Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 3

Perceptions of Jordanian Society towards the Late Age of Marriage among Young People and its Effects

Huda A Alhajjaj, University of Jordan

Amneh A Ghraibeh, Helwan University

Khalil Ibrahim Al-halalat, University of Jordan

Abstract

The study aimed to reveal economic and social perceptions of the late age of marriage among young people in Jordanian society and to detect social effects according to variables (sex, age, geographical origin). The sample of the study consisted of (385) individuals, and was applied questionnaire prepared specifically as a tool for collecting the data. The results of the study showed that the economic reasons from the point of view of the individuals of the sample came to a high degree, and the results showed that the social causes of the sample came to an average degree, as well as the social implications of delayed age of marriage, the differences due to the group of males in Jordan due to gender (0.019) which was lower than (α≤0.05). The economic reasons for the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman were not statistically indicative at the level of significance (0.05) according to the gender variable, as the results showed no statistically significant differences in the social causes of the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman due to age. Also, there were statistical differences in the social reasons for the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth. In Amman, the level of significance (0.000) is lower than (α≤0.05) and the source of the differences is attributed to the rural population

Keywords

Late Marriage, Economic and Social Representations, Social Repercussions.

Introduction

Marriage is a dream of every girl to crown a queen on her throne, and exercises a human instinct deposited by God in the heart of a woman the instinct of motherhood, and marriage is one of the components of building the right family, which is the basic building block of society and its security and stability, so the societies that neglected this factor still suffer because of a difference in the concept of a stable family. Selection of spouse is transforming from the traditional pattern built around kinship and communal goals to more individualistic pattern based on love and self-selection (Smith, 2007), especially for educated and urban women.

The family in the Arab world is the basic social unit and founding nucleus of society, and represents the incubator for its members who seek the meanings of housing, mercy, intimacy and bond, and the family begins its formation by marriage, which is not only a contractual bond between husband and wife, but is described as a description. In the Arab region, demographic patterns of marriage status have changed significantly in recent decades, early marriage has declined sharply in parts of the Arab world and the rate of celibacy or spinsterhood has increased significantly (Rashad, Osman, & Roudi-Fahimi. 2005). If it serves as the beginning of a partnership, it not only involves the rights and duties of the parties, but goes beyond that to extend the pastoral, protective and educational role for generations to come, but also often doubles the pastoral role to include the roles of his care for families extended (Doha International Family Institute, 2019).

The phenomenon of delayed marriage age for young men and women has become a major problem for many, as the late age of marriage in Jordanian society is a major problem that is seeking a solution. In many societies, to remain unmarried beyond a certain age is regarded as a misfortune; such women are pitied and blamed for their status and negative stereotypes are associated with their civil status (Berg-Cross et al., 2004; DePaulo & Morris, 2005; Byrne & Carr, 2005; Hertel et al., 2007; Ibrahim & Hassan, 2009).

The spread of the problem in our Jordanian society has become a major crisis that is difficult to solve. Despite the huge amount of religious and cultural heritage that works to prevent the emergence of this phenomenon, the view of society does not spare anyone who has aged and did not marry. Despite the importance of marriage for both the individual and society, the cultural, social, economic and political transformations of Jordan's external migration have led to significant changes in the marriage system in terms of age, style of choice, housing.... Etc.), which has led to the spread of the phenomenon of late marriage age among young men and women.

The Problem of the Study

Marriage is a characteristic of the human element, a requirement of human life to ensure continuity and stability. And the survival of the human kind within the framework of a legitimate social and legal contract according to certain conditions and criteria that the society earns new members, which contributes to its continuation. But the phenomenon of marriage has been accompanied by significant changes in social, cultural and economic conditions and changed many concepts; especially under the circumstances. Jordanian society has accompanied many social, economic and political transformations resulting in relative changes in the trends, perceptions and opinions of individuals about some social phenomena as well as the emergence of habits, behaviors and actions some of which are strange to our society and even contrary to our values, some of these acts affect society as a whole, others especially i.e. be more influential on the building and stability of the family, perhaps the most significant of these transformations in Jordanian society is the emergence of a new phenomenon of delaying marriage for young people.

The delay in marriage is a social phenomenon that has been contributed by a range of social, economic, cultural and psychological factors, varying in its impact on the family system as a whole. This phenomenon has become an urgent issue that has become a concern for society, requiring research into the dimensions of this phenomenon, the social, economic and cultural factors that drive its aggravation, and its implications in Jordanian society.

