Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2018 Vol: 24 Issue: 3

Robustness of The Theory of Planned Behaviour (Tpb): A Comparative Study Between Pakistan and Thailand

Bahadur Ali Soomro, University of Sindh

Naimatullah Shah, University of Sindh and Al-Yamamah University

Maqsood Memon, Al-Zayed University, Abu Dhabi

Keywords

Entrepreneurial Intention, Personal Attitude, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioral Control, Entrepreneurial Education, Theory of Plant Behaviour (TPB).

Introduction

As in the present era, an intention level for entrepreneurship among the individuals is continuously increasing owing to important factors for accomplishment of career and self-employment options (Anderson and Jack, 2008; Ferreira et al., 2012). However, the accomplishment of targeted behaviours and entrepreneurial intention is supposed to be mandatory factor particularly for the venture creation and self-employment in an appropriate strategy In fact , it has a convincing association with subsequent actions (Ajzen, 1987: 1991) and the most interpreter of entrepreneurial behaviour (Shapero, 1982; Honig, 2004). So far as entrepreneurial intention is labeled as a conscious state of mind leading to consideration the then, knowledge and skills regarding a particular object or way to accomplish it (Bird, 1989; Hamidi et al., 2008). In addition to measuring the entrepreneurial intention that predictably assists to integrate perceptions from behavioural approaches. If a person is highly embodied with the perceived behavioural controls that covers his/her the strongest intention making him/her self-employed (Kolvereid, 1996). Hamidi et al. (2008) emphasized that there is a robust influence of innovativeness on entrepreneurial intention in such the perspective.

In the literature of entrepreneurship, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is proved like a meaningful tool for conceiving entrepreneurial intention in the regions of Ethiopia, South Africa and developing countries (Buli and Yesuf, 2015; Malebana and Swanepoel, 2015; Soomro and Shah, 2015). The construction of the TPB such as personal attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control have good contributors for developing the entrepreneurial intention on this way. While investigating the factors, entrepreneurial education has been brought into focus as it shows the greatest power to divert the mind of individuals for a specific entrepreneurial respective object (Florin et al., 2007). Moreover, the researchers have stated that the entrepreneurial education factor has a prominent role for developing the entrepreneurial intention (Garavan and O’Cinneide, 1994; Athayde, 2009). In addition, such programs are also becoming fruitful for building the awareness regarding entrepreneurship particularly for career opportunities and in order to inspire the promising attitudes for entrepreneurship (Anderson and Jack, 2008).

Meanwhile maintaining a good reputation and robust power of TPB for prediction of entrepreneurial intention in the different contexts like developing and developed perspectives, the researchers have not been paid attention towards Pakistan and Thailand (Indarti et al., 2010; Buli and Yesuf, 2015; Khuong and An, 2016; Srivastava and Misra, 2017; Fietze and Boyd, 2017). In addition to confirming an application TPB in a cross-country comparison which makes it probable so as to improve fresh insight to debates over the backgrounds of entrepreneurship (Pruett et al., 2009) and needing for the effect of the different cultures and values on the entrepreneurial intention to be better understandable in this way. Besides to this, the present study attempts to investigate the entrepreneurial intention among university students of Pakistan and Thailand as per of application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The results of present study may contribute for further validation of TPB in two Asian developing countries, particularly for comparison of students’ entrepreneurial intention. Henceforth, this study may cover meaningful and supportive tools for the consultants, practitioners of management and human resource management and organizational behaviour in evaluating the intentions in an organization. In the final, such the study is significantly carried on the both countries (Pakistan and Thailand), and may concentrate for promoting the entrepreneurial activities due to diversion of individuals’ attention towards self-employment.

Literature Review

Broadly, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) has been brought into focus for investigating the entrepreneurial intention with respect to a huge literature in human society. As stated by Tan et al. (2013) that there is no positive and significant relationship between social influence and intention for the application of internet market among South Korean and Malaysian respondents. An empirical and comparative study conducted by Davey et al. (2011) between developing and developed countries (European countries). The consequences and outcomes of the study have strongly recommended that the candidates of growing or emerging countries are highly forecast their future career and opportunities as entrepreneurs positively, and it was also realized and found more positive entrepreneurial attitude as compared to the advanced or industrial economies. Linan and Chen (2009) have strongly recommended that the formation of entrepreneurial intention is a possible through the predictors such as perceived behaviour control, personal attitude and subjective norms. While, subjective norm has a positive and significant correlation with personal attitude and the perceived behavioural control among the respondents of Spain and Taiwan. In a similar manner, it has shown that entrepreneurial intention is based on positive and significant difference of students who have acquired entrepreneurial education on one way and on other way have not received such the education (Vajihe and Mehdi, 2014). In Thailand, educational and family backgrounds vary in intention. The perceived desirability, personal attitude, subjective norm and future unemployment effect on each other speak to entrepreneurial intention.

