Journal of Entrepreneurship Education (Print ISSN: 1098-8394; Online ISSN: 1528-2651)

Research Article: 2017 Vol: 20 Issue: 3

Professional Orientation of Youth: Problems and Prospects

Olga A Nemova, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University

Tatiana V Svadbina, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University

Evgeniya K Zimina, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University

Elena A Kostyleva, Institute of Food Technologies and Design-Branch of Nizhegorodsky State Engineer and Economy University

Svetlana A Tsyplakova, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University

Natalya A Shevchenko, Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University


The problem of translation of intergenerational values, especially labor values and attitudes are of significance importance in today's dynamically changing world. The present paper provides an analytical overview of the problems of the transmission of labor values and attitudes, as well as the process of professional orientation of young people. It is necessary to state the fact of the absence to date of an effective system of career guidance at all levels of education as a social institution. In fact, career guidance in Russia is of a systemic nature. In the need to revive the organization of vocational guidance as a system across the country, improving its quality and effectiveness, in the interest of all agents: children and their parents, secondary and higher educational institutions, as well as the state and society. Employment of the main human resource of the country-young people-is a strategic task concerned about the future prosperity of the state. The article also offers recommendations for improving youth social policy in the sphere of career guidance and youth employment.


Vocational Guidance, Professional Orientation, Self-Presentation.


The decreasing quantity of population mostly due to the reduction of the number of growing generations of the Russian people especially actualizes the problems of succession of the culture and determines the specificity of its transmission in the conditions of the radically changing Russian society (Nemova, Retivina, Kutepova, Vinnikova & Kuznetsova, 2016). In the modern Russia the problem of the cost increase of the human capital that is the main richness of any developing society in the conditions of the minimal birth rate takes the leading place. Consequently, the problems of the labour socialization of the growing generation and its professional development in the changing economic and social-technological conditions, peculiar to the modern Russian society has the especial significance.

Formation of the labour values and labour attitudes and also the issues of the young people’s vocational orientation today is one of the most topical issues. Dependently on what the labour values and attitudes were formed in the young people and what profession was chosen, the success of the trajectory of the whole life of a person greatly depends. The labour start depends on many circumstances both of the objective and subjective character (Kutepov, 2016).

The objective factors include the total economic state in the region, country and world in the whole, status positions and social-economic possibilities of the family and the subjective factors-personal potential: Level of the education and training (knowledge, skills and habits) of the abilities and elementary luck, i.e. the ability to be in the right place in the right time. The latter one becomes more important in the conditions of growing psychology “risk society”.

In order to help the growing generation to realize them vocationally, basic aim of the vocationally oriented work is to effectively realize their individual peculiarities and to provide them the possibility to develop their abilities to the labour activity (Sasan Khorasani, 2014; Sasan Khorasani & Almasifard, 2017). Unfortunately, it is necessary to acknowledge the fact that the system of the vocational orientation in spontaneously formed post-Soviet period is the extremely ineffective and in particular incapable. Even the graduates of the HEIs which received diploma about graduation from the higher educational establishment does not know in which sphere they can use the knowledge, skills and habits they obtained from the years of training. The popularity of the obtainment of the second, third and other educations is the obvious example of the vocational orientation system ineffectiveness.

Professor Paramonov (2011) says about the absence of the effective system of vocational orientation and training of a person to the labour activity. In particular, she writes: “Ideally the schoolchildren select those areas of the activity, which seems to be promising: In the area of management and civil and criminal law (Paramonova, 2011). Such situation is formed as a result of the uncontrolled process of informing the schools, institutions of SVE and HVO and also the management of the enterprises over the movement of the young labour force, axiological orientations and motives of behavior, which effects on the inflow of the young generation from the remote places in the industrial and educational centres and outflow in the foreign country. Meanwhile in Russia the annual human losses are extremely big and represented in the form of migration outflow of socially active young people of the labour capable and reproductive age” (Svadbina, Nemova & Pakina, 2007).

Summarizing the scientific works on the problems of vocational orientation, we can make unpromising conclusions: There is no unified state system of the vocational orientation in the modern Russia. It is explained by the evasion of the state from the regulation of the economic life of the society. The employment agencies provide vocational orientation work with the officially unemployed citizens and schoolchildren and students, as a rule, are left to choose their career on their own. Basically, all modern vocational orientation work rests on the shoulders of not different people, enthusiasts and altruists by nature (teachers in the school or system of additional education, social pedagogues and school psychologies and so on.).

The main objective of this study is to detect the basic factors, which effect on the vocational orientation of the schoolchildren (labour market for young people, system of education and general world tendencies of its development).

Methodological Framework

The main general scientific approaches of this study are analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, comparative-historical and dialectic and the relevant data were collected using customized questionnaires.

The issues of the vocational orientation are closely connected with the problem of the further employment. In the article 37 of the Constitution of the RF it has been declared that each person has the right for the labour in the conditions, which meet the requirements of the safety and hygiene and payment for the labour without any discrimination and no less than the minimal amount of labour payment established by the federal law and also the right for the defence from the unemployment.