The spread of the phenomenon of delayed marriage age for young people, creating social problems that afflict all families, which creates clear social repercussions for young people, and that the problem of delayed marriage age has several social, economic and cultural reasons that have influenced the change of individual and societal values in Jordanian society, where the young man has become more seeking to secure his future and form himself before the feet of marriage, as unemployment and the high prices of dowry and the inability of young people to secure adequate housing, and the desire of young people to complete graduate studies, may force the young man to postpone the idea of marriage to marriage. Another time, as well as the girl's quest to work to improve her social standing in society, and to be materially independent of the man, which led to her late marriage age. Statistics indicate that there is a clear increase in age at first marriage, especially among females, which confirms the phenomenon of female delay in marriage. In 1979, the average age at first marriage for females in Jordan was 21.1, in 1987 it was 24.3, 1999 was 25.5, and in 2012 it was 25.9 and 2019 (Department Of Public Statistics,2016). The legal age of marriage in Jordan is (18) for both sexes according to the latest amendment to article (10) paragraph (a) of the Law: (Eligibility for marriage is required that the suitor and fiancée be reasonable and each has 18 solar years of his or her age). (Jordanian Personal Law –Temporary-,2010). It is estimated that about 150,000 women were never married and were over 150,000 in 2015, 141,000 more than in 1979, and the figure doubled (22 times) from 1979 to the end of 2015 (Department Of Public Statistics,2016).

The Department of Public Statistics also showed necessary indicators of social indicators by average age at the time of first marriage for males in 2016, where the proportion of married males was 52.60% in 2008, and increased slightly in 2016, to 53.10%, while females were 55.60% married in 2000. 8, it fell to 54.2% in 2016, the proportion of unmarried women was 36%, in 2008, and fell to 33.7% in 2015 for females, and Jordan recorded a high average of 31.3% for males in 2016, and 26.9% for females. In the same year, it was 29.8% for males in 2008, and 26.3% for females in the same year (Department Of Public Statistics, 2016).

Questions of the Study

The study seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What are the reasons for the late age of marriage among young people in Jordanian society?

2. What are the implications of delayed marriage age among young people in Jordanian society?

3. Are there statistically significant differences in the reasons for the delaying marriage due to the variable sex, age and place of residence?

4. Are there statistically significant differences in the social implications of delayed marriage due to the variable sex, age and place of residence?

Study Objectives

1. Identify the economic and social representations of the late age of marriage among young people in Jordanian society and reveal differences in them according to variables (gender, age, geographical origin).

2. Identify the social implications of the late age of marriage among young people in Jordanian society and reveal differences in them according to variables (gender, age, geographical origin).

The Importance of Study

The importance of this study stems from the importance of the role of young people in society as a public and Jordanian society as a private one for their active. This study try to explain the phenomenon of delayed marriage by revealing the most important factors that helped to arise. In addition, to pay attention to the group of young people who are late to marriage in Jordanian society and know the factors that led to this in order to take community measures in this. This study suggests that many proposals have been reached to deal with the reasons for the late age of marriage.

Literature Review

Al-Jawhari (2020) conducted a study entitled "The personal variables of the university girl associated with the problem of unemployment and delayed marriage. This study aims to: identify the most important personal variables associated with the problem of unemployment and delayed marriage age from the point of view of the students. In order to identify the most important proposals to deal with the problem of unemployment and the late age of marriage, the study questions revolved around the main question of the study: what are the most important personal variables associated with the problem of unemployment and the delayed age of marriage (Al- Jawhari ,2020). Sub-questions: What are the most important psychological variables associated with the problem of unemployment and delayed marriage from the point of view of the students? What are the most important physical variables associated with the problem of unemployment and the late age of marriage from the point of view of the students? What are the most important mental variables associated with the problem of unemployment and late marriage from the point of view of the students? What are the most important social variables associated with the problem of unemployment and the late age of marriage from the point of view of the students? The study reached a set of proposals, including: modifying the trends and behavior of girls towards marriage, which, foremost of which is the waiver of some aspirations of marriage, modifying the attitudes and behavior of young people towards marriage, which is foremost humility and satisfaction with a little beauty and money in the girl as long as the requirement of religion is met, the modification of the attitudes of families towards marriage, including moderation in matters of engagement, dowry, expenses and marriage, the design of courses and seminars and lectures in universities and research centers related to the issue of delayed marriage age. In the meantime, the government has established a national program to provide the necessary services to the community.

The Al-Jalbana study (2017) examined the late age of marriage and its implications for gender social relations in Jordanian society (Amman city as a model). The study aimed to know the specific characteristics of young people of late age of marriage, to know the representations and trends of Jordanians towards the phenomenon of delayed marriage age, to know the reasons for the late age of marriage among young people in Jordanian society, and to know the implications of delayed marriage age on gender relations, and the data were collected using the method of observation, questionnaire (form), and the sample of the study consisted of young people over the age of (35) years, where the eye of the sample (351) males and females. The study found that the economic conditions experienced by young people in Jordanian society made them delay their marriage, which consisted of a set of obstacles: low salaries, wages, high rent for apartments, construction costs, unemployment, lack of adequate employment opportunities, in addition to the fact that there are constraints related to the economic conditions of marriage, including: high value of dowry that is not in line with the standard of living of families, expenses after marriage, high expenses, excessive expenses of marriage, and that there is a relationship between the girl learning and working outside the home from home. On the one hand, her marriage was delayed on the other (Al-Jalbana, 2017).

