Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences (Print ISSN: 1524-7252; Online ISSN: 1532-5806)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 1S

Increasing the Quality of Education at Jordanian Private Universities by Decreasing the Digital Divide

Rasha A. A. Qawasmeh, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Ahmad Fathi Alheet, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Ahmad Y. M. Areiqat, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

Ahmad M.A. Zamil, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University

Abstract

The investigation meant to recognize the Effect of the digital divide in its measurements (Technological measurement, Information measurement, and Enactment and laws measurement) on the quality of education (University presidency's obligation to quality, Scholastic standing and distributed logical examination) at Al-Ahliyya Amman University. To accomplish this goal, the scientist utilized the illustrative and analytical methodology, the investigation tool for gathering data, and information was a survey appropriated to all representatives, whose number is (630). The study questions and hypotheses were analyzed and tested through the Statistical The examination questions and hypotheses were analyzed and tried through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. This examination has discovered numerous outcomes, the most significant is: The digital divide in its consolidated measurements has a statistically critical effect on the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University. It closed with numerous proposals, the most significant is that an essential arrangement should be attracted up for universities to build up its foundation, improve, and create it ceaselessly to empower digital access and bridge the digital divide among analysts and scholastics.

Keywords

The Digital Divide, The Quality of Education, Jordanian Private Universities, Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

Introduction

With the appearance of present-day innovation that is described by fast and extraordinary impact in all everyday issues, an enormous revolt happened in the universe of data and information, which prompted the rise of a partition divide among rich and helpless nations, which is alluded to as the "digital divide", where this divide speaks to a significant challenge for creating or helpless nations to stay up with data frameworks spoke to by the imbalance of data streams (Demombynes & Sandefur 2015).

The advancement of social orders is currently estimated not as industrial social orders, but rather as information or data social orders. As in the improvement of these social orders relies upon intellectual innovation, where data is the main impetus for its encouraging, and these social orders are portrayed as information-social orders if the majority of their individuals are associated with the creation, handling, and circulation of data.

Bra Hama Sanou Secretary-General of the International Media Telecommunication Union (ITU) has expressively characterized a digital divide, "The data divide is still wide between the individuals who those who the haves and have-nots." The possession here is because of the information and capacity to utilize data innovation (Al Mallah, 2017).

Nonetheless, the insights and the consequences of studies demonstrate that in spite of all the endeavors on the turn of events and modernization, this hole will remain on the grounds that it extends year after year; For many reasons: technological, financial, economic, political, and socio-cultural (Qurain, 2017). To conquer the digital divide, admittance to innovation ought to be a fundamental basic right.

It very well might be an ideal opportunity to reevaluate how to deal with the digital divide as long as there is a will to learn aptitudes other than giving admittance to data innovation, and keeping individuals creating social orders associated with their way of life and global information is an invaluable social assistance, regardless of the identity or pay, education, or age, being contributing variables to making the digital divide, as the costs of PCs, cell phones, Internet providers (the Web) and other data apparatuses decline, the digital hole between the individuals who have the information and the individuals who don't have it might keep on narrowing (Becker & Crandall 2010).

The Examination Issue and Questions

The issue of not staying up with the digital age, Newness to data and correspondence innovation and its utilization in getting to information, utilizing it, creating present day scholastic information, and dispersing it, is called the digital divide, which is a significant issue, which nations and people groups far and wide have tried to quantify, perceive its size, and endeavor to connect and dispose of it.

The digital divide may negatively affect understudies 'scholarly execution because of social inequalities among these understudies. The absence of foundation and sufficient assets for some private universities debilitated their involvement with the field of data and correspondence innovation and caused a digital divide in these universities. Accordingly, the examination issue rotates around responding to the accompanying inquiries:

The Main Question

What is the effect of the digital divide on the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

From the primary inquiry over, the accompanying questions are divided into:

1- What is the effect of the technological measurement represented in the data and correspondence innovation framework on the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

2- What is the effect of the information measurement and limit expanding on the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

3- What is the effect of an enactment and laws on the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

4- What is the interviewees' impression of the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

Goals of the Investigation

This investigation intends to recognize the digital divide and its effect on the quality of education in private Jordanian universities and to accomplish this goal, a large number of the sub-destinations have been planned as follows:

1- Identifying the parts of social capital at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, as the first private Jordanian university.

2- Identifying the degree of accessibility of organizational advancement at Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

3- Explaining the idea of the influential connections between the investigation factors.

4- Presenting suggestions and proposals to officials at Al-Ahliyya Amman University to upgrade the job that social capital plays in accomplishing organizational advancement at the explored university.

The Essentialness of the Investigation

This current investigation has significance because of the way that it deals with the issue of the digital divide represented by the absence of knowledge of data and communication technology and the failure of preparation of some private universities in Jordan to profit by this tremendous revolution in the realm of data and powerlessness to find the real reasons that can bridge this gap to accomplish quality in education yields, from this, the examination came to show the accompanying:

1) This study reveals insight into the meaning of the digital divide and its implications for the quality of education in Jordanian private universities.