A cross-cultural study among the university students of USA, Spain, and China proved the differences in social and cultural dimensions regarding the intentions. However, psychological self-efficacy (disposition) is being verified as an important predictor (Pruett et al., 2009). In Sri Lanka, an entrepreneurial intention among undergraduates is moderately positive with attitude towards self-employment and entrepreneurial belief (Kumara and Samantha, 2012). In Pakistani universities, Ali et al. (2011) found that attitude for entrepreneurship as a career is higher in male and female students. As stated by Wu, Cheng and Cheng (2015) for the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the government employees’ behaviour. The findings of such study examined that the behavioural intention is influenced by subjective norms among the government employees. Similarly, in United States (US), Gibson et al. (2011) conducted a comparative study between university students and community college students. Hence, the study strongly recommended that university students possessed higher entrepreneurial attitude for initiating their own business due to entrepreneurship education as compared to students of community college. In context of Oman, there is no statistically positive and significant difference in the entrepreneurial attitude when the participants were gathered as demographic variables (Segumpan and Zahari, 2012). Through a comparative study between Polish and French students Packham et al. (2010) found a positive and significant impact of enterprise education on entrepreneurial attitude among the students such the both countries. Furthermore, female students are more likely to identify a greater advantage from the learning experience. In the region of Asia including Thailand, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan, the demographic indicators such as working experience, educational background, gender and age are not significant predictors of entrepreneurial intention (Indarti et al., 2010).

As per the same context, Dabic et al. (2012) conducted a research among more than ten countries. The study underlined that there were fewer gender differences among students in terms of entrepreneurial intention. The differences concerning to family support and self‐confidence are still existing. In perspective of South Asia, the social norms being a major and strongest factor which determines the entrepreneurial intention among the females. In contrast to it, self-efficacy plays a pivotal role for predicting the entrepreneurial intention. However, the model of study has differences as studies conducted in developing and developed world (Arshad et al., 2016). As stated by Tan et al. (2013) that there is no positive and significant relationship between social influence and intention to use internet market among South Korean and Malaysian respondents. Through the application of cross-sectional data from the Danish Global University Students the study of Fietze and Boyd (2017) showed that students choose the career as employee viewing a low entrepreneurial intention. Such low entrepreneurial intention related to perception of entrepreneurial climate, self-efficacy, and learning. In India, the social valuation is a vital antecedent of entrepreneurial intention among women. Though among the young women, the entrepreneurship education is also an important component that predicts the entrepreneurial intention (Srivastava and Misra, 2017). According to Palalic et al. (2017) the overall improvement in entrepreneurial education and business surrounding may enhance and develop the entrepreneurial intentions of such the students. Furthermore, TPB has been proved as a meaningful tool for perceiving entrepreneurial intention in the regions of Ethopia, South Africa and developing countries (Buli and Yesuf, 2015; Malebana and Swanepoel, 2015; Soomro and Shah, 2015). The certain factors as entrepreneurial education, innovation, risk taking propensity, prior entrepreneurial experience, external environment, perceived feasibility, perception for entrepreneurship, personality traits and perceived feasibility positively and significantly affect the entrepreneurial intention in the regions as Nigeria and Vietnam (Romani, 2016; Khuong and An, 2016).

As a result, we found some gaps in the existing literature and void of the domain researchers. In the related literature of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), there is not found in such a study between Pakistan and Thailand for it the TBP is examined comparatively (Buli and Yesuf, 2015; Malebana and Swanepoel, 2015; Romani, 2016; Khuong and An, 2016; Srivastava and Misra, 2017; Fietze and Boyd, 2017) which really is a vital source for examination of entrepreneurial intention among the students. In addition to carrying out a cross-country comparison which makes it probable to improve fresh insight to debates over the backgrounds of entrepreneurship (Pruett et al., 2009) and needing for the effect of different cultures and values on the entrepreneurial intention to be better understandable on such an appropriate way. To fill such a huge gap; we try to investigate the entrepreneurial intention among university students of Pakistan and Thailand as per an application of Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB).