Awad (2016) conducted a study entitled "The impact of the high costs of marriage in the late age of marriage: a social study of the economics of marriage in an Egyptian village", which aimed to reveal the features of the economics of marriage in an Egyptian village in Damietta governorate, and to identify the nature of the changes in marriage in an Egyptian village, as a result of the economic and social transformations that Egyptian society has witnessed in recent years (Awad, 2016).

The main question that the study tried to answer was: Have the high costs of marriage affected the late age of marriage in the school community? The field study was conducted on two axes: the first: quantitatively by drawing a non-probability sample of (200) young people, distributed in similar proportions between the sexes, by relying on a codified resolution in terms of stability and honesty, the second axis; The most prominent results of the study on: there are several variables of the economics of marriage in the study society (engagement, marital residence, Russian device, list of transfers, wedding night), and the content of all these variables in the study society has undergone several changes: it has shifted from necessary to kamali, which increased the financial burdens on the couple, which caused the delayed age, marriage among young people in the study society.

Al-Khudhairi Study (2015) is a study entitled "The phenomenon of late marriage from the point of view of university youth: a field study". This study aimed to find out the causes of this phenomenon from the point of view of university youth in Saudi society, and to identify the main factors that led to its exacerbation, as well as to identify its negative effects, and to know the solutions that can contribute to reducing it. To this end, a random sample of king Saud University's 320 students was selected. The study was based on a court questionnaire that included a number of questions that reflected the subject matter of the study on the one hand, and answered its questions on the other hand, and used a number of statistical methods that were appropriate to the nature and type of data. The results of the study revealed that the religious factor is one of the most prominent motives for marriage among Young Saudis, and that the most prominent determinants of marriage choice were the personal choice conditional on the acceptance of the family, and through relatives, and that they did not agree to the determinants of choice through the Internet.( Al-Khudhairi,2015). he reasons for the delay in the age of marriage have been found to be the most prominent of which are low income, the inability to provide adequate housing, the over-availability of weddings, the extravagance of banquets and celebrations, and the desire to continue education. As for knowing the implications of delayed marriage age among Young Saudi son-in-law, the age of unemployment, the prevalence of moral, psychological and other problems. In the light of these findings, the study has produced many recommendations and proposals that can contribute to reducing this phenomenon and its negative effects on society.

The study expanded Qandil et al. (2013). The study aimed to identify factors affecting the late age of marriage and the effects of delayed marriage from the point of view of young men (male-female), and the sample of the study consisted of a group of young men and women with a sample of 300.The researcher found that young people believe that economic, social and cultural factors affect more in the late age of marriage than what girls expressed. There was no moral difference between the views of urban and rural youth in the factors affecting the late age of marriage. There are statistically untenable differences between the effects of delayed marriage age according to both gender and origin, thus rejecting the assumption that there are differences between the average degree of effects resulting from delayed marriage age depending on: a - the sex of young people. B. Depending on the origin of the youth. Also, it concluded that the older the young man or girl, the more the young man or girl feels the problem significantly, as well as for years of work. Besides, the problem is increasing the number of years of work (Qandil et al, 2013)

Sinad, (2007) conducted a study entitled "Late age of marriage among university youth: a field study on a sample of students from Damascus University". The study aims to reveal the reasons for the delayed age of marriage as seen by a sample of 400 students from the Faculties of Education and Civil Engineering at Damascus University, as well as to know the differences between the members of the sample according to the differences between the members of the sample according to the differences of the research: sex, year of study, college and the study reached the following conclusions: the members of the sample give the great importance of the problem of housing and rent, that marriage is divided and share, high cost of living and life, loss of parents, one or one of them and the responsibility of the boy or girl for raising brothers, the unwillingness of the wife to live with The husband's parents, the social status of the family, the high price of ponies, the continuation of educational attainment, the low income level of men and the individual appreciation of the family he intends to form (Sinad, 2007).

It is clear from the literature review that they have varied in several Arab countries, and that the field of Arab research has witnessed a variety of research production in the field of late marriage age for young people, as well as the methodology and samples that have been used. But in the area of representations of late marriage age among young people and its repercussions, it was lacking in research and studies on this subject, where it is only varied in its inclusion among other patterns of late age of marriage, knowing the factors and reasons related to the delay of the age of marriage. Marriage, and the impact of the high costs of marriage in delaying the age of marriage, without extremism to the representations of the delayed age of marriage among young people and its repercussions in particular. Based on the above, it shows the importance of the current study in filling the gap that has been experienced in the field of Arab research. The current study has new results related to the late marriage factors and effects in Jordan community, which encourage doing more researches.