2) Highlighting the significance of bridging the digital divide to accomplish quality education in private Jordanian universities.

3) This study can add to the turn of events and improvement of the quality of university education and afterward scholarly information, which thusly prompts the advancement of society.

Theoretical Framework and Literature Review

Society overall is as of now living in what is called the digital age, the time when data and communication technology have generally overwhelmed all exercises and parts of different economic, social, and cultural life, the data and communication technology - if appropriately exploited -represent to a valuable opportunity to quicken advancement endeavors society far reaching, feasible turn of development (Yang & Gun Lee 2007).

The digital age is characterized as "the time wherein there is the capacity to change data, knowledge, information, pictures, and traditional structures into digital, which are moved through the Web into electronic technology (Oxman, 2006).

This time is described by the digitization of data in all its structures, and the speed of its trade and transmission, which assist with spreading it in a brief timeframe and this assisted with multiplying the creation of new information lately (Moujb, 2016).

With the approach of the new technology, which is portrayed by the rapid and tremendous effect in all everyday issues, an extraordinary revolution happened in the realm of data and information that prompted the rise of an isolating hole between the rich industrialized nations and those helpless agricultural nations called the "digital divide". The term alludes to the hole between the individuals who can utilize the Web due to their necessary skill and financial capacity, and the individuals who can't utilize the Web, implying that the digital divide is ascribed to the hole between users of present-day communications, data technology, and the individuals who don't utilize it (Li & Chan, 2019).

This term showed up with the start of the far reaching of online business and e-government, where a wide discussion started among researchers about the circumstance of individuals who couldn't utilize the Web, which brought about them losing large numbers of the advantages and administrations gave to Web users, and the degree of the Web's commitment to making a hole in the public eye, in both nations, created nations or their partner in non-industrial nations, and the third world (Twizeyimana & Andersson, 2019).

Definitions of the Digital Divide

Francisco et al., 2018 characterizes the digital divide as "access to knowledge in terms of the availability of the necessary infrastructure to obtain information and knowledge resources by automated means without losing sight non-automated means through human communication".

This definition centers around the limit between the accessibility of communication networks, methods for getting to them, and the components of their association with the Web.

Reasons behind the Digital Divide

There are numerous reasons, including technological, financial, political, social, and cultural (Naslund, 2017).

Technological Reasons

It is bound to the fast and astounding advancement of present-day technology, the development of restraining infrastructure, the force of intellectual incorporation, and the disturbance of technological conclusion.

Economic Reasons

They are spoken to by the significant expense of data culture and the alliance of enormous nations (the Group of Eight nations), the pressing factor of small nations, and force financial approvals on non-industrial nations, the imposing business model of huge and multinational organizations on global exchange markets, and the expense of intellectual property. The financial inclination of technology towards the most grounded to the disadvantage of the more fragile party.

Political Reasons

These are the snags to setting data improvement approaches, the inclination of international associations towards the significant forces, and the uniqueness of the US of America in the geoinformatics.

With respect to the socio-cultural reasons, they are reflected in the low degree of education, unequal chances, ignorance, and the etymological hole, and the nonattendance of scientific and technological culture.

Measurements of the Digital Divide

Technological Measurement

It is the incorporated system on which digital organizations work, and this foundation incorporates server farms, PC gadgets, PC organizations, and information base administration gadgets. The organizations delivering foundation gadgets assume a significant job in the improvement of the Web, both regarding spots of communication media and spots to get to them and from where is the measure of data that can be conveyed and how quick it is sent.

Data and communication technology framework should stay up with development in any educational foundation, and this usually requires imaginative approaches to address evolving issues (Frattini, 2018).

Knowledge Measurement and Limit Building

Information is the thing that recognizes the educational establishment and makes wealth for it in light of the fact that in itself, it is the main real wealth in the light of the knowledge economy, so the university that needs and looks to accomplish quality in education and accomplish a reasonable upper hand should focus on this essential component. Then again, information is alluded to as the optimal venture of data and information through utilizing the aptitudes, capacities, and thoughts of individuals working at the university in a world in which their known balance of information increments, and that the different universities are not solid and relentless except if they have information. Furthermore, that the individuals who give this information are the proprietors of real and most significant capital in the university, whose attributes are advancement and innovativeness to accomplish the quality of its education (Hilmi & Ramdhani, 2017).

Enactment and Laws

With the improvement of the digital age and the developing undertakings to construct a public dependent on data and information, it was important to refresh the administrative and legal structures to fit with the advanced prerequisites of the technological space and increment their homogeneity. Enactment on communications and data technology is viewed as an essential component in giving the fundamental administrative and legal climate to build up the data and information society, construct trust in electronic administrations, and secure assurance for Web users (Potts, 2014).

