Research Article: 2018 Vol: 24 Issue: 4
Husain Syam, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Trisusanti Lamangida, Universitas Muhammadiyah Gorontalo
Jusuf Madubun, Universitas Pattimura
Norwawati, Universitas Pattimura
Haedar Akib, Universitas Negeri Makassar
Public Entrepreneurship, 7-P Model Prototype, Creativity and Innovation, Good Society Governance (GSG).
Management of regional assets efficiently, effectively and sustainably according to the public-entrepreneurship perspective is the focus and locus of change in mindset, changes in the dhikr pattern, and mental revolution in Indonesia that need to be studied. Management of public assets is increasingly important to be examined given the public's distrust of the government's performance in utilizing and "saving" the potential of lakes in Indonesia. There are some lakes that experience unfavorable conditions, because the management is not yet optimal and sustainable. Some of the cases are Tempe Lake in South Sulawesi (Jusuf, 2018), Kerinci Lake in Jambi Sumatra (Herupitra, 2018), Beringin Indah Lake in Lampung (Sukadana, 2016), Sidihoni Lakue in Sumatra (Waristo, 2014), Seluluk Lake in Kalimantan (Parnen, 2017), Buyan Lake in Bali (Aminah, 2017), Lumpur Panas Lapindo Lake (Sutari, 2017). Problems like this are synonymous with bureaucratic bankruptcy in the United States which is the background of the birth of the Reinventing Government (Osborne & Gaebler, 1992). As a new public management model, the idea is relevant also applied in the management of Lake Limboto's public assets in the Gorontalo Regency of Indonesia.
Management of public assets according to public entrepreurship perspective (Bartlett & Dibben, 2002; Kirchheimer, 1989; Klein et al., 2010; Lewis et al., 1980) based on actor creativity and innovation and community-based empowerment (Smith & Sobel, 2014; Warren et al., 2009) aim to improve the quality and sustainability of managing public assets. This goal is consistent with Ostrom (2005) view that opening public spaces to entrepreneurship and innovation at the local, regional and international levels is key to improving the degree and quality of public goods or assets-for example, peace, safety and health-that are available to citizens country. However, the participation of actors and stakeholders (government, the private sector, press, police, person/community) in institutions that accommodate so far is only understood as an administrative technical process, not as a sustainable community empowerment process. Therefore, this research article describes the application of public entrepreneurship perspectives based on creativity and innovation of actors to realize Good Society Governance (GSG) in community empowerment programs in managing Limboto Lake in Gorotalo Regency.
The urgency of collaborative partnerships of actors or stakeholders involved in community empowerment programs in the management of Lake Limboto is motivated by the negative impacts caused. The negative impacts meant were floods and "opportunism" among the people who lived along the coast of Limboto Lake in the form of confining the area of the lake area and control of public land by members of the community.
The concept of entrepreneurship in important public organizations is incorporated into the mindset of actors and stakeholders of the organization. The concept of entrepreneurship can also be used to change the orientation of actors to be more anticipatory, creative, innovative, and able to utilize opportunities. This is by the results of research and opinions of Dharma & Akib (2009), Slaughter & Leslie (1997), Syam et al. (2018), Syam et al. (2018) that entrepreneurship is often conceived as innovation, creativity, the establishment of new organizations or activities, or some kind of novelty. Under this conceptualization, entrepreneurship occurs in markets, firms, government, and universities (Slaughter & Leslie, 1997).
The field of public entrepreneurship has a fair amount of research interest during the past few decades (Fennimore and Sementelli, 2016). Despite many propositions the body of literature should be examined given its anti-traditionalist orientation and its fixation on self-promotion, rule-breaking, power politics, risk-taking, and radical change efforts which sharply conflict with democratic theories (Moe, 1994; Reich , 1990; Stever, 1988; Terry, 1990:1993).
These concepts of private entrepreneurship help suggest a research and development program on public entrepreneurship (Klein et al., 2010). Carl & Goerl (1992) in Terry (1993) build an intriguing case for public entrepreneurship. By strategically structuring the argument in the tradition of democracy, they attempt to legitimize the concept of public entrepreneurship by asserting that it can be reconciled with democratic politics and administration. Carl and Goerl's (1992) argument presents the underlying values and characteristics of public entrepreneurship (autonomy, a personal vision of the future, secrecy, and risk-taking) as being at odds with the values of democratic politics and administration (accountability, citizen participation, open policy-making processes, and "stewardship" behavior. These "hidden" values make the concept of public entrepreneurship for several reasons. First, the idea of public entrepreneurship and perpetuating an overly romantic view of public administrators. The second problem of public entrepreneurship relates to the issue of change Entrepreneurs are portrayed in the business and public administration literature as innovators problem with public entrepreneurship relates to the concept of tradition.