Methodology

This study used the descriptive analytical method with the aim of dealing with the data and describing the phenomenon and the society researched, but the analytical part of it was to obtain answers to the study's questions and to reach the most important conclusions about the causes and implications of delayed marriage age among Jordanian young men and women within the capital Amman.

Population

The study community is made up of all the 4430,700 inhabitants of The City of Amman according to the 2019 Supplement of the Department of General Statistics attached to Appendix.

Sample

In order to collect the data of the sample of the study, the simple random sample method was relied upon, where the data of the sample members were obtained from the Civil Status Department in Amman, and the questionnaire designed by the researcher was distributed on the sample of the study, where electronic questionnaires were distributed to the selected persons according to random number tables, and electronic questionnaire was used because the current situation (CORONA) does not allow the researcher to enter the homes of these persons in order to reduce mixing and was converted into electronic questionnaire. The recommended sample size for the size of the community was (385) individuals, depending on the website (Raosoft, 2004) see Appendix B.

The number of people (400) and (385) questionnaires from members of the community were recovered by (96.3%) This is a high response rate, and Table 1 shows the distribution of the sample by demographic information

Table 1
Demographic Information for the Sample
Demographic Data Categories Number Percentage %
Gender Male 203 52.70%
Female 182 47.30%
Total 385 100.00%
Age  20-29Year 102 26.50%
30-39 Year 167 43.40%
40-49 Year 64 16.60%
50-59 Year 52 13.50%
Total 385 100.00%
Income 300-600 59 15.30%
601- 900 241 62.60%
901  ????? 85 22.10%
Total 385 100.00%
Geographic Original City 228 59.20%
Rural 157 40.80%
Total 385 100.00%
Academic Achievement Under High School 52 13.50%
Bachelor 254 66.00%
Graduate 79 20.50%
Total 385 100.00%

The table above indicates:

1. That the sample of the study consisted of males and females (52.7%, 47.3%) Respectively

2. The above table also showed that the most frequent age group was 30-39 years old (43.4%) The 20-29 age group came in second place (26.5%) The lowest age groups in the study sample were (40-49) and (50-59) with ratios (16.6%, 13.5%) Straight.

3. The highest percentage of monthly income went to the monthly income category, which is between 601-900 JD (62.6%) The lowest monthly income groups were JD 300-600 (15.3%).

4. The proportion of the sample members geographically from the city was 59.2%) From the sample, the proportion of households of geographical origin from the countryside was 40.8%. From the sample.

5. The proportion of those who had a bachelor's degree in the sample was (66%) They had the highest percentage in the sample and then those who finished postgraduate studies by (20.5%) Then those who were eligible were secondary and below by 13.5%.

Data Analysis

A questionnaire specifically designed as a tool for collecting information was designed to suit the objectives, methodology and society of the study, and the resolution is one of the most honest and consistent means of collecting data and information.

It included two parts: the first part included the preliminary data of the sample members: (sex, age, monthly income, place of residence, scientific qualification) while the second included identifying the social and economic reasons for the late age of marriage of Jordanian youth in Amman and its social implications in gender relations. The resolution was designed in accordance with the five-year-old Likert scale: strongly Agree, Agree, neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree. Paragraphs weights (5, 4, 3, 2, 1) are given respectively as in Appendix 1.

Reliability and Validity

Reliability: Based on the idea of the appropriateness of the questionnaire term for what measures and to whom it applies and the extent to which it relates to the questionnaire as a whole, and from this point of view the questionnaire was presented in its initial form to a number of experienced arbitrators and the competence of faculty members in the field of social work at the University of Jordan to take their views and benefit from their opinions in modifying it and verifying the suitability of each phrase for the axis to which it belongs, and the extent to which the sound and accuracy of the language and linguistic language of the questionnaire, and the extent to which the questionnaire includes the form of the study and achieve its objectives, and the extent to which the questionnaire is covered. In the light of the opinions of the arbitrators, some phrases have been reformulated and others have been added to improve the study tool.

Validity: The stability of the questionnaire means stability in the results of the questionnaire, and not significantly altered, if it is redistributed to the sample members, several times, over certain periods of time, and the stability of the study resolution has been verified, through the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, as shown in Table 2.

Table 2
Cronbach's Alpha Coefficients for Study Tool Dimensions
Study Factors Number of Dominations Value (α)
Social Factors 6 0.806
Economic Factors 7 0.821
Social Effects 7 0.897
Total 20 0.854

The previous Table (3) shows that the base rate of instrument axes ranged from (0.806- 0.897) and the study tool as a whole had a stability factor (0.854), which were higher according to (Santos, and Reynaldo 1999). Cronbach's Alpha indicators indicate that the study tool has a high stability factor and its ability to achieve the study's objectives in terms of analyzing and interpreting the results of the study and answering its questions.