In this unique situation, and with the end goal of animating regional incorporation in building an information society in the Middle Easterner district, the interest of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) started to help and create enactment identified with data technology, as it dispatched a progression of studies and held several specialized gatherings and workshops. Among the most conspicuous exercises dispatched by ESCWA in this setting is the regional undertaking on harmonization of enactment to animate an information society in the Middle Easterner district, which is actualized in participation with part states (ESCWA/OES/2019).

Quality of Education

The changes that occurred in the twenty-first century inside the structure of the globalization of the economy and the spread of data technology and the Web, have driven numerous associations and educational organizations to make progressed strides towards improving the quality of the educational items and administrations they give.

Quality is as characterized by (Crosby, 1992) as “the extent of conformity with the requirements. The more product specifications are in conformity with the customer’s requirements, the better quality the product will be.”

As for the international standard (ISO 9000: 2000), it defines quality as "the degree to which the set of characteristics inherited in the product meets the requirements of the customer."

Degree to which a bunch of attributes satisfies necessity.

In this way, quality spotlights on the greatness of product quality in any field.

Total Quality in Higher Education

As of late, higher education has seen significant changes at different levels to stay up with the necessities of society in general and the individual specifically, and this is with regards to the digital and technical age in where there is no chance to get for anything other than flawlessness, exactness, or what is known as quality (Prakash, 2018)

Taking into account that the quality of university education is essential for the focal point of this examination, we can characterize this idea as "a cycle of documenting projects, methodology, and use of frameworks, guidelines, and headings pointed toward accomplishing a qualitative jump in the instructing and learning measure and updating understudies' level in all mental, physical, psychological, social, and cultural angles.

This must be accomplished by dominating the educational cycle through the cooperation of all the partaking components, whether individuals, techniques, instruments, and approaches to update and improve the quality of the yields spoke to in the structures and capacities of the graduates that try to serve network foundations, which guarantees the coherence and achievement of the university from one viewpoint and taking care of advancement issues then again (Sinha & De, 2010).

Al-Zanfali, 2012 believes that accomplishing the necessary quality in education might be by following educational plans and study designs that urge understudies to direct scientific research, request, and analysis, and urge them to introduce their plans to persuade them to enhance and build up their own capacities, which would add to the advancement of the learning cycle in itself.

Related Articles

1) Kamal, et al., (2020). Digital Divide among Higher Education Faculty

Digital divide focuses on admittance to different elements of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) including physical access, motivation, abilities, and actual use of digital technologies. This divide will in general be much more extensive in regard to agricultural nations. However, there is an absence of writing on the digital divide among the staff who instruct in higher education settings. In this manner, as a starter exertion, by utilizing a 57-item Staff's ICT Access (FICTA) scale, we explored the digital inequalities (at the physical, motivational, abilities, and utilization levels) among Pakistani workforce in regard of their personal and positional classifications. We also analyzed the connection between personnel's instructional utilization of ICT and other elements of their ICT access. The discoveries revealed that there were critical contrasts in the personnel's admittance to technology at the four levels in regard of their personal and positional classes. Further, the discoveries of the examination shed light on the theoretical ramifications of the system of progressive sorts of ICT access recommended by van Dijk the deepening divide: inequality in the information society, 2005).

2) Benjamin (2020). The Digital Divide: Online Learning for Students in the time of Pandemic (COVID-19)

On December 31, 2019, the China Country Office of the World Health Organization (WHO) announced an obscure instance of pneumonia (Alheet et al., 2020). As indicated by the report, pneumonia of obscure etiology was recognized in Wuhan City, Hubei Region of China. The patients are generally are dealers and sellers in the Huanan fish market. Strangely, the report referenced that there was no huge proof of human-to-human transmission, and no healthcare laborers were contaminated. The first infection outside China was recognized in Thailand (Al-Hilali, 2012). The first death from the Coronavirus was accounted for from the Philippines (Al-Khatib, 2010). On February 11, 2020, WHO named the questions instance of pneumonia as COVID-19 (Al-Mallah, 2017). On Walk 11, 2020, inside a month, it was announced as a pandemic (Al-Zanfali, 2016). The world reacted by confining ventures and shutting its lines, social distancing, health measures, and advising its residents to stay home. In April 2020, Tact Tank said that 91% of the total populace lives in nations with limitations on individuals showing up from various nations and 39% where lines are altogether shut (Al-Zanfali, 2012). As of July 2020, there are 15,296,926 affirmed cases, 628,903 affirmed passings, in 216 nations and regions (Areiqat, 2019). The insights demonstrate that numerous lives are influenced the agricultural nations as well as the developed nations like—the impact of the pandemic influenced the lives of the individuals of the world. Numerous families were isolated, the passing brought distresses and misery. The closures of organizations cut down the economies of numerous countries, and the educational foundations were not saved also.