Cultural and Economic Considerations

In the different cultures, the application of TPB model is infrequent in this way. Culture has been stated as the fundamental system of values and norms of a specific group or society (Mueller and Thomas, 2001). Hence, culture encourages the individuals for behaviours so as to involve in a human society that may not be apparent in other societies. Besides to this, the various scholars like Busenitz et al. (2000); George and Zahra (2002); Mueller et al. (2002) narrated that culture as a mediator between institutional and economic conditions on one side, and entrepreneurship, on the other. Hofstede et al. (2004) reflect two different forms in which this impact may be implemented within such the contexts. Furthermore, culture shapes social and economic institutions, making them more promising toward entrepreneurial activity. While “integrated” individuals may catch it easier for becoming entrepreneurs. In case where culture is moderately pejorative toward entrepreneurship, “dissatisfied” individuals would pursue personal consciousness through self-employment. As stated by McGrath et al. (1992) high power-distance as a peculiar characteristic of entrepreneurs “regardless of whether the culture is high or low on power-distance”. Lau (1996) opined that cultures high on those values would favor the entrepreneurial activity of its fellows. On the other hand, Mueller et al. (2002) pointed out that low power distance cultures would favor entrepreneurship. Similarly, Busenitz et al. (2000); Hayton et al. (2002) revealed that cultural dimensions would moderate the relationship between entrepreneurial activity and economic condition. Therefore, the relative presence of dissatisfied entrepreneurs and integrated in any given culture may considerably change its economic condition.

According to the TPB approach, values mutual within a culture would affect the motivational intentional backgrounds. In this connection, a supportive culture would assist in legitimating of entrepreneurship (Etzioni, 1987). However, subjective norms imitate the perceived social pressure so as to commence a firm, the effect of cultural values which might be robust on this motivational predecessor (Ajzen, 2001; Begley and Tan, 2001; Kristiansen and Indarti, 2004) claiming that subjective norms incline to perform a stronger role in elucidating intention in collectivist cultures, and weaker in individualistic societies

From economic perspective, the selection of two developing counties (Pakistan and Thailand) acquires to develop more satisfactory, reliable and valid instrument to analyze entrepreneurial insights and intentions (Linan and Chen, 2009). While a comparative study between Pakistan and Thailand was not conducted in spite of a lot of similarities in many economic backgrounds/indicators like population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the basis of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) and levels of entrepreneurial activity as suggested by (Linan and Chen, 2009). In the same way, Busenitz et al. (2000) and Hayton et al. (2002) underlined that cultural dimensions would have moderate the relationship between economic situation and entrepreneurial activity. As the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) valuation through current international dollar, it was noticed for Pakistan is 835.1 billion (IMF, 2014) and for Thailand was 990.1 billion (IMF, 2014).

Finally, entrepreneurial activity level is increasing speedily in Pakistan (Ali et al., 2011) and considerable Pakistani university students have a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship. Likewise, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, 2013) report underlined that Thailand is efficiently driven her economy by enhancing the entrepreneurial activities. Consequently, both the countries do not have big differences which would concentrate the comparison more fruitful (Linan and Chen, 2009).

An application the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and hypotheses

The Theory of Planned Behaviuor (TPB) has been introduced by (Ajzen, 1991). This theory is associated with psychology of human being. Generally, this theory is acquired from the theory of reasoned action (TRA) of (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). In such a theory, behavioural intention is a forecaster of the behaviour and the subjective norms while attitudes have been found as main predictors for developing behavioural intention. In a simple way, the theory of planned behaviour imagines the action of an individual which is predisposed by behavioural intention. This theory reveals that the mixtures of three components like behavioural control, subjective norms, and attitude towards entrepreneurship that are responsible for developing individuals’ behaviour intention. The personal attitude/ attitude towards behaviour associated with the situations of feelings (Ajzen, 1991). Such the feelings can be regarding a product, an individual, an ideology and any specific entity. Furthermore, it signifies an assessment of the behaviour and outcome. The idea pertaining to the attitude for entrepreneurial behaviour that the individuals’ desire has to make worth within obtainable firms and around awareness of the individuals’ desirability of performing the entrepreneurial behaviuor.

However, subjective norms have an association with the individuals’ behaviour, beliefs of family, friends which he/she is perceived for accomplishing a specific object. Hence, it is normative expectation, for the related individuals’, including the friends and family who are vital factors for performing and completed the targeted objective. In the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) the insight of individuals’ social pressure for behaviour is mentioned by subjective norms (Ajzen, 1991). Predominantly, it is the specific portion of individuals’ awareness through it other people think that he/she will perform or not such the task.