Table 3
Mean Average, Standard Deviation and Percentage of the Economic Reasons for Delayed Marriage Age
The Level of Social Factors Percentage Standard Deviation Mean Term Number
High Level 82.40% 0.143 4.12 The reason for the late age of marriage of young people is the high wages of housing. Q8
High Level 84.00% 0.984 4.2 The reason for the late age of marriage is the lack of permanent and appropriate employment opportunities. Q9
High Level 84.20% 0.92 4.21 The reason of the late marriage is unemployment Q13
High Level 84.60% 0.9 4.23 The reason for the delayed age of marriage is to bear the expenses of the whole family Q7
High Level 84.60% 0.914 4.23 The reason for the late age of marriage is the high cost of living Q12
High Level 85.20% 0.948 4.26 The reason for the late age of marriage is low salaries Q10
High Level 85,80% 0.891 4.29 The reason for the late age of marriage is the high cost of marriage Q11
High Level 84,4% 0.655 4.22 Economic Factors

Results and Discussions

This part of the study includes a presentation of its results, which were reached by answering the study's questions, and a descriptive analysis of all study variables was carried out for the questionnaires and mathematical averages, standard deviations and percentages of respondents' answers were carried out, and the following was a presentation of the questionnaires:

It is clear from the previous Table (3) that the highest paragraph in the economic reasons for the late age of marriage was "the reason for the delayed age of marriage and the high costs of marriage." He can form a family to provide (dowry) which is in two forms of cash postponed payment and a gold coin must be bought, and is charged with preparing to marry parties, gifts, banquet preparation, wedding hall, buying candy, decorating the bride and buying dresses and furnishing the house are the reasons that delayed the age of marriage Young people this is consistent with the study (Awad,2016). and the study confirmed that low income, The inability to provide adequate housing, the overstatement of weddings, the extravagance of banquets and celebrations, and the desire to continue education were one of the economic reasons for the delay in the age of marriage, and the least paragraph was "the reason for the delayed age of marriage, the high wages of the marriage" in the middle of my account and a standard deviation (4.12, 0.143) respectively, explaining that the Jordanian family still supports its uniqueness so that the next person can marry with his family, or provide help him on this side. The dimension as a whole was its arithmetic average (4.22) and its standard deviation (0.655).

The table above shows that all the paragraphs of the economic reasons for the late age of marriage among young people in the sample were in a high category and this shows that the economic reasons had a great impact in delaying the age of marriage in Jordanian society, and the economic factor is one of the most important factors that determine the life trends of any society and highlights the degree of well-being and decline, and determines the uniqueness of their problems and challenges, and Jordanian society is one of the societies that went through economic circumstances that directly reflected on the lives of its members, which passed through the 1990s, and which passed through the 1990s. After the economic crisis that hit society in the early 1980s, it experienced economic crises due to the events witnessed by the world, including the first and second Gulf Wars, the World Economic Crisis, the Arab Revolutions, the Syrian War, and the latest Corona pandemic, which affected the economic situat ion of Jordanian society and married life as well.

The economic factor also affects the late age of marriage through the reduction of monthly salaries, if we know that the minimum wage is 220 dinars and the average monthly income of employees is less than 800 dinars, and this income is not enough to form a family. Considering economic factors as one of the most important reasons for the late age of marriage among young people, this is consistent with the study (Al-Jalbana, 2017). which confirmed that the economic conditions experienced by young people in Jordanian society made them delay their marriage, including: low salaries, wages, high rent for apartments, construction costs, unemployment, lack of suitable employment opportunities, in addition to the lack of adequate employment opportunities, in addition to the fact that there are obstacles related to the economic conditions of young people. The high value of the dowry, which is not in line with the standard of living of families, post-marriage expenses, high marriage expenses and excessive marriage.

Social Factors

To answer the study's question, which states that "What are the social reasons for delaying the age of marriage among Young Jordanians in Amman?"

It is clear from the previous table (4) that the highest paragraph in the social reasons for the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth was "the delay of the age of marriage was due to the intervention of the parents" in the middle of my account and a standard deviation (4.29.0.943) respectively, which explains the nature of the Jordanian male society, which gives the authority to the father to interfere in the choice of husband or wife for children, and his consent is a prerequisite for the completion of the marriage, and this may cause young people to delay their marriage, if this conflicts with the removal of individuality.

