondents (3.79 percent) expressed doubt, while there were also 5 respondents (1.36 percent) stated disagreed and there were 3 respondents (0.81 percent) stated strongly disagree about attitude and behaviour dare to take risk as indicator of attitude and behaviour of student as entrepreneur candidate. Thus, it is understood that students as respondents agree that the attitude of taking risks is the attitude of an entrepreneur. This is by the opinion of Kasmir (2006) and Dharma & Akib (2009) that one of the characteristics of a successful entrepreneur is to take risks, especially moderate risks.
In this research used SEM model with the second order. Testing the goodness of fit on the measurement model for each variable using the measurement of convergent validity described as follows. This evaluation is done by looking at the value of loading factor on each indicator. If the value is greater than 0.50 then it can be said that the indicator is valid. Convergent Validity aims to ensure that the indicators used correctly define the observed latent variables. The results of data processing for Convergent Validity analysis of exogenous and endogenous constructs are as follows (Table 1).
|Table 1: Result Of Standardized Regression Weight Confirmatory Variable Family Environment (X)|
|X1.1 (The Way Parents Educate their children)||X1.1.1||0.709||-|
|X1.2 (Inter-Family Relationships of each student)||X1.2.1||0.748||-|
|X1.3 (The atmosphere in the student's home)||X1.3.1||0.776||-|
|X1.4 (Economic condition of the parents' home of the students)||X1.4.1||0.766|
Source: Results of analysis of dissertation data (Jufri, 2017)
Based on the above table, the value of factor loading on all indicators of a family environment variable (X) above 0.5 with sig value <0.05. This indicates that the sub-variables that exist in the Family Environment (X) have valid indicators and can form these variables well.
Based on the above table 2, the value of factor loading on all indicators of Entrepreneurship Attitudes (Y) variable above 0.5 with the sig<0.05. This indicates that the sub variable present in Entrepreneurship Attitude (Y) has a valid indicator and can form the variable well. The relation of Family Environment with Entrepreneurship Attitude obtained a correlation value of 0.371 and p-value 0.000<0.05 then obtained the conclusion that there is a positive relationship between Family Environment with Attitudes Entrepreneurship Students SMK in Makassar.
|Table 2: Result Of Standardized Regression Weight Confirmatory Variable Entrepreneurship Attitude (Y)|
|X3.1 (Student Full of Confidence/self-efficacy)||X3.1.1||0.815||-|
|X3.2 (Students Have Initiative)||X3.2.1||0.796||17979||0.000||Significant|
|X3.3 (Student Has Achievement Motivation)||X3.3.1||0.801||16078||0.000||Significant|
|X3.4 (Students firmly take risks)||X3.4.1||0.785||15533||0.000||Significant|
In Learning entrepreneurship to run effectively and efficiently and can achieve the goal is that students have an entrepreneurial attitude, it is necessary to note the process of entrepreneurial learning that takes place. Then, for the entrepreneurial learning process to run effectively and efficiently and for the purpose of entrepreneurship learning is achieved, it needs to be supported by various methods of learning, learning media, the availability of entrepreneurial books in the library, entrepreneurship laboratories, the ability of teachers in explaining entrepreneurial materials, time (time available to learn entrepreneurship).
The effectiveness of entrepreneurial learning process, besides supported by various learning facilities, the entrepreneurship learning process in school will work well, if the teacher can teach it clearly and attractively. In this case the teacher should be able to provide a concrete and complete picture of the business world, to facilitate the formation of the entrepreneurial attitude of the students. Therefore, teachers with experience in the field of entrepreneurship will be easier in learning entrepreneurship materials, compared with teachers who do not have direct experience in entrepreneurship, would be better able to provide practical examples of the tips and attitudes that should be owned by an entrepreneur.
The above statement is supported by research conducted by Fiet (2001), Killen (2006), Killen (2007), Indira & Soenhadji (2010) which states that preferably during the classroom learning process, the teacher should provide the opportunity for the students to be able to learn as a whole about ideas and theories relevant to the field of entrepreneurship and what should be done by entrepreneurs. As a consequence, during the entrepreneurial learning process, the teacher should be willing to relate the theories he taught to the entrepreneurial experience that the child/student has. Fraedrich & Guerts (1990), Rahayu (2009) says that the most important in business education (entrepreneurship) is how to let students know about the process of formation of values/ethics. To that end, the teacher must be able to help the children/students more aware of the emergence of issues or dilemmas about values and morals or ethics.
Entrepreneurship learning in schools plays an important role in the process of establishing entrepreneurial attitudes of students. For entrepreneurship knowledge obtained can provide an objective assessment of the profit and loss in entrepreneurship, which will further provide a positive attitude both positive and negative to entrepreneurship (Rahayu, 2009). A positive attitude will be embedded to the students if during the learning process; teachers want to give a real example of entrepreneurial activity, because it can facilitate them in receiving the subject matter.