The perceived entrepreneurial behaviour control is concerned with the individuals’ confidence and beliefs in bearing the risks for achieving the business environment and innovation (Ajzen, 1991). As a person possesses the perceived behavioural control greatly that covers his/her the strongest intention making him/her self-employed (Kolvereid, 1996). In other words, the trainings and performances for entrepreneurial activities; the perceived behavioural control is regarded as an important owing to linkage with beliefs.

In the field of entrepreneurship; the perceived behavioural control covered through associating with the perceived capability, perceived difficulty and ease to become a potential entrepreneur. As per an entrepreneurial intention; the concept of entrepreneurial intention is regarding the desire/effort so as to perform some behaviour in a certain way.

Meanwhile, Intention is nominated as the extent of challenges making an individual an enthusiastic for achieving an objective. Intention is assumed to capture the motivational factors that influence a behaviour, indicating how hard people are willing to try and how much of an effort they are planning to exert and show the performance of the behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). Furthermore, it is a state of concentration which guides attentiveness towards a pathway of accomplishment.

Nevertheless, it can be predicted through three factors including attitudes towards behaviour, subjective norms and the perceived behavioural control (Ajzen, 1991). Hence, the TPB theory is given below in (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Theory Of Planned Behavior

However, there is a great influence upon the perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and personal attitude on entrepreneurial intention. Though, subjective norm has a positive and significant correlation with personal attitude and the perceived behavioural control among the respondents of Spain and Taiwan (Linan and Chen, 2009). The candidates of growing or emerging countries are highly forecast their future career and opportunities as entrepreneurs positively, and it was also realized and found more positive entrepreneurial attitude as compared to advanced or industrial economies (Davey et al., 2011). Entrepreneurial attitude as a future career is more in both the female and male students (Ali et al., 2011). According to Gibson et al. (2011) that there is a strong entrepreneurial attitudes for initiating or commence own business among the university students as compared to community college students. Regarding the same context, Dabic et al. (2012) stated that there are fewer gender differences among students in terms of entrepreneurial intention.

The impact of subjective norm is also felt when students are older and more mature in Australia and New Zealand (Kennedy et al., 2003). Filho et al. (2015) proposed among the undergraduate students of Peruvian and Brazilian teachers having professional experiences parting from university teaching that gave a positive and significant influence on their students so as to set up their own business. However, there is no difference sorted out among male and female students effectively.

The literature highlights that there is a significant difference among entrepreneurial intentions of male and female, older and mature students of Australia and New Zealand business; college and university students as well the students of Spain and Taiwan with respect to developed and developing economies (Kennedy et al., 2003; Linan and Chen, 2009; Gibson et al., 2011; Davey et al., 2011). However, the researchers have not been tested TPB factors comparatively in Pakistan despite the levels of entrepreneurial activity among students increasing speedily in Pakistan (Ali et al., 2011) and considerable Pakistani university students have a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship. In a similar manner, Thailand is efficiency driven economy by enhancing the entrepreneurial activities (GEM, 2013) and Thailand is lagging behind Singapore, Malaysia, China, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan (Phusavat et al., 2012) in entrepreneurial activities.

Henceforth, it is a necessary to investigate the entrepreneurial differences among the university students of both the regions. On the basis of above discussions; we proposed the following hypotheses to test the entrepreneurial intention among students of Pakistan and Thailand by means of TPB. We further, effort to investigate such the differences through entrepreneurial education.

H1: There is a significant difference in personal attitude for entrepreneurial intention that exists between students of Pakistan and Thailand.

H2: There is a significant difference in subjective norms for entrepreneurial intention that exists between students of Pakistan and Thailand.

H3: There is a significant difference in the perceived behavioural control for entrepreneurial intention that exists between students of Pakistan and Thailand.

Research Methods

This study is based on a correlational and comparative study. For such a study, the comparative hypotheses were developed for further investigation. The quantitative methods were employed for examining human attitudes and behaviours and associated with numerical data collection to explore out the attitudes, behaviours and social facts (Hussey and Hussey, 1997). Such an approach is reliable and valid as per proof of collaboration of statistical analysis (Gilbert, 2001). In addition, a majority of the researchers have applied the positivist approach through survey questionnaires in the field of entrepreneurial intention and attitudes (Evan, 2005; Linan and Chen, 2006: 2009; Packham et al., 2010; Iakovleva et al., 2011; Linan et al., 2013) applied the same methods in comparative studies in the different contexts.