Table 4
Arithmetic Average, Standard Deviation and Relative Importance of the Social Reasons for Delayed Marriage Delayed in Order of Ascendancy
The Level of Social Factors Percentage Std.Deviation Mean Term Number
Medium Level 53.80% 0.19 2.69 The reason why young people are late for marriage is because they cannot afford family responsibility Q4
Medium Level 65.60% 0.32 3.28 The reason young people are late for marriage is to look for employment women Q1
Medium Level 68.20% 0.204 3.41 The reason young people are late for marriage is worrying from marriage. Q3
Medium Level 70.00% 0.159 3.5 The reason young people are late for marriage is to look for suitable spouse Q2
High Level 78.00% 0.929 3.9 The reason young people are late for marriage is to perusing graduate studies. Q6
High Level 85.80% 0.943 4.29 The reason young people are late for marriage is for the parents causing problems . Q5
Medium Level 70,20% 0.569 3.51 Total  

The least paragraph was "the reason for the delayed age of marriage of young people was their inability to take responsibility for family responsibility" in the middle of my account and a standard deviation (2.69, 0.190) respectively, which explains the family support, where the family provides full support to their married children may contribute to the care of their children, and provide them with material and moral assistance, and many of the construction depends on this support.

The dimension as a whole was its mathematical average (3.51) and its standard deviation (0.569), which indicates that the social reasons for the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in the sample of the study were average (70.2%), which explains primarily the importance of the economic factor to the social worker, who considers the importance of the sample to be important in the late age of marriage among young people in Jordanian society.

Social Effects

To answer the study's question, which states, "What are the social implications of delayed marriage age among Young Jordanians in Amman?"

Table 5. Arithmetic mean, standard deviation and relative importance of the social reflection paragraphs resulting from the delayed age of marriage are arranged in ascending order.

It is clear from the previous Table (5) that the highest paragraph in the social repercussions resulting from the late age of marriage in Jordan was "their relationship with the family becomes tense" in the middle of my account and a standard deviation (4.27.0.859) respectively, and this is due to the community culture that does not recognize the individual at a certain age unless he marries and is a family, as this is reflected in their relationship with others, whether internally within the family or through their external relationships, where they are dominated by tension and fear of the future, and also through the means of legality of marriage, and also through the means of marriage, and also through the legality of marriage, as well as a legitimate means of marriage, and also through the means of marriage. For sex, which is an innate need in man and when he is unable to achieve this reflects on his relationships with others, which are characterized by tension, nervousness and isolation, and the least paragraph was "social networks became a special world for the late in marriage" in the center of my account and a standard deviation (4.02, 0.98 1) Respectively, this explains that the virtual world does not provide privacy for young people, as the Jordanian family continues to provide support to young people and provide sedation for them in the face of the repercussions of delayed marriage age, and the field as a whole was its mathematical medium (4.15) and its standard deviation (0.765) Within the high level.

Table 5
Arithmetic Mean, Standard Deviation and Relative Importance of the Social Reflection Paragraphs Resulting from the Delayed Age of Marriage are Arranged in Ascending Order
Level of Social Effects Percentage Std.Deviation Mean Term Number
High Level 80.40% 0.981 4.02 .Socialnetworks have become a special world for young people who are late inmarriage Q19
High Level 81.20% 0.325 4.06 The desire to have sexual relations with the other party Q18
High Level 81.60% 0.752 4.08 Late marriage age led to illegal sexual relations Q20
High Level 83.80% 0.891 4.19 The participation of late people of marriage age in marriage ceremonies has become weak. Q15
High Level 84.40% 0.867 4.22 The participation of late comers in marriage on social occasions has become weak Q14
High Level 84.80% 0.505 4.24 Society views the late marriage with a negative view. Q17
High Level 85.40% 0.859 4.27 Their relationship with the family gets strained Q16
High Level 83% 0.765 4.15 Total  

Social and economic reasons for the late age of marriage for Jordanian youth according to social information:

First: Are there statistically significant differences in the reasons for the delaying age of marriage (social and economic) among Young Jordanians in Amman due to the gender of the study sample members?

Table 6
Independent T Test Between the Reasons for Delayed Marriage Age (Social And Economic) In Young Jordanians in Amman and Sex
Factors of late marriage Gender Standard Deviation Mean Sample value T DF Sig. Notes
Social Factors Male 0.567 3.57 203 2.356 383 *0.019 There is differences
  Female 0.564 3.44 182        
Economic Factors Male 0.693 4.17 203 1.768 383 0.078 There is no differences

That there are statistically significant differences in the social causes of the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman due to gender, where the level of significance (0.019) which is lower than (α≤0.05) and the source of the differences is attributed to the male group, depending on the mathematical medium where it was The mathematical medium for them is (3.57) and is higher than the female group where their mathematical medium was (3.44) and this explains the fact that they are the main focus of the marriage process able to decide to start a family and end the period of celibacy, unlike the girl who does not have The decision to end celibacy because the community culture deprived the girl of the decision to start a family.