3) Raeal (2019). The Digital Divide and Educational Equity A Look at Students with Very Limited Access to Electronic Devices at Home

Admittance to technology is essential to educational accomplishment just as labor force and community improvement. In any case, geographical, income-based, and racial/ethnic parties in technology access continue. This "digital divide"— the hole between individuals who have adequate information on and access to technology and the individuals who don't—can sustain and even deteriorate financial and other variations for already underserved groups. This short investigates one specific group: understudies who approach just a single gadget at home, a group speaking to 14% of all overview respondents. Bringing a more profound jump into the information on understudies with access to just a single gadget is significant in light of the fact that these understudies may confront challenges not looked by understudies with access to at least two gadgets.

4) Rehaf (2019). Analysis of Educational Quality, a Goal of Education for All Policy.

Education is perceived as a human right since the appropriation of Universal Declaration of human rights in 1948 other than health and shelter. Education for All Goals was set up, where more than 150 governments have embraced world statement on Education for All strategy to help the universal right for education. A definitive goal of numerous nations is to ensure the ideal educational access rates for improving the quality. Additionally, quality is reflected by a scope of markers, including government spending on education, understudy/instructor proportions, educator qualifications, test scores, and the period of time understudies spend in school. Each speculation should be estimated against how it can serve such viewpoints to guarantee a definitive quality of Education for All projects. Putting resources into education fortifies a general public's wealth and development, where individuals can without much of a stretch improve their very own adequacy, efficiency, and livelihoods. A significant challenge lies in characterizing the ideal education pointers and conditions among nations; especially ineffectively poorly developed nations that endeavor to set up a quality evaluation theme. Therefore, there is a need of a multifaceted angle and thinking system to realize educational arrangement evaluations that can genuinely add to the improvement of the educational circumstance in agricultural nations and around the globe.

5) Francisco, et al., (2018). Internet Use by Secondary School Students: A Digital Divide in Sustainable Societies?

Although the utilization of the Web is generalized, its potential as a training instrument is occasionally considered. Simultaneously, there exists a digital divide influencing helpless or disadvantaged groups: understudies of foreign origin and understudies with special educational necessities. It is important to recognize how inequality can be defeated to arrive at the targets set by the United Nations with respect to supportable types of advancement for education and to cultivate more comprehensive and egalitarian social orders. In this examination with understudies aged 12–16, the goal was to build up profiles as indicated by sex, social class, ethnic foundation, and special educational necessities. We utilized a blended methodological plan, applying a poll to 2734 understudies from 15 focuses and qualitative information assortment strategies. We made a clear and inferential analysis (SPSS program) and a qualitative information content analysis upheld by the "Maxqda" program. The outcomes show that, although most understudies have Web access, understudies of foreign origin and understudies with special educational requirements utilize this asset less every now and again. There are huge contrasts in sex. In like manner, the social divide affects the learning potential of the Web. A few proposals for development are given from the system of the school, with the end goal of improving the socio-educational value and consideration in social orders looking for a more feasible type of advancement.

6) Husain & Syed (2016). Determinants of Education Quality: What Makes Students’ Perception Different?

In late many years, the commercialization of education has become more evident and the requirement for utilizing marketing apparatuses is more prominent than previously. This investigation expects to distinguish the segment and foundation data of understudies that separate their discernment about the quality of higher education. An example of 432 understudies was taken from five top private universities of Bangladesh to evaluate their discernment toward measurements of higher education. Multinomial relapse analysis was directed to distinguish the attributes of understudies that make their perception about the quality of higher education disparate. The discoveries show that the status of understudies for scholarships, extracurricular exercises, guardians' education, age, past result, and university they concentrate in, impact perception about the quality of higher education. Part-time work status impacts the understudies' discernment. This examination conveys value to education strategy producers and university specialists. They can utilize these discoveries to define guidelines and target specific groups of understudies to guarantee a great scholastic climate and increment the brand image of their establishments.

Study Approach

In this examination, the specialist depended on the descriptive and analytical technique for its reasonableness to the subject of the current investigation, and it was utilized by the accompanying steps:

Gathering, perusing, and analyzing past examinations and writing identified with the subject of the investigation, determining the issue of the examination, and afterward setting up the theoretical system to cover all points to be studied and theoretical qualification for it.

Study Population

The study population consists of all the representatives of Al-Ahliyya Amman University, whose number is (630) workers, administrative workers and academics (https://www.ammanu.edu.jo).

Study Sample

The example is viewed as a component of the examination populace and is taken to precisely speak to the community, and the sample is utilized to consider the attributes of the investigation populace and gather its highlights.

To pick a sample size that is illustrative of the community and liberated from inclination, which is reflected in the chance of generalizing the outcomes to all individuals from the investigation populace. To accomplish this, the analyst utilized the far reaching review by including all the items of the statistical community at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, which are (630) items (https://www.ammanu.edu.jo).