Data Collection and Respondents

The data was collected through survey questionnaire and adapted from the relevant literature. The questionnaires were distributed through personal visit and courier services. The respondents were of the bachelor and master students at the different public universities of Pakistan and Thailand. Before handing over the survey forms to participants as the consent from respondents were granted for taking part in the study as a volunteer participation. The respondents were also given assurance for their responses keeping a privacy and confidentiality.

Sampling Technique and Location

The random sampling technique was applied for collecting the data from the respondents of both countries. As the respondents from universities of both countries were rendered the same importance and equality (Table 1).

Table 1
UNIVERSITIES SELECTED FOR SAMPLING
Pakistan Thailand
S.No Name of university Location Name of university Location
1 Allama Iqbal University Islamabad Bangkok University Bangkok
2 International Islamic University Islamabad Mahidol University Nakhon Pathom
3 Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad Chlulal longkorum University Bangkok
4 Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan Punjab Thammasat University Bangkok
5 Islamia University, Bahawalpur Punjab Chiang Mai University Chiang Mai
6 University of the Punjab, Lahore Punjab Prince of Songkla University Song Khla
7 University of Karachi, Karachi Sindh Khon Kaen University Khon Kaen
8 University of Sindh, Jamshoro Sindh Maejo University Chiang Mai
9 Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur Sindh Mahasarakham University Maha Sarakham
10 University of Peshawar, Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Nakhon Phanom University Nakhon Phanom
11 University of Swat, Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Nation University Lampang
12 Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa  (KPK) Prince of Songkla University Hat Yai
13 University of Balochistan, Quetta Balochistan Ubon Ratchathani University Warin Chamrap
14 University of Turbat, Turbat Balochistan Princess of Naradhiwas University Narathiwat
15 Sardar Bahadur Khan Women University, Quetta Balochistan Asian University Bang Lamung

Measures

However, the entrepreneurial intention questionnaire was exclusively considered for the theory of planned behaviour while it is practical to entrepreneurship (Linan and Chen, 2009) Although such a questionnaire was firstly tested on the Spanish and Taiwanese samples, it has also been validated in both developed and developing countries (for example, Guerrero et al., 2009; Iakovleva et al., 2011; Gerba, 2012; Angriawan et al., 2012; Otuya et al., 2013; Sesen, 2013). In total 19 items were adapted from Linan and Chen (2009). A five point Likert Scale was put into use for appropriate reliability, and received through the Likert scale that is enough clear and impartial owing to large choices of the answers available to the respondents (Oppenheim, 1992).

Attitudes towards behaviour: Attitudes towards behaviour highlight to such the degree for that individual holds a negative and positive or personal valuation so as to become an entrepreneur (Ajzen, 2001; Autio et al., 2001; Kolvereid, 1996b). Such the factor was measured on five items adapted from Linan and Chen (2009). The sample item for such variable indicated as “Being an entrepreneur implies more advantages than disadvantages to me”. All items were measured through five points Likert Scale ranging from strongly disagree to agree.

Subjective norms: Subjective norms are regarding the perceived social pressure in order carry out-or not-entrepreneurial behaviours. In a particular way, it refers to the perception that “reference people” may accept the decision to become an entrepreneur, or not (Ajzen, 2001). Moreover, the factor was measured on three items adapted from the comparative study of Linan and Chen (2009) that applied in Spain and Taiwan. The sample item for subjective norms is “Your family”. All the three items were measured on five point Likert Scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree.

Perceived behavioural control: Perceived behavioural control has disclosed the perception of the ease or difficulty for becoming an entrepreneur. Furthermore, it comprises not only the perception regarding controllability of the behaviour, but also feeling of being capable (Ajzen, 2002). Seven items were adapted from Linan and Chen (2009) for measuring the perceived behavioural control. The sample item was “To start a business and keep it working that would be easy for me”. All items were measured by using five points Likert Scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree.

Entrepreneurial intention: Entrepreneurship intention represents an indication of an individual's readiness for performing a given behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). The factor was measured on three items with five point Likert scale with the options (strongly disagree to strongly agree) adapted (Linan and Chen, 2009). The sample item was “My professional goal is to be an entrepreneur”.

Data Analysis And Results

At the initial stage, the data was coded and entered into a spread sheet of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 for windows. Before taking the steps for hypotheses testing, the data was cleaned and screened as per confirming the missing values, outliers, assuring normality, homogeneity and multi-collinearity of data. After assuring such the important assumptions, further analysis was made in a proper way.