The economic reasons for the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman were not statistically indicative at the level of significance (0.05) and it is natural that there are no differences between males and females, because of their shared knowledge that marriage has significant material requirements and expenses to be provided, and this is not consistent with the study (Qandil et al., 2013).

Secondly, are there statistically significant differences in the reasons for the delaying age of marriage (social and economic) among Young Jordanians in Amman due to the age of the study sample?

Table 7
One-Way Anova Between the Reasons for Delayed Marriage (Social and Economic) Age in Jordanian Youth in Amman and Age
(Sig.) Value (F) Mean (Df) Sum of Squares Between and Within Group Late Marriage Reasons
0.093 2.155 0.692 3 2.076 Between groups Social Reasons
    0.321 381 122.327 Within the Groups  
      384 124.403 Total    
*.000 7.215 2.956 3 8.868 Between the groups Economic Reason
    0.41 381 156.098 Within the groups  
      384 164.967 Total    

There are differences between groups

From the table above, we note the following:

The value of The (2.155) with a degree of freedom (3,381) for the social reasons for the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman at the level of significance is (0.093) which is higher than 0.05 and through the above we conclude that there are no statistically significant differences in the social causes of the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman due to age. This shows that all age groups know and know that these reasons play a key role in the late age of marriage of young people in Jordanian society.

The value of F is (7.215) with a degree of freedom (3,381) for the economic reasons for the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman at the level of significance of (0.000) which is less than 0.05 and from the above we conclude that there are statistically significant differences in the economic reasons for the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman due to age.

Table 8
There are differences between Groups
50-59 Year  40-49 Year 30-39 Year Age Std. Deviation Mean N Late Marriage Reasons
*.001 .045* 0.823 20-29 Year 0.737 4.08 102 Economic Reasons
0.205 0.162 ----- 30-39 Year 0.664 4.16 167  
658 ----- -----  40-49 Year 0.47 4.37 64  
---- ----- ----- 50-59 Year 0.525 4.52 52  

From the table above, we note the following:

There are statistically significant differences in the economic reasons for the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman between the following age groups (20-29 years and both (40-49 years) and (50-59 years) where the level of significance (045. and 001) was. The differences are attributed to the 50-59, 40-49 years and then 20-29 years, depending on the arithmetic medium where the computational circles were (4.52, 4.37, 4.08) on Respectively, but there are no statistically significant differences between the age group (30-39 years) and the rest of the age groups at the level (α≤0.05), the first group is the next category of marriage and they feel the importance of these reasons in the late age of marriage, and other groups will feel this through their life experiences, the demand of their children to marry, and the extent to which The impact of economic reasons on delaying the marriage of young people in Jordanian society.

First: Are there statistically significant differences in the reasons for the delaying age of marriage (social and economic) among Young Jordanians in Amman due to geographical origin by the sample of the study?

Table 9. Independent T test among the reasons for delayed marriage age (social and economic) types of Jordanian youth in Amman and geographical origin individually sample the study

Table 9
Independent T Test Among the Reasons for Delayed Marriage Age (Social snd Economic) Types of Jordanian Youth in Amman and Geographical Origin Individually Sample the Study
Notes Sig.)) DF)) Value T Sample Mean Std.Deviation Geographic Original Factors of late Marriage
There is a significant Differences 000.* 383 3.514 228 3.46 0.551 Urban Social Factors
        157 3.55 0.593 Rural  
There is a significant Differences *.016 383 2.412 228 4.12 0.666 Urban Economic Factors

There are differences between groups

The table above shows:

That there are statistically significant differences in the social causes of the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman due to geographical origin where the level of significance (0.000) which is lower than (α≤0.05) and the source of the differences is attributable to the rural origin, depending on the mathematical medium Where the mathematical medium for them was (3.55) and is higher than the inhabitants of the city where their mathematical medium was (3.46), this is because the rural people still adhere to the traditional role of the family in terms of setting conditions and specifications in the selection of a life partner, They believe that social causes play a role in the late age of the husband among young people in Jordanian society.

As for the economic reasons for the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth, there were differences of statistical significance due to geographical origin, where the level of significance (0.016) was lower than (α≤0.05) and the source of the differences is attributable to the rural origin, depending on the mathematical medium where The mathematical medium for them was (4.29) and is higher than the civil origin where their mathematical medium was (4.12) and due to the fact that the people of the countryside their economic conditions are more difficult than the people of the city because of the limited economic activities they practice and their dependence on public functions, and this is not consistent with study (Qandil et al, 2013).

The social implications of delaying the age of marriage for Jordanian youth according to social information:

First: Are there statistically significant differences in the social implications of the late age of marriage for Jordanian youth in Amman due to the gender of the study sample members?