Without denying the differences in the focus and locus of the public sector and the private sector, the analysis perspective on the focus of public entrepreneurship discussion in the management of Limboto Lake refers to the views of Klein et al. (2010) that there are four levels of analysis to study public entrepreneurship and its relationship with entrepreneurial behavior, that is:
1) Rule of the game: Public entrepreneurship identifies goals, sets rules, and otherwise establishes a framework to meet personal interests and other public interests. Public entrepreneurship sets rules for games that are considered good or bad, while private entrepreneurship is a game.
2) New public organization: Manifestations of public entrepreneurship are the creation of new public organizations (Bartlett & Dibben, 2002; Schnellenbach, 2007). Such institutions are rooted and limited by resources where the citizens' rights are ambiguous and subject to agency rules. The comprehensive research discusses methods for recognizing opportunities, developing resources, and building governance structures (Williamson, 1985) or institutions (North, 1991) to pursue public interests.
3) Management of public resources creatively: Identification, creation and development of new resources owned by public actors or integral parts of the public interest (Lewis et al., 1980; Roberts & King, 1996). Research focus on public institutions-in addition to the field of public management-focuses on public bodies and public resource management activities.
4) Spillovers from personal actions to the public domain: Private entrepreneurs who pursue personal goals seek to create and clarify public interests, infrastructure, institutions, norms, and procedures because strategically their absence limits their interests. Within and at all levels, public entrepreneurs carefully take advantage of opportunities to gain profit, assess the use of private and public property resources, and create creative and innovative products and processes (Agarwal et al., 2010; Dharma & Akib, 2009; Isenberg, 2011; Klein et al., 2010; Roberts & King, 1996; Syam et al., 2018).
The concept and spirit of public entrepreneurship are important in managing and utilizing public assets and the resources they have in order to increase productivity and effectiveness. According to Shockley & Frank (2011), the public sector of entrepreneurship is always a political actor that can and acts on potential profit opportunities, thus moving the system in which the actor is embedded toward equilibrium. Public entrepreneurship is related to the utilization of opportunities, because the ability to take advantage of opportunities can increase maximum profits. Whereas according to Kearney et al. (2007) that public sector entrepreneurship refers to state enterprise/civil service is defined as an individual or group of individuals, who undertakes desired activity to initiate change within the organization, adapt, innovate and facilitate risk. Personal goals and objectives are less important than the generation of good results.
It is understood that entrepreneurship refers to the performance of the institution and the performance of individual actors who carry out activities that aim to direct change in the organization, make adjustments, innovate and take risks. The concept of entrepreneurship in the public sector emphasizes aspects of creativity, innovation, and value or benefits. While determining the locus of learning organizations in the public sector aims to improve their performance, encouraging the establishment of a public sector organization management system based on competency and the performance of the actors. The concept of public entrepreneurship is believed to be one of the triggers for improving the competence and performance of learning organizations' stakeholders or stakeholders. Thus, the management of Limboto Lake based on public entrepreneurship will be effective through community empowerment programs.
This research used the descriptive-qualitative method with the focus of analysis on community empowerment program in managing public assets of Lake Limboto in Gorontalo Regency, Indonesia. The perspectives of public-entrepreneurship (Isenberg, 2011; Kirchheimer, 1989; Klein et al., 2010; Ostrom, 2005) are based on creativity and innovation of actors (Dharma & Akib, 2009; Foss et al., 2008) the management of these public assets. The data collection used interview techniques for 23 informants representing stakeholders, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and community members who live along the coast of Limboto Lake. The specifications of informants include employees from the Gorontalo Provincial Development Planning Agency (1), Forestry and the Environment (1), Public Works (2), Agriculture Service (2), Fisheries (2), Law and Human Rights (1). Then the informants from the Sulawesi River Region (BWS) II (2) and the Watershed Management Agency (1). Furthermore, informants from the Gorontalo Regency Environmental Service (1), Gorontalo Regency Regional Development Planning Agency (1), NGOs (2), Village government (2), Gorontalo Regency Public Works (1), Community Leaders (1), legislative members Gorontalo Province (1), as well as chair of the community empowerment group (2). In this study also conducted focus group discussions (FGD) with stakeholders carried out near Lake Limboto, and study of relevant documentation, as well as observations on the behavior of members of community self-help groups and the public asset management system of Lake Limboto. Analysis and discussion are carried out together with data collection activities, data condensation (through categorization of respondents' answers), presentation of descriptive-developmental data according to the behavior characteristics of actors and socio-economic institutions that facilitate community empowerment programs and the application of public entrepreneurship principles), and are made conclusion/verification of research results (Miles et asl., 2014).