Demography

The five main demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, highest education level/degree and type of course which has been learnt by the participants which had been examined in the present study. Demography of Pakistani students highlighted that 70.1% (n=270) participants were males, and 29.9% (n=115) were females. 77.7% (n=299) were 21-30 years of age, 85.5% (n=329) were single, 68.8% (n=265) were in bachelor degree and 67.5% (n=260) had studied the principles of entrepreneurship course (Table 2).

Table 2
DEMOGRAPHY
    Country
    Pakistan (N=385) Thailand (N=392)
Variables Description Frequency Percentage (%) Frequency Percentage (%)
Gender Male 270 70.1 279 71.2
Female 115 29.9 113 28.8
Total 385 100.0 392 100.0
Age Less than 21 73 19.0 116 29.6
21-30 299 77.7 260 66.3
31-40 13 3.3 15 3.8
41-50 0 0.00 1 0.3
Total 385 100.0 392 100.0
Marital status Single 329 85.5 270 68.9
Married 56 14.5 114 29.1
Divorced/Widow 0 0.00 8 2.0
Total 385 100.0 392 100.0
Highest education level Bachelor Degree 265 68.8 280 71.4
Master Degree 120 31.2 112 28.6
Total 385 100.0 392 100.0
Course Type Principles of Entrepreneurship 260 67.5 263 67.1
Management of SME's 89 23.1 98 25.0
SMEs 18 4.7 16 4.1
Feasibility Study 18 4.7 15 3.8
Total 385 100.0 392 100.0

Analogously, as per Thai respondents 71.2% (n=279) participants were males and 28.8% (n=113) females. 66.3% (n=260) were 21-30 years of age, 68.9% (n=270) single, 71.4% (n=280) were in bachelor degree and 67.1% (n=263) had studied the principles of entrepreneurship course (Table 2).

Descriptive Statistics and Reliability Assumptions

Descriptive statistics utilized for description of collection of information (Prem, 1995). For Pakistan, the range of maximum mean found as 3.67 (subjective norms) and maximum standard deviation was like 1.52 (personal attitude) being observed. For Thailand, maximum mean was like 3.57 (subjective norms) and maximum standard deviation as 1.31 (personal attitude) being noticed (Table 3).

Table 3
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
    Pakistan Thailand
No. Variables Mean S.D α Mean S.D α
1 Personal attitude 3.0326 1.52068 0.901 3.1624 1.31146 0.889
2 Subjective norms 3.6710 1.22104 0.843 3.5709 1.17843 0.853
3 Perceived behavioral control 3.0739 1.10397 0.851 3.0658 1.09108 0.741
4 Entrepreneurial intention 3.5945 1.05461 0.936 3.3709 0.96008 0.864

The reliability or internal consistencies among the items were assessed through Cronbach’s alpha (α). The overall alpha for Pakistan’s data is noted as 0.769 whereas for Thailand’s data was noted like 0.809. Moreover, the reliability of individual’s factors of both regions was within the range of standard scores (Table 3).

Factor Loadings

Rotated component matrix was applied for the confirmation the correlations of the items with respective factor. According to Zikmund et al. (2010) that easiness of the interpretations of the factor depends on the factor loadings. The factor rotation is useful technique for interpreting the group of items with factors together. In our study, a majority of factors were loaded, and as the above their factor loadings like 0.71 (50% overlapping variance) for both the courtiers (Table 4). Such the values are considered as excellent (Comrey and Lee, 1992).

Table 4
FACTOR LOADING
Rotated component matrixa
Pakistan Thailand
Component Component
Items 1 2 3 4 Items 1 2 3 4
SUNO3 0.879       PBCO2 0.852      
SUNO1 0.877       PBCO6 0.840      
SUNO2 0.842       PBCO4 0.834      
ATBR1   0.881     PBCO3 0.832      
ATBR6   0.874     PBCO5 0.829      
ATBR3   0.848     ATBR3   0.873    
ATBR2   0.809     ATBR1   0.872    
ENON3     0.931   ATBR2   0.867    
ENON1     0.928   ATBR4   0.864    
ENON2     0.805   ENON3     0.902  
PBCO6       0.868 ENON1     0.891  
PBCO3       0.858 ENON2     0.869  
PBCO1       0.853 SUNO3       0.910
PBCO4       0.844 SUNO6       0.897
PBCO2         SUNO4       0.876

Hypotheses Testing

The suggestive hypotheses of the study were based on comparative basis; such hypotheses had been tested as per applying T-Test for insuring the differences between data of Pakistan and Thailand. The differences were investigated on the basis of mean difference that based on significance level<0.001 (Sig. 2-tailed). The results reveal that there is a significant difference in personal attitude for entrepreneurial intention, subjective norms for entrepreneurial intention and perceived behavioural control for entrepreneurial intention existing between students from Pakistan and Thailand. Therefore, H1, H2 and H3 were supported (Table 5). In addition, the summary of hypotheses confirmation is given in Table 6.