The Statistical Methods Used

1) Percentages, frequencies, arithmetic mean, relative weight and arrangement for the purposes of knowing the frequency of a variable classification in the demographic characteristics of the study sample and analyzing the items of the study variables.

2) Cronbach's Alpha test to discover the solidness of the items of the survey.

3) Pearson correlation coefficient to evaluate the direct connection between social capital with its measurements and its part in accomplishing organizational advancement.

4) Linear Regression test to study the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable and the main hypothesis.

5) (Durbin - Watson) test for the self-relationship of the study variables.

6) Pearson’s Chi-Square Test.

Table 1
The Stability Values of The Study Instrument Using Cronbach's Alpha
Number Study variables Number of paragraphs paragraph numbers Cronbach's Alpha
1 The technological measurement 5 5-Jan 0.923
2 Knowledge measurement and capacity- building 5 10-Jun 0.911
3 Enactment and laws 5 15-Nov 0.874
4 University Presidency commitment to quality 5 16-20 0.896
5 Academic reputation and publication of scientific
research
5 21-25 0.87
Total 25 25-Jan 0.905

Table No. (1) shows us that the Cronbach's alpha coefficients fall between (0.870-0.923) and this indicates that all the paragraphs of the study variables have made the condition of stability by exceeding them (0.700), which means that all the paragraphs of the survey are stable, that is, the solidness of the resolution is high and statistically significant and thus The survey, in its final form, can be distributed to the study population, whose number is (630) individuals, which makes the researcher sure of the validity of the survey and its validity to analyze the data and answer the study questions.

Table 2
Demographic And Functional Characteristics Of The Study Population
Character Frequency Percentage
Gender
Male 396 62.80%
Female 234 37.20%
Total 630 100%
Age
30 Years and less 116 18.40%
31-40 154 24.40%
41-50 242 38.40%
51 and more 118 18.80%
Total 630 100%
Education
Bachelor 154 24.40%
Master 192 30.40%
Doctoral 284 45.20%
Total 630 100%
Working Experience
Less than 5 years 76 12.00%
10-May 190 30.20%
15-Nov 248 39.40%
16 and more 116 18.40%
Total 630 100%
Job Title
Administrative 76 12.60%
Instructor 51 8.10%
Asst. Prof. 146 23.20%
Associate. Prof. 233 36.90%
Professor 124 19.20%
Total 630 100%

Presentation and Discussion of Results

The First Question

What is the impact of the technological measurements represented in the information and communication technology infrastructure on the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

Table 3
The Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation, Estimates of The Study Sample, And T-Test For The Technological Measurement
No Paragraph Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation The relative weight of the sample estimates t test value Sig. Rank
Technological measurement
1 The university has comprehensive and continually refreshed databases to meet the issues of the beneficiaries. 3.96 1.04 78.20% 33.16 0 3
2 The presence of the Web in the personnel offices assists with spreading data proficiently and viably. 3.87 0.923 77.40% 37.2 0 4
3 The accessibility of digital web in the university adds to improving the quality of the educational capacity of the faculty member. 4.13 0.964 82.60% 40.81 0 2
4 The university shares information bases of international educational and exploration institutions. 4.28 0.815 85.60% 42.16 0 1
5 Computerization of libraries at the university gives a typical structure to associating with other libraries and exploration centers. 3.8 1.016 76.00% 32.14 0 5
Total 4 1.033 80.00% 39.72 0

Table (3) shows that the value of T-Test (t=39.72) and the value of the calculated test essentialness was sig (0.000), which is a huge value demonstrating that there is a clear response to the field of internal relations among university representatives and the overall load of this field is equal to (80.0%) This outcome shows that the pivot of the technological measurement was at a serious level in Al-Ahliyya Amman University and that the most noteworthy paragraph was No. (4) and got approval with a serious level with relative weight (85.6%) and a noteworthiness level under (0.05) which specified (The university shares information bases of international educational and exploration institutions); Therefore, this section is viewed as a statistical function, just like the rest of the paragraphs in this field.

The Second Question

What is the impact of the knowledge measurement and limit expanding on the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

Table 4
The Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation, Estimates of The Study Sample, And The T- Test For The Psychological Measurement And Limit Expanding
N Paragraph Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation The relative weight of the sample estimates t test value Sig. Rank
Knowledge measurement and limit expanding
1 The university acquires information through advisors in regional and international universities and scientific institutes. 3.82 1.014 76.40% 13.36 0 4
2 The university utilizes numerous techniques to circulate information and make it accessible to all its representatives. 3.94 1.025 78.80% 14.92 0 3
3 The university has an adaptable, authoritative framework that encourages the appropriation of information to all representatives. 4.2 0.933 84.00% 16.18 0 1
4 The university holds instructional training on the significance of information and how to utilize it to accomplish the set goals. 4.16 0.891 83.20% 15.23 0 2
5 The university characterizes and classifies regulatory information and afterward transforms it into data to support decisions. 3.8 1.013 76.00% 11.17 0 5