Table 10
Independent T Test Between the Social Implications of Late Marriage Age Young Jordanians in Amman and Sex
Notes Sig)) DF)) Value T Sample Mean Standard Deviation Gender Effects of Late Marriage
There is significant Differences 0.68 383 1.832 203 4.09 0.806 Male Social Effects
      182 4.23 0.712 Female  

There are differences between groups. The table above shows:

That there are no statistically significant differences in the social implications of the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman due to gender, where the level of significance (0.068) was higher than (α≤0.05), this is a recognition of the social repercussions of delayed marriage age for young people who are late in marriage, and that young people of late marriage age live in obvious social conditions and problems for all members of the sample. This is consistent with a study (Qandil et al., 2013).

Second: Are there statistically significant differences in the social implications of the late age of marriage among Young Jordanians in Amman due to the age of the study sample?

Table 11
One-Way Anova Test Between the Social Implications of Late Marriage Age Among Young Jordanians in Amman for the Age of Single Study Sample
(Sig.) Value(F) Mean of Squares (Df) Sum  Squares Between and Within Groups Effect of Late Marriage
*.000 6.214 3.496 3 10.489 Between Groups Social Effects
    0.563 381 214.361 Within Groups
      384 224.85 Total

There are differences between groups from the table above, we note the following:

The value of F is (6.214) with a degree of freedom (3,381) for the social implications of the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman at the level of significance of (0.000) which is less than 0.05 and through the above we conclude that there are statistically significant differences in the social implications of delayed marriage age among Jordanian youth in Amman due to age.

Table 12
Independent T Test Between the Social Implications of Late Marriage and the Geographical Origin of the Study Sample
Notes Sig. DF Value T Sample Mean Std. Deviation  Geographic Original Effects of Late Marriage
There is a significant Differences 0,008 383 2.678 228 4.03 0.779 Urban Social Effects
      157 4.24 0.73 Rural

The table above shows:

That there are statistically significant differences in the social implications of the late age of marriage among Jordanian youth in Amman due to the place of residence where the level of significance (0.008) which is lower than (α≤0.05) and the source of the differences is attributed to the rural population, depending on the mathematical medium where it was The mathematical medium for them is (4.24) and is higher than the inhabitants of the city where their mathematical medium was (4.03), and this is because the people of the countryside, feel the repercussions more than the people of the city by virtue of their initial social relations, and stick to customs and traditions more than Urban dwellers, this is consistent with the study (Qandil, et al., 2013).

Conclusion

This study aimed to identify the economic and social representations of the late age of marriage among young people in Jordanian society and reveal differences in them according to variables (gender, age, geographical origin). Also, to identify the social implications of the late age of marriage among young people in Jordanian society and reveal differences in them according to variables (gender, age, geographical origin).

The result of this study showed that one of the economic reasons for the late marriage was the high cost of marriage, the high cost of living in Jordanian society, unemployment. In addition to the fact that there are obstacles related to the costs of marriage related to the economic conditions of young people, including post-marriage expenses, high marriage expenses.

Also, the reason for the delay in the age of marriage high housing wages. Economic empowerment is also found to affect the mate selection preference of individual subjects; it raises their desiderata for an ideal partner (Berg-Cross et al., 2004). Women who are economically empowered, or who seek economic empowerment, are 10 reluctant to enter into marriage with men who will not be equal or higher contributors to family economic resources.

On the other hand, the social factors for the late marriage in Jordanian society was the nature of Jordanian male society, which gives the absolute authority to the father to interfere in the choice of husband or wife for children, and his approval is a prerequisite for the completion of the marriage. Spinsterhood which the same meaning of late marriage, especially for women who did not set out to remain single is problematic. Negative social identity of single womanhood adversely affects construction of positive self-identity for single women (Reynolds & Wetherell, 2003; Byrne, 2003).

This study indicated that the social effects of the late age of marriage in Jordan family relationship became tense and having more stress. Also, young people who are late in marriage age live in clear social conditions and problems for all members of the sample. The source of the differences is attributable to the rural population, which is higher than the city's population, and this is because the rural people feel the repercussions more than the people of the city by virtue of their initial social relations, and their adherence to customs and traditions more than the people of cities, and this agree with the result of Qandil study with the study (Qandil, et al., 2013).

Recommendation

  1. Establishing charities to help young people get married and provide them with financial support.
  2. Holding seminars and lectures that will raise awareness of the community to reduce ponies for young people coming to marry.
  3. Conduct similar research on the psychological aspect of young people who are late in marriage.

Author Contributions: Conceptualization, H.A. & Kh.A; Literature Review and Recommendation H, A and A, G., and Kh.A. Methodology, A.G.; Data analysis H.A.; Writing—original draft preparation, A.G., H.A., & Kh.A. and Writing—review and editing, H.A; Supervision H.A and A.G; All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding: We acknowledge that this research received no external funding.

APPENDIX A

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APPENDIX B

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