Table 5
T-STATISTICS
    T   Df.   Sig. (2-tailed)   Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Personal attitude 84.152 777 0.000 3.62082 3.5364 3.7053
Subjective norms 78.067 777 0.000 3.06984 2.9926 3.1470
Perceived behavioral control 95.805 777 0.000 3.48243 3.4111 3.5538
Entrepreneurial intention 60.837 777 0.000 3.09769 2.9977 3.1976
Table 6
SUMMARY OF HYPOTHESES CONFIRMATION
No. Hypotheses description Decision
1 There is a significant difference in personal attitude for entrepreneurial intention that exists between students of Pakistan and Thailand. Accepted
2 There is a significant difference in subjective norms for entrepreneurial intention that exists between students of Pakistan and Thailand. Accepted
3 There is a significant difference in perceived behavioral control for entrepreneurial intention that exists between students of Pakistan and Thailand. Accepted

Discussion And Conclusion

At the present times, an intention for entrepreneurship of the individuals is enhancing owing to the factors like the accomplishment of career and self-employment options. In addition to achieving an accomplishment of the targeted behaviours, the investigation of entrepreneurial intention is mandatory for the individuals of a human society. The present study attempted to investigate the entrepreneurial intention of Pakistani and Thai university students on the comparative basis. However, the development of theoretical framework is grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). While the personal attitude, subjective norms, the perceived behavioural control were investigated as predictors meanwhile entrepreneurial intention was examined as a criterion variable. Such theoretical framework is supported by the entrepreneurial education or courses. The survey questionnaire was put into use for acquisition of data that had exclusively been considered for the theory of planned behaviour with respect to functional for entrepreneurship (Linan and Chen, 2009). Initially, the questionnaire tested on Spanish and Taiwanese samples. After that, it has also been validated in both developed and developing countries.

Henceforth, the respondents were of bachelor and master students at the different public sector universities of Pakistan and Thailand. The then, the attention and concentration was paid to those students who were pursuing the entrepreneurial education as compulsory and optional courses. After that the questionnaires distributed through personal visit and courier services. Before handing over the survey forms to participants, the ethical protocol like consent acquired from the respondents meanwhile the respondents were taken into a confident and given confirmation for retaining their shared information as secret in this regard. The random sampling technique was applied for collecting the data from the universities students of both countries. After that the data analysis process covered through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 for windows. Total 385 from Pakistan and 392 valid samples of Thailand are taken for the final analysis. The overall alpha for Pakistan’s data is noted as 0.769 and Thailand like 0.809. Henceforth, the reliability (α) of individual factors of both countries found within the range of standard scores.

Besides to this, the five main demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, highest education level/degree and type of course covered and examined through the participants. As from Pakistan like a majority of participants were males as compared to females, 21-30 years of age, bachelor degree holders, and had studied the principles of entrepreneurship course. As per Thai respondents like a majority of participants were males, 21-30 years of age, single, bachelor degree holders, and had studied the principles of entrepreneurship course.

However, descriptive statistics assisted to describe the feature of collective information. For Pakistan, the range of maximum mean like 3.67 (subjective norms) and maximum standard deviation as 1.52 (personal attitude) were observed in this way, and for Thailand, maximum mean as 3.57 (subjective norms) and maximum standard deviation like 1.31 (personal attitude) was noticed. The factor loadings were applied for confirming the relationships of items with their factors. The scores of loadings were within their excellent rages.