However, it is a difficult task for young people to realize this right for the labour (Standing, 2014). Undoubtedly, the parents who wish the best to their child want that the work was to liking, i.e., a child must like and enjoy the work; it must become the favourite deed with the perspectives of a career growth and provision of social guarantees, comfortable location, etc. However, we should pay proper attention to that modern labour market is very far from the perfection. The possibilities of the successful employment of the young people become scarce. Let’s give the analysis of the modern labour market, particularly for young people, in Russia.

The Russian labour market is extremely unbalanced: On the one part, it is redundant by volume and on the other part, labour deficient by its structure, i.e., the over-accumulation of the labour force on the enterprises and accumulation of the surplus number of workers take place; at that the increase of the demand for the labour force leads to the labour deficiency. Also the labour market in Russia is weakly connected with the capital market. All this causes the necessity to develop the corresponding policy of the employment and also the strategies and tactics of the regulation mechanism for the Russian labour market.

The young people, which firstly step on the way of labour, in many aspects yield to the experienced workers in the competitive fighting for the labour places, because they have no experience of the right behavior on the market, qualification of the required level, distinct understanding of the process regularities, which happen on the labour market (Nemova, 2010). Despite it, the young people have the certain advantages before the experienced workers: Young people are more mobile at the choice and change of the work, more adaptive to the new conditions, predisposed to the training, more flexibly reactive to the scientific-technical innovations and re-equipment of the production. It is the universality of the situation formed on the labour market for the young people. Despite this market as a subdivision of the common labour market is subjected to the effect of the same laws and mechanisms, the establishment of the balance and divergence on it in many aspects is stipulated by the effect of the factors, typical only for the labour market for young people.

It is also necessary to pay attention to the fact that in the beginning of XXI century the content of the social-labour relations survived substantial changes. The paradigm and organization of the industrial time loses its meaning in the conditions of the growing market competence, economization, technical changes, modifications in the management structure and labour culture.

In the western countries the phenomenon of labour “subjectivity” is much spoken about. It foresees the transference of the responsibility for the labour, profit and working life from the capital on the staff. The modern capitalism is characterized by such features as flexibility, mobility, creativity and own responsibility and the worker is transformed in the “enterprise” on the management of his working force (time, duties, profits, control of labour results quality and so on). The modern person possesses the bigger freedom in the labour process organization that promotes the high degree of identification with the work and also leads to fragmentation of the labour consciousness, intensification of the individual constituent of the workers’ interests. Outside the collective interests the workers of the quickly distributing forms of “atypical” labour (remote, home, project, temporary, contract, outsourcing and so on) function, even if they officially are the part of the staff at the enterprise. These transformational processes should be also taken in account in the analysis of the young people’s problems in the conditions of the modern market economy.

Results and Discussion

The Russian society and labour market is in the extremely complex crisis state. Anisimov (2015) singled out the range of typical peculiarities, which affected on the re-construction of the labour market:

1. The substantial changes in the structural employment of the population took place. We see reduction of the employed in the agriculture and industry almost in twice and at the same time the impressive growth of the workers of the tertiary economic sector. At that in our country as against to the West, it does not happen because of the technological breakdown, but oppositely due to the continuing process of the deindustrialization in the country.

2. The essential indicator of the labour market deformation is unsubstantiated growth of the labour quantity, equipped on the state service. The number of workers in the state authorities is comparable with the whole management personnel, including economic entities of whole USSR. At that the computerization is actively developing (Anisimov, 2015).

Gorshkov & Sheregi (2010) also paid attention on this imbalance of the social structure of the Russian society. In their opinion, in Russia the social-class structure of oligarchic state. At that it is extremely difficult to find their niche and completely realize their potential for the young people in these conditions. Let’s provide the citation from the above-mentioned study to confirm this thought. The social-class structure of the Russia society is as follows: “Elite of the society (high bureaucracy and bourgeoisie) is 7.4%, intellectuals-19.1%, workers of the industrial and agrarian labour-51.4%, workers of the domestic servicing sphere and workers with average qualification-22.1%. Thus, as the researchers write the young generation shall face the necessity to fill up the social-class structure of the Russian society for 73.5% as the industrial, agrarian and domestic servicing workers of mostly average and low qualification. At that among the graduates from the institutions of the vocational education the share of the latter one in 2008 was equal to 48.4%, i.e., “surplus” graduates who received diplomas about higher education amounted no less than 40% from the total quantity of the graduates from HEIs” (Gorshkov & Sheregi, 2010). It is also necessary to agree with the statements of Gorshkov & Sheregi (2010) that such situation led to devaluation of the diplomas about the higher education, frequent change of the profession or lumpenization of the HEIs’ graduates, which are going to become the specialists of higher qualification. However, it is the failure of hopes, disappointment in life and as a result the growth of the asocial, aberrant, deviant and delinquent behavior (Gorshkov & Sheregi, 2010; Svadbina, Nemova & Pakina, 2007).