Total 3.98 0.887 79.60% 14.33 0

Table (4) shows that the value of T-test (t=14.33) and the value of the calculated test significance was (sig = 0.000), which is a huge value demonstrating that there is a clear response to the field of external relations between laborers at Al-Ahliyya Amman University and other external parties. The overall relative load of the field was equal to (79.6%) and this outcome demonstrates that the external relations at the university accompanied a serious level, and obviously the most noteworthy section is paragraph No. (3), which expressed (The university has an adaptable, authoritative framework that encourages the appropriation of information to all representatives) It acquired approval to an enormous degree with a relative weight (84.0%) and a criticalness level under (0.05). Therefore, this paragraph is viewed as a statistical function, similar to the rest of the paragraphs in this field.

The Third Question

What is the effect of enactment and laws on the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

Table 5
The Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation, And Estimates of The Study Sample Individuals And The T-Test For Enactment And Laws
N Paragraph Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation The relative weight of the sample estimates t test value Sig. Rank
Enactment and laws
1 Universities and educational foundations are committed on the fundamental Law of Jordanian Universities issued by the Ministry of Higher Education. 4.36 1.031 87.20% 18.1 0 1
2 The university energizes current teaching strategies and procedures to persuade understudies to learn. 3.97 1.012 79.40% 12.31 0 4
3 The university regards and ensures the use of basic human rights in dealing with understudies and their families. 3.84 0.874 76.80% 10.78 0 5
4 Clearness of enactment and laws at the university helps fabricate corresponding roles and decision-making. 4.29 1.096 85.80% 16.44 0 2
5 Follow-up directions issued by the university administration add to solidifying enactment and laws in the university. 4.1 1.071 82.00% 14.28 0 3
Total 4.11 0.956 82.20% 15.44 0

Table (5) shows that the value of T-test (t = 15.44) and the value of the calculated test importance was (sig = 0.000), which is a critical value demonstrating that there is a clear response to the field of external relations between laborers at Al-Ahliyya Amman University and other external bodies. The overall relative load of the field is equal to (82.2%) and this outcome shows that the external relations at the university accompanied a serious level, and obviously the most elevated section is Paragraph No. (1) which expressed (Universities and educational foundations are committed on the fundamental Law of Jordanian Universities issued by the Ministry of Higher Education). It got approval to an enormous degree with relative weight (87.2%) and noteworthiness level under (0.05); Therefore, this paragraph is viewed as a statistical function, similar to the rest of the paragraphs in this field.

The Fourth Question

What are the interviewees' impression of the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

Table 6
The arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and estimates of the study sample individuals and the t-test of the dependent variable to the quality of Education
No Paragraphs of the dependent variable (Quality of education) Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation The relative weight of the sample estimates t test value Sig. Rank
The university presidency's commitment to quality
1 The university is keen to grant award of excellence in Scientific Research to its faculty members. 4.29 0.841 85.80% 32.09 0 1
2 The university sees the work of its graduates by international business organizations as a genuine rule for making a decision about the quality of its education. 3.87 1.032 77.40% 19.55 0 5
3 The university is keen on the consequences of the university proficiency exam decided by the Ministry of Higher Education, as it mirrors the quality of the graduate. 3.9 1.044 78.00% 22.91 0 4
4 The university gives clear attention to partakes in the criteria of the King Abdullah Award for uniquely Employee. 4.2 0.936 84.00% 29.46 0 2
5 The university has a reasonable vision and mission that attention on quality in education. 3.96 0.916 79.20% 26.14 0 3
Total 4.04 0.844 80.80% 27.29 0 -
Academic reputation and publication of scientific research
6 University personnel have an academic and professional reputation that compare to the university's mission and goals. 4.12 0.913 82.40% 13.32 0 3
7 The employees of the university add to the advancement of educational programs and study plans. 3.79 1.029 75.80% 10.24 0 5
8 The university urges its employees to go to conferences and hold scientific meetings regionally and internationally. 4.2 0.887 84.00% 15.39 0 2
9 The university centers around the necessities of scientific research and is interested about the participation of employees as a basis for evaluation and contract renewal. 4.33 0.992 86.60% 18.44 0 1
10 The university is quick to fit graduates with the necessities of the work market. 3.94 1.034 78.80% 11.95 0 4
Total degree 4.08 0.971 81.60% 12.82 0 -
The dependent variable as a whole 4.06 0.945 81.20% 11.97 0 -

As shown in Table (6) for the field (Quality of Education) that the value of T-test came to (t = 27.29), and the value of the calculated test significance was (Sig = 0.000), which is a huge value demonstrating that there is a clear response to the field of problem-solving as one of the measurements of advancement organizational at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, and the general load of this field was equal to (80.8%), which shows that solving problems at the university accompanied a serious level. Unmistakably the most noteworthy section is Paragraph No. (1), which expresses (The university is keen to grant an award of excellence in Scientific Research to its faculty members) and acquired approval to a huge degree with a general load of (85.8%) and a degree of significance under (0.05), so this is viewed as The paragraph is a statistical function like the rest of the paragraphs in this field.