The suggestive hypotheses were tested as per applying T-Test for surety of the differences between data of Pakistan and Thailand. The differences investigated on the basis of mean difference based on significance level<0.001 (Sig. 2-tailed). The results reveal that there is a significant difference in personal attitude towards entrepreneurial intention, subjective norms for entrepreneurial intention and perceived behavioural control towards entrepreneurial intention existing between the universities students of Pakistan and Thailand. Henceforth, H1, H2 and H3 were supported. The positive results are according to the various scholars like Linan and Chen (2009); Pruett et al. (2009); Gibson et al. (2011); Davey et al. (2011); Tan et al. (2013) who stated the positive and significant differences in personal attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control for entrepreneurial intention existing between the students of different countries like Spain and Taiwan; USA, Spain, and China; Korea and Malaysia. On contrary to it, such findings are contradictory to researchers like Kumara and Samantha (2012); Segumpan, and Zahari (2012); Dabic et al. (2012) who found that there was no any statistically positive and significant difference in different contexts such as Oman, Sri Lanka and India.

To conclude, the overall results suggested that there is a significant difference in personal attitude, subjective norms and the perceived behavioural control for entrepreneurial intention existing between students from Pakistan and Thailand. The differences in personal attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control may be occurred because of entrepreneurial education or courses or the development of intention for entrepreneurship that is dissimilar because the students of developing countries are more probable to expect future opportunities and positive entrepreneurial attitude.

Another difference may be the outcomes of the different educational and cultural environment where the students facing and taking a great influence of relatives, teachers and neighbors for adopting the entrepreneurial activities and culture. Furthermore, they could be enough confident to adopt and face the entrepreneurial related challenges. The outcome of present study may contribute for the further validation of TPB in two Asian developing countries, particularly for comparison of students’ entrepreneurial intention. Hence, this study may cover the supportive tools regarding the consultants, practitioners of management and human resource management and organizational behaviour in evaluating the intentions in an organization. Conceivably following to such the study both countries (Pakistan and Thailand) may concentrate for promoting the entrepreneurial activities due to diversion of individuals’ attention towards self-employment.

Limitations And Implications

In the conceptual framework, we (researchers) used the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to investigate students’ intentions towards entrepreneurship. This study only conducted in two different Asian developing countries (Pakistan and Thailand). The conceptualization of this study was based on the literature of Europe and other cultures. Thus, the results of this study should be compared with other countries with the same concept so as to provide more generalization. Only quantitative method was employed. To some extent, this method is inflexible and artificial. It may be hard for policy makers to infer what changes and actions should be taken in the future (Amaratunga, 2002). This study is also limited to a context like a few public universities which were selected from both the countries. Such the selection of the universities may have been biased because the samples were not drawn from the entire university population. Participation was voluntary and the respondents were given choice to complete the questionnaire anywhere.

The previous research classically tested that theories can be transferred from developed to developing countries (Bruton et al., 2008). In this respect, this study relates to the evidence of consistency of the TPB in explaining entrepreneurial intentions in various environments of two Asian developing countries; Pakistan and Thailand. Prior to this, no any study has been found in the literature that was conducted between Pakistan and Thailand in the entrepreneurship perspective. Perhaps, this is the first study to test individuals’ intentions towards entrepreneurship outside the Western culture, specifically in both the Asian developing countries. This study has filled the gap in global investigations by testing predictor variables in new cross-contexts, which may be useful for generalizing these predictors. Such study may be supportive for the management and practitioners of human resource management and organisational behaviour in assessing and evaluating employee attitudes and intentions in organisation. The outcomes of this study showed that respondents of both the countries’ universities displayed high intentions of Thai students towards self-employment by entrepreneurship education. This situation demands serious consideration, particularly on the part of university authorities of Pakistan to avail more resources for entrepreneurial education, innovative and entrepreneurial activities. Furthermore, university students if properly trained can play a leading role in every society. In this regard, Pakistani government may promote an entrepreneurial culture in the country.

Future Research Directions

We only applied TPB for predicting the public sector university students of Pakistan and Thailand. In such the field, there are many theories like Shapero’s (1982) Entrepreneurial Event Theory (EET), the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) developed by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975, 1980) and entrepreneurial intention model developed by Kruger (1993) can be applied to investigate the attitudes and intentions of the individuals (entrepreneurs) in the future research.

Social, religious and cultural characteristics of Pakistan and Thailand are the different from the North American and Western countries. Therefore, it is justifiable to generalize the unbiased validity and reliability of the predictors of individuals’ taking behaviour. In this sense, there is more need to apply the same methodology in the North American, Western countries and other South-Asian country contexts. We only predicted psychological constructs such as attitudes towards behaviour subjective norms, perceived behavioural control towards intentions entrepreneurial in universities of Pakistan and Thailand. In the future research, socio-economic and cultural factors are strictly needed to predict the attitudes and intentions of the entrepreneurs.

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