The results of research are in line with the research of McClelland (1987) which proves that personality factors such as achievement needs affect entrepreneur interest. That the students of SMK in Makassar City argue that personal motivation, interest in learning and student's personality greatly influence their interest to choose entrepreneurship after graduate school.
Family environment, school environment and social environment give a high contribution to the interest of vocational students in Makassar City to entrepreneurship after graduation; this means that some parties have the same concern to condition a good environment that can support entrepreneurship spirit among students, especially in Makassar city. Thus the environment situation that supports the soul and entrepreneurial interest of learners needs to be created, engineered or formed to provide a significant catalyst/incentive to the growth of young entrepreneurs from among students.
The results of this study show there are some similarities with research from Sinha (1996) which suggests that the educational background and work experience of a person is taken into account in entrepreneurship interest. This is clarified again with the results of research Sinha (1996), Gibb (2002), Peterman & Kennedy (2003) that the educational environment is a space that is effective enough to produce entrepreneurial behaviour. Those external factors related to the environment, education and family are taken into account by the students in deciding their interest in entrepreneurship after graduation.
This supports the concept proposed by Drucker (1985) proposes the development of entrepreneurship theory into three stages. The third stage states that the theory that prioritizes the relationship between entrepreneurial behaviour with the results. Called behavioural theory, which is trying to understand the pattern of entrepreneurial behaviour. Entrepreneurship can be learned and mastered, because of entrepreneurial work options and career options. This means that through entrepreneurial learning activities early (school) will be very decisive to career choice for entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship learning to students (students) will provide students with choices in entrepreneurial careers and not always direct themselves to become workers (employees) only. Therefore, it requires school commitment and Education Office to improve the quality and quantity of entrepreneurship learning in school, especially in Vocational High School (SMK) in Makassar City.
Unlike the results of research Indarti & Rostiani (2008) which shows that the orientation of education or economic and business education curriculum for students in Indonesia is not directed to form entrepreneurship. However, it tends to prepare and equip students to work in the company, so that learning is not a factor that has the highest influence on students. While from this research shows data that students of SMK in the City of Makassar have a belief that if the school develops better entrepreneurial learning, will increasingly give a significant influence on student interest for entrepreneurship after graduating school.
Based on the results of the analysis and discussion that has been described, it can be concluded that there is a significant positive influence of family environment factors on the formation of entrepreneurship attitudes of vocational high school (SMK) students in Makassar City. The results of this study reinforce the opinion of experts and previous research on the positive influence of the students' family environment or the values of entrepreneurship culture that are instilled and taught at home as a determinant factor for uplifting the attitude and entrepreneurial behaviour of SMK students in general and SMK Negeri students in Makassar in particular. Thus, the cultivation of entrepreneurship values early in the culture of education (designated and perpetuated) within the "first school" environment in student households should always be done as one of the effective ways to shape entrepreneurial attitudes, so it has a positive impact on the choice of business activities that will be done after graduation from his school.
Appreciation and thank you I am speaking to Prof. Dr. Haedar Akbi, M.Si., as the Promoter, Prof. Dr. Syamsu Rijal, M.Si. and Dr. Romansyah Sahabuddin, M.Si., as Co-promotor for his guidance and guidance in the implementation of this study.
Chauhan, J.P.S.A. (1979). Study on some socio-personal, economic and entrepreneurial characteristics about entrepreneurial role performance of milk producers of Karnal City, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India.
Elert, N., Andersson, F.W. & Wennberg, K. (2015). The impact of entrepreneurship education in high school on long-term entrepreneurial performance. Journal of Economic Behaviour & Organization, 111, 209-223.
Gibb, A. (2002). Creating conducive environments for learning and entrepreneurship: Living with, dealing with, creating and enjoying uncertainty and complexity. Industry and Higher Education, 16(3), 135-148.
Prakash, D., Jain, S. & Chauhan, K. (2015). Supportive government policies, the locus of control and student?s entrepreneurial intensity: A study of India. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 5(1), 26.
Rahayu, W.P. (2009). Pengaruh lingkungan tempat tinggal, Intensitas pendidikan ekonomi keluarga, dan pembelajaran kewirausahaan terhadap motivasi usaha dan sikap kewirausahaan siswa SMK di Malang Raya. DISERTASI Dan TESIS Program Pascasarjana UM.
Sumarni, S. & Tamsah, H. (2017). Pengaruh supervisi akademik pengawas sekolah, kepemimpinan kepala sekolah dan lingkungan kerja terhadap kinerja guru smk negeri se-kecamatan tamalate kota makassar. Jurnal Mirai Management, 2(1), 149-163.