As we can be seen from Table (6) for the field (academic reputation and publication of scientific research) that the value of T-test came to (t = 12.82), and the value of the calculated test criticalness came to (Sig = 0.000), which is a huge value demonstrating that there is a clear response to the element of taking-decisions at Al-Ahliyya Amman University. The overall load of the total field was equal to (81.6%), which demonstrates that the taking-decisions at the university accompanied a serious level. Plainly the most noteworthy section is Paragraph No. (9) which expresses (The university centers around the necessities of scientific research and is interested about the participation of employees as a basis for evaluation and contract renewal) and acquired approval to a huge degree and with an overall load of (86.6%) and a degree of noteworthiness under (0.05) Therefore, this paragraph is viewed as a statistical function, similar to the rest of the paragraphs in this field.

Analysis of Study Questions and Hypothesis Testing

The Main Question

What is the effect of the digital divide on the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University?

From this Question

The accompanying hypothesis is formulated:

There is no statistically critical part at the degree of essentialness (α ≤ 0.05) for the digital divide in its measurements (the technological measurement, the knowledge measurement, enactments and laws) on the quality of education in its measurements (the university presidency's obligation to quality, academic reputation, and publication of scientific research) at Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

Table 7
Results of Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of The Digital Divide in its Dimensions in The Quality of Education At Al-Ahliyya Amman University
Dependent variable R R2 F Freedom degree Sig. Independent variables β t value Sig. Independent variables
Measurements of the digital divide Measurements of the digital divide
quality of education 0.81 0.649 149.65 2 0 The technological measurement 0.74 28.03 0 The technological measurement
627 Psychological measurement 0.64 24.14 0 Psychological measurement
629 Enactments and laws 0.58 20.74 0 Enactments and laws

The main hypothesis was tested at the level of significance (0.05), and the outcomes were appeared in Table (7) according to the following:

• The tabular F value was extracted to compare it with the calculated F value, and it turned out to be evident that the calculated F value (149.65) is greater than the tabular F value (2.65) and it proves the significance of the model utilized in the regression analysis.

• The significance level of the test was contrasted, and the degree of essentialness embraced in the examination to demonstrate the existence of a part of the effect on the dependent variable (education quality). The above table No. (7) shows that the significance level for (F) reached (0.000), which is less than the level of significance adopted in the study (0.05). Accordingly, we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. There is a statistically critical part at the level of significance (α ≤ 0.05) of the digital divide in its measurements (the technological measurement, the psychological measurement, and the enactments and laws) on the quality of education in its measurements (the university presidency's obligation to quality, academic reputation and publication of scientific research) at Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

• The value of R is inferred to indicate the existence of a correlation between the independent variables and the dependent variable, and through Table No. (7) above, it was found that the value of the correlation is equal to (0.806), and it shows a solid positive connection between the measurements of the digital divide and the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

• The results proved that there is an explanatory capacity for the independent variables combined (the technological measurement, the psychological measurement, and the enactment and laws) on the dependent variable (the quality of education) and its value (64.9%), and it was inferred from the value of the determination coefficient (R2=0.649).

Table 8
Chi-Square Test To Find Out The Relationship Between The Technological Measurement Of The Digital Divide And The Quality Of Education At Al-Ahliyya Amman University
The dimension Quality of education
Chi-Square Test Sig.
The technological measurement 28.32 0

Table (8) shows that there is an influential and statistically critical connection between the technological measurement at the university and the accomplishment of the quality of education in it, where the value of Chi-square (28.32) and with statistical significance (0.000), which is smaller than the level of significance in the hypothesis (0.05). Thus, we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis, that is, there is a relationship between the technological measurement in the university and the achievement of the quality of education in it, and this result intersects with the study of (Kamal et al., 2020).

Table 9
Chi-Square Test To Find Out The Relationship Between The Psychological Measurement And Capacity-Building For The Digital Divide And The Quality Of Education At Al-Ahliyya Amman University University
The dimension Quality of education
Chi-Square Test Sig.
Psychological measurement and capacity building 25.14 0

Table (9) shows the existence of a statistically significant effect relationship between the psychological measurement and capacity building for the digital divide and the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, where the value of the chi-square was (25.14) and in statistical significance (0.000), which is smaller than the level of significance of the hypothesis (0.05). Consequently, we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis, there is a relationship between the psychological measurement and capacity-building for the digital divide and the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, and this result intersects with the study of (Raeal, 2019).

Table 10
Chi-Square Test To Find Out The Relationship Between Enactments And Laws As One Of The Dimensions Of The Digital Divide And The Quality Of Education At Al-Ahliyya Amman University
The dimension Quality of education
Chi-Square Test Sig.
Enactments and laws 24.73 0

Table (10) shows the existence of a statistically significant effect relationship between enactments and laws as one of the measurements of the digital divide and the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, where the value of the chi-square was (24.73) and in statistical significance (0.000), which is smaller than the level of significance of the hypothesis (0.05). Thus, we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis, that is, there is a relationship between enactments and laws as one of the measurements of the digital divide and the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, and this result intersects with the study of (John & Naslund 2017).

Results of The Study

1) As can be seen the results of Table No. (2) that the majority of the sample items are males at a rate of (62.8%). However, the percentage of females, which amounted to (37.2%), is an indication of the development occurring in Jordanian patriarchal society about giving the open door for Jordanian women because the success of Jordanian women in acquiring administration and academic positions and their compelling commitment to public life are viewed the most important aspects of gender equity. We also found that the majority of university employees are young men whose ages ranged from (31 to 50 years) and their percentage reached about (63%) of the total representatives. It is striking that the percentage of those with a high academic rank (associate professor and professor) added up to more than 55%.

2) The investigation indicated that the components of the digital divide (combined) have achieved accomplished various at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, as follows:

• The technological measurement (information and communication technology infrastructure accomplished a high reaction score of (4.00) members of the study sample with a relative weight (80.0%), and shows the insight of Al-Ahliyya Amman University to pay attention to providing information and communication technology as it attempts to change the teaching and learning processes. By adding vital components to learning environments, including providing virtual environments and simulation frameworks that help the credibility and reliability of the learning cycle, especially while dealing with complex and difficult parts. This outcome is consistent with the study of (Francisco, et al., 2018).

• The knowledge measurement and capacity-building achieved a high response score of (3.98%) with a relative weight of (80.0%). Knowledge management as a new concept for higher education institutions is one of the accessible management solutions that offer them the chance stay up with the quickening environmental changes, and to adequately apply knowledge management methodologies and procedures, It definitely prompts improving the capacity of these institutions to improve the quality of their educational services and decision-making, subsequently increasing the value and upgrading of these institutions. This result is consistent with the study of (Rehaf, 2019).

• The measurement of enactments and laws and their application at Al-Ahliyya Amman University achieved a high response score (4.11) with relative weight (82.0%). This shows that considering the presence of numerous laws recently issued to govern the work of public and private universities, including those related to university management, including those related to higher education, we discover It accompanied with texts that deal with and regulate the process of managing the university body through its different committees, as it gave each different committee powers and authorities.

• The education quality variable at Al-Ahliyya Amman University achieved a high degree of response score (4.06) and with a relative weight of more than (81.0%). This indicates the importance of higher education quality as one of the methods for improving and building up the quality of education and upgrading its level in the era of globalization that can be depicted As the time of quality that attempts to raise the value of the educational foundation among other institutions, and make it able to contend at the local and international levels. This result intersects with the study of (Sinha & De, 2010).

3) The study found a statistically significant effect of the digital divide with its consolidated measurements on the quality of education in its measurements (combined) at Al-Ahliyya Amman University, as the value of the Pearson connection coefficient (R) for this influential relationship was more than (80%) and a significance (0.000), which is less than the significance. (0.05) and this result intersects with the study of (Rehaf, 2019).

4) The investigation found a statistically critical effect connection between the technological measurement and the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

5) The presence of a statistically significant impact relationship between the knowledge measurement, capacity building and the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

6) The existence of a statistically important impact relationship between enactments and laws and the quality of education at Al-Ahliyya Amman University.

Recommendations

As indicated by the ends and discoveries of this examination, we have closed the accompanying recommendations:

1) A vital arrangement for universities are put to improve and build up their framework on a progressing premise in order to empower digital access and bridge the digital divide among academic researchers.

2) The responsible authorities make accessible modern electronic gadgets and the availability of the Internet at a reasonable cost and at high speed fit with the economic conditions of universities and academic researchers in order to facilitate the way of acquiring and benefiting from them.

3) Universities ought to sort out regular to present the most recent improvements in the digital age and how to profit by them and utilize them in scientific research, which prompts to raising the degree of knowledge of researchers and academics and improving the quality of education.

4) The university administration makes the issue of bridging the digital divide one of its most significant goals in its strategic plan and techniques for executing this.

5) Training courses for employees be hold on the developments of the digital age and how to employ them in scientific research.

6) The university faculty members are committed to coordinate information and communication technology into the educational cycle and hold periodic rivalries in such manner to urge them to follow all the improvements of the digital age.

7) Providing modern and progressed PC labs and a solid web network in all the university's faculties and its different halls that allow all researchers to obtain knowledge effectively and allow employees the opportunity to teach research students how to properly access knowledge.

8) Urging the senior management to put forth serious and ceaseless attempts to help efforts aimed at enriching and enhancing knowledge management and information technology at the university and establishing a stimulating regulatory environment to accomplish quality education.

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