The application of the concept of public-entrepreneurship based on creativity and innovation actors in the management of public assets of Limboto Lake in Gorontalo Regency can be seen in the implementation of sustainable community empowerment programs. The community empowerment program as its locus accommodates and supports the implementation of partnerships that are collaborative actors or stakeholders involved in it, where the partnership pattern forms a "model prototype 7-P", namely public, private, people, police, press, the person (individual), partnership. While the focus on the application of the principles of public entrepreneurship in community empowerment programs is a form of efforts to foster creativity and innovation of the actors or stakeholders. This community empowerment program is a pilot program that is being promoted by the local government, along with other community empowerment programs that are promoted nationally, such as the Disadvantaged Village Instruction (IDT) program, the Kecamatan (district) Development Program (PPK), the National Independent Community Empowerment Program (PNPM), etc. The results showed that, for the people in Gorontalo Regency, the form of creative and innovative activities in this collaborative partnership container was increasingly familiar in everyday life, in line with the realization of the Gorontalo provincial government program and the Gorontalo Regency government which proclaimed its area to be managed by the system "Entrepreneurial Government.”
Based on the observations of the researcher (author) and according to the statements of the informants that, the government of entrepreneurship is a program launched by the first governor of Gorontalo Province, Mr. Prof. Dr. Fadel Muhammad, M.Si. According to Muhammad (2013) that entrepreneurship governance is the right choice for the new autonomous region that stands with the aim that the government can be managed well according to the principles of good governance, in order to achieve the stated goals, in order to build a multi-dimensional area based on potential and local competencies. Gorontalo as one of the regencies in Gorontalo Province is a potential area, because in addition to having Limboto Lake, it also has a large area of agriculture and plantations, making it a cornfield. When the corn plants cultivated by people in other regions in Indonesia are only considered as "ordinary comodies", precisely in Gorontalo Regency this corn plant is used as a "superior commodity." (Conclusion of interviews' with informants and researchers' observations, 2017-2018). Gorontalo Regency or wider Gorontalo Province has built a public image in Indonesia as a corn-producing region. One of the well-known and promoted corn brands from Gorontalo Province and Gorontalo Regency is "FM Corn". FM is an abbreviation of the name of the governor who launched the program, namely Fadel Muhammad. The management is carried out in the form of collaborative partnerships between actors or stakeholders, as stated above is the community empowerment program in managing public assets of Limboto Lake in Gorontalo Regency.
There are several productive activities carried out in the community empowerment program for the management of public assets of Lake Limboto in Gorontalo Regency (observations, 2017-2018). One of the productive activities carried out by the actors is to develop institutions that accommodate social learning organizations so that they are locus and trigger for individual learning and social learning efforts for the community. The principles of organizational learning that are applied include the principle of systemic thinking. The summary of the researcher/writer interviews (2017-2018), both with informants and with focus group discussion participants, stated that the actors or stakeholders involved in community empowerment programs in the management of Limboto Lake were equally aware that public assets, especially Limboto Lake were God's grace which is owned and must be managed by the State (region) and used optimally for the public interest, not only for the benefit of individuals or certain groups.
The idea and understanding of the function of public assets in Gorontalo Regency can not only strengthen expert opinion regarding "shared vision," "share vision", and "systemic thinking" as the principle of learning organization (Asry et al., 2015; Senge, 2014), also understood that these principles are in accordance with the spirit of public entrepreneurship theory (Parrish, 2010; Senge, 2014). Gorontalo as one of the regencies also proclaimed its regional motto by the Gorontalo Province motto, namely "Customs of Sara, Sara with the Kitabullah/the Qur'an" ("Adat Bersendikan Sara, Sara Bersendikan Kitabullah”). Religious norms and collaborative or collaborative partnerships in the people of Gorontalo Regency are implemented in all activities, including building and develop local institutions, namely social-economic-cultural institutions that facilitate community empowerment programs in the management of Lake Limboto.