Being young it is necessary to solve at least two vital tasks of ontological nature for the short period, namely: Professional self-determination and development of the family-marital and reproductive behavior (Nemova, 2010). If the first problem could be solved until old age, then the second one should not be put off. Meanwhile, the absence of the stable highly paid work and dwelling becomes the basic reason that causes putting off the family-marital and reproductive plans by the young people (Svadbina, Nemova & Pakina, 2014).

The parents and the closest relatives in the family begin the vocational orientation, then the process of labour socialization is caught by the school teachers, social pedagogues, psychologists, specialists on the schoolchildren’s professional orientation, pedagogues of the additional out-of-school education (hobby group work), specialists in the higher educational establishments on the professional orientation or specialists of the Employment agencies (Nemova et al., 2016).


The present study presented an analytical overview of the problems of the transmission of labour values and attitudes, as well as the process of professional orientation of young people. Based on our findings and the discussed features, we offer the following measures and recommendations on solving the problems of the vocational orientation and employment of the young people:

1. In the conditions of the imbalance on the labour market, the state complex system of measures on organization and conduction of the vocational interaction with the young people is required. The vocational orientation of the young people should become the top priority position of the common youth policy, because the young people are the most important human resource of the Russian state.

2. Participation of the state in regulation of the labour market for young people through the revival of the system of distribution of the specialists who graduated from the higher and secondary vocational education establishments. Both the students and their parents (confirmed by the data of author’s sociological study (Nemova, Surovegina & Denisova, 2017) and the employers and state are interested in it.

3. It is necessary to stop the decentralization of the country. The development of the domestic industrial and agricultural production is required. Activation of the state policy on creation of the working places namely for the young people as the most important strategic resource of the country.

4. The business circles and business associations also must invest money in training, education and re-training of their staff. The social responsibility of the business before society and state must become real.

5. It is necessary to overcome the legal illiteracy by the young people in the sphere of the Labour Law.

6. Introduction of the complex program on the vocational orientation work with young people in the Russian system of education. Appropriation of the status of one of the most priority directions of the state youth policy to the vocational orientation work and the issue of the youth employment. Absence of the joint coordinated actions on the vocational orientation and employment of the young people (schools, higher educational establishments, employment agencies, interested organizations and business associations) negatively effect on the common state of the youth labour market and finally, on the state of the very society, devaluating the legal social lifts and institutes.

7. Restoration of the practical classes passing on enterprises of the native region with the further appropriateness of the profession and certain qualification. This programme must have the compulsory nature for students of all degrees of education, beginning from school and ending with the higher educational establishment.

8. The young people are the most powerful perspective human resource of the society. It can cause negative consequences even the breakdown of the political system, if to leave this social resource to the mercy of fate. That’s why we consider it necessary for the state to strengthen the work on the labour resource management. It is necessary to create the unified base of the labour vacancies, directed on the employment of young people with accounting of their education, specialty, dwelling provision and creation of the required social-economic infrastructure. We cannot forget that young people are not only the labour but also the basic demographic resource of the state.

9. The public organizations (trade unions, NCOs, religious associations and church) also must raise the questions of the vocational orientation and employment of the young people and also the defence of their interests as the most important and priority.

10. Creation of the databases for the usage of the advanced practical experience on the vocational orientation work of the pedagogues-innovators, parents, public organizations, etc. by the pedagogical community.

11. The increase of the public meaningfulness of the LABOUR through all possible mechanisms (education, mass media, culture and so on). The public value of the labour is important and must not take the last positions in the rating of the outlook values of the young people. Popularization and glorification of the criminal activity by means of mass media seriously undermined the authority of the honest worker. Orientation on the momentary benefit, absence of the long-term perspectives cannot be the basic incentives in the choice of the sphere of applying their knowledge, skills and habits.

12. It is necessary to pay special attention not only to the process of obtaining the knowledge, skills and habits, but also on the problem of education of the harmoniously developed personality. Since the childhood it is necessary to cultivation the skills of the labour morality and responsibility for the behavior not only in family, but in the society and state. It is also necessary to cultivate the disgust to the work in the shadow sector of the economy, evasion of tax payment and so on in the young people.

13. Organization of lectures for the parents and legal representatives (Parents’ University, school and class parents’ meetings, class hours and so on) on the issues of the vocational orientation of the schoolchildren. It is necessary to give information to the parents about the situation on the modern labour market in the region and availability of the educational establishments, perspectives of the employments and so on in the understandable manner.

Summarizing all above-stated, we believe that the problems of the vocational work and employment of the young people are closely connected, mutually related and are topical. Finally it goes not only about the point of the young policy, but about the effective and rational usage of the human social resource, it is the most mobile and innovation-oriented part of the society. Not only his future, but the life of the people who surround him depends on the success of the vocational choice and further employment. The more adaptively young people who start their successful labour and family relations are, the better it will be for the society and country on the whole.