Journal of Entrepreneurship Education (Print ISSN: 1098-8394; Online ISSN: 1528-2651)

Research Article: 2023 Vol: 26 Issue: 1S

Role of Entrepreneurship in the COVID-19 era

Cruz Garcia, Autonomous Mexico State University

Julio E Crespo, University of the Lakes

Citation Information: Garcia, C., & Crespo, J.E. (2023). Entrepreneurship In The Covid-19 Era. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 26(S1),1-10.


The reliability and validity studies of entrepreneurship have focused on the instruments that measure diverse traits, but only those that are within a threshold of three to seven items and discriminate between the stimuli mediated by technology concerning the face-to-face surveys. Face, avoiding the models that specify trajectories of relations between determinant variables of the entrepreneurial activity, is necessary for the investigation of the influence of the technologies on the innovation of processes more than on the optimization of resources. The objective of this work was to establish the psychometric properties of an instrument that measured six organizational dimensions of entrepreneurship in coffee growers in central Mexico. A nonexperimental, cross-sectional, and exploratory study was carried out with a non-probabilistic selection of 117 women coffee merchants. We observed a structure of six dimensions related to values, support, recognition, stimulation, solidarity, and collaboration that explained 63% of the total variance, but the research design limited the results to the research scenario, suggesting the extension of the study to other contexts and samples.


Entrepreneurship, Coffee Growing, Values, Support, Recognition.


In an organizational sense, entrepreneurship implies a greater tolerance for failure, which results in a high risk for investment and innovation. It is an innovative venture, which is distinguished from a copycat venture; this is due to the degree of confidence in oneself as a leader, the quality of the process, and the insertion of the product in the market (Hernandez et al., 2018).

In this way, innovative entrepreneurs turn out to be inclined to make decisions in situations of uncertainty and the face of contingent scenarios. In contrast, imitative entrepreneurs are those who, due to their degree of distrust in their abilities, focus their attention on the study of successful cases, decision paths, and implemented strategies, rather than developing an intuitive sense of their entrepreneurship. (Sanchez et al., 2018).

However, the most incidental factor in entrepreneurship is the perception of opportunity, which supposes the emergence of a latent need that the entrepreneur is capable of visualizing and carrying out through management, to capitalize on that idea to the maximum (Elizarraraz et al., 2018). This is how creativity, being linked to innovative entrepreneurship, supposes a continuous formation of more abstract skills and knowledge than imitative entrepreneurs, although work experience is also another factor, which enhances the perception of opportunity; It is then created that allows innovation, the main response to a lack of opportunities (Garcia, 2018).

Social development implies not only creating or strengthening the means of cooperation between the countries but a society for all, where every individual each with rights and responsibilities has an active role to play. According to new alternatives and the implementation of strategies that add value to the development of entrepreneurship will help identify opportunities that can later materialize in specific projects. In this way, knowledge transfer and innovation are strategic for entrepreneurs if the material, human and financial resources are properly used, avoiding entropy.

It is significant to point out that if the entrepreneur and innovator, in addition to being creative and having work experience, is inserted in a network of knowledge, then his opportunities grow along with his response capacities or emotional and work intelligence (Garcia et al., 2022). It is a process in which decision-making is no longer guided only by the simple intuition of an opportunity, nor by the experience of having gone through a similar process, but now the network of knowledge allows the entrepreneur to innovate, contrasting their ideas and skills with those of their peers in the face of demand from abroad (Sanchez et al., 2018). Innovative entrepreneurship is part of an informal education, where experience, creativity, and knowledge networks are not driven by any study, training, or education program, and therefore it is intangible and hidden capital. In this situation, copycat entrepreneurship follows a path of formalization, as is the case with teleworking (Sanchez et al., 2018).

Some studies show that while motherhood inhibits job performance, it opens up new opportunities for flexibility, subcontracting for hours without benefits or base salary, as well as the emergence of products and services offered in information networks. In this way, when faced with a contract, teleworking is compatible with maternity leave, not only avoiding dismissal, and conflicts between employers, leaders, and talents, but also generating a virtuous circle of employee learning and loyalty towards others. The company (Hernandez et al., 2018).

In contrast, pregnancy and unwanted motherhood involve a vicious cycle of anxiety and hyperactivity between mother and child concerning work. It is a growing pathology that comes to explain bullying and workplace violence, all as a result of this unwanted gestation process. Faced with such a situation, it is convenient to point out, that teleworking has come to ease the differences between employers and talents (Espinoza et al., 2018). In such a scheme, family and personal well-being are established on one side of the balance, compared to the so-called organizational well-being. The first supposes an emotional and affective development, while the second appeal to cognitive and behavioral development; but both are oriented towards satisfaction or the harvest of positive experiences, as well as happiness or the adoption of a satisfactory lifestyle for the talent, their leader and the company (Garcia et al., 2017).

However, teleworking implies face-to-face isolation, and even when a link through information networks prevails on the part of the talent that will limit their creativity, entrepreneurship, and innovation. Even the formation of knowledge networks supposes a process of management, production, and transfer, which combines information networks with face-toface debates, which could not be carried out from a digital protocol (Garcia et al., 2018). The underlying problem lies in the differences between reproductive work such as motherhood and parenting productive work in which entrepreneurship is linked to creativity, which implies precarious parenting. Or, innovation from the formation of knowledge networks supposes a properly planned upbringing; this in terms of values and norms, social skills; mainly the selfesteem that clearly distinguishes the innovative entrepreneur from the imitator entrepreneur (Sanchez et al., 2018).

From this distinction, the proposal of domestic co-responsibility has emerged, which consists of the establishment of equitable relationships in terms of rights and