Institutions that accommodate community empowerment programs in managing Lake Limboto's public assets and community activities are characterized by the ability to collaborate and synergize the actors or stakeholders involved in it. Community productive business activities are based on plans made with the aim of facilitating the process and development of the capacity of members of community empowerment groups. Other goals of the program, especially for residents who live along the coast of Limboto Lake are to make the community of small-scale businesses and micro-businesses more creative and innovative in utilizing the natural resource potential of Limboto Lake. The people's productive efforts are to make cages to maintain or cultivate fish and shrimp, fish or fish, grow rice and vegetables in the dry season when the lake water recedes. In short, it can be seen that the application of public entrepreneurship perspective based on creativity and innovation in managing public assets of Limboto Lake is effective through a collaborative partnership pattern of actors in the community empowerment program.
Management of Limboto Lake based on public entrepreneurship (Isenberg, 2011; Kirchheimer, 1989; Klein et al., 2010) so far has been done through an enterprising approach of Government (Muhammad, 2013) on community empowerment programs. The trick is to create community business independence that is domiciled and utilizes the potential of Limboto Lake. Thus, the management of Limboto Lake based on public entrepreneurship is a step forward for the regional government along with the community, because it involves "partnerships" of various actors as stakeholders, namely the public sector, private sector (business), press, police, and creative (innovative people), abbreviated "7-P partnership prototype model" through community empowerment programs.
If observed in the expert's view and the results of previous studies can be stated that Lake Limboto's public asset management based on the pillars of Community Based Management (MBM) is the essence of community empowerment programs, vision-based management, community group governance through mentoring, and means of community participation. Thus, community empowerment through collaborative partnership models and the synergy of actors and institutions is part of public asset management (Mappasere et al., 2014) and organizational learning (Asry et al., 2015) where the central government and local government acts as a motivator, facilitator, accelerator, stimulator, catalyst, and organizer of government and development. In other words, the central government and local governments do not need to do everything themselves in managing public assets (Osborne and Gaebler, 1992), including the governance of Lake Limboto, but rather empower civil society as stakeholders.
There is another side to the life of the local community in Gorontalo Regency which has the potential to be used as a focus and locus for community empowerment programs. The other side of community life that is intended is like an understanding of some informants, as outsiders or migrants who live in the Regency and in the City of Gorontalo that, during this time the people of Gorontalo are "Rather lazy to try" and "Rather quickly satisfied with the results of their work/business", as well as enough rest/holidays. This fact is also based on observations and experience of the researcher (author) where it is seen that some shop houses (RUKO) and stalls in Gorontalo Regency open after 9 am and most of them close early, around 5 o'clock, or before sunset. Likewise, this was evident at weekends, Saturdays and Sundays, where most shops and shops were late to open, even more were closed on holidays. According to informants, the reality of socio-economic behavior of people like this is the reason underlying the need to promote community empowerment programs in Gorontalo Regency. Likewise is the reason for the need to spur the creativity and innovation of the community in trying in Gorontalo Regency.
The creative-innovative-value process shown by stakeholders in the implementation of community empowerment programs in the management of Limboto Lake's public assets in Gorontalo Regency, as described above, can be explained that the learning organization that accommodates its programs can stimulate and motivate increased efficiency, effectiveness, productivity, and the quality of the management of Limboto Lake. Similarly, the application of the principles of organizational learning by actors from local government who are entrepreneurial can stimulate the growth of creativity, innovation and independence (autonomy) of citizens in trying to realize Good Society Governance (GSG). The findings of this study are in accordance with the opinions of experts (Dharma & Akib, 2009; Foss et al., 2008; Kirchheimer, 1989; Ostrom, 2005) that the successful management of public asset based on public-entrepreneurship perspective is a manifestation of the development of "entrepreneurial society" based on creativity and innovation competencies.
The Gorontalo Regency Government Institution (Community Empowerment Service) is a leading sector for learning organizations that embody community empowerment programs in managing Limboto Lake public assets (Conclusions from the results of interviews with informants from the local government, 2017). In various segments and activities that are managed, the application of the principle of public-entrepreneurship is directed at optimizing the implementation of its main tasks and functions, as well as an effort to improve the quality of life and self-reliance of the community. The integration of the sub-system allows the institution to be more responsive and professional in realizing the Limboto Lake management vision, as well as the vision, mission, goals and objectives of the learning organization that embodies the activities carried out. In other words, the community empowerment program in learning organizations is directed to realize Lake Limboto's vision, mission, goals, and management strategy and its stakeholder goals.
Even so, there are also differences in priorities, competencies, and orientations between community empowerment institutions/organizations (which aim to develop the independence of their members) with government organizations (with a mission of justice and equity) in public services, and with private organizations/private institutions (maximize business results, benefits, profits). Thus, the organizational dynamics of learning that embody community empowerment programs in managing Limboto Lake's public assets are characterized by the quality and frequency of the process, output and outcom. The results of this study are a manifestation of Kartasasmita's (1996) opinion that, the dynamics of community empowerment in Indonesia can be measured from the new paradigm of development which is "People-centrered, participatory, empowering and sustainable."
The institution that accommodates community empowerment programs in Limboto Lake's public asset management applies the principles of organizational learning which refers to patterns of social interaction and regularity which are more driven by socio-cultural demands than by mere instrumental economic demands. Through this interaction and regularity, the community members who are members of it identify themselves into groups of people and from a group of people into a larger socio-economic-cultural system, but still adhere to the motto of Gorontalo Province and Regency, namely “Customs of Sara, Sara with the Kitabullah/the Book of Allah, the Qur'an”. According to Pace et al. (2000), in reality such a general norm or symbol is born which binds togetherness and socio-economic-cultural interactions of group members or organizations. The social-cultural-economic togetherness of the people living along the coast of Limboto Lake, more specifically members of the community business group, is a manifestation of the application of the ethics, aesthetics and work ethic of the Gorontalo community.
According to the value of local wisdom huyula, heluma, hulunga and hileia, or abbreviated phrases “H4” in activity patterns that underlie the formation of the creative and innovative behavior of the villagers. However, the value of “H4” cultural wisdom which is believed to drive the potential of rural communities, because it is loaded with values, ethics, and work ethics, a sense of togetherness and cooperation. With one another, bear one another, even to each other feel the pain of others based on sincerity, this is rarely practiced today.
Based on the description above, the theoretical implication is that the successful achievement of the objectives of the community empowerment program in the form of "autonomy/independence of citizens" and the realization of Good Society Governance (GSG) depends on the capacity of organizational learning that embodies and collaborative partnerships of actors or stakeholders ("7-P model prototype") who are involved in managing public assets according to the public-entrepreneurship perspective. The application of public entrepreneurship theory perspective is optimal at all levels (Klein et al., 2010)-the rule of the game (the work ethic is based on the motto of the Province and Gorontalo Regency, namely “Customs of Sara and Sara with the Book of Allah/the Qur'an”; the existence of national and regional rules to realize GSG), new public organization (the existence of community learning organizations), management of public resources creatively (the existence of a variety of productive businesses of local people), and spillovers from personal actions to the public domain (individuality competition becomes "collaborative-partnership") based on creativity and innovation (person, process, product, press, or creative 4-P model, in Akib, 2005) of actors or stakeholders (public, private, people, police, press, person, partnership, or 7-P model prototype) in managing public assets.
Limboto Lake's public asset management in Indonesia is done in a synergistic and collaborative manner. The collaboration of actors is a form of revitalization of institutional functions that embody the actor's activities and the perspective of public entrepreneurship that is applied. The implication is that it strengthens the theoretical assumptions and analysis framework of public entrepreneurship based on multi-level actor creativity and innovation. In addition, it supports the improvement of institutional performance and the performance of local economic business actors in realizing Good Society Governance (GSG). Therefore, for the management of each public asset to be carried out appropriately, effectively, efficiently and sustainably, and to fulfill stakeholder expectations in the form of "Autonomy/independence of citizens" and realized by the GSG, it needs to be based on the capacity of organizational learning that accommodates and collaborative partnerships of actors or stakeholders ("7-P model prototypes") involved. The application of the perspective of public entrepreneurship theory needs to be based on creativity and innovation, as well as the synergy of actors in managing public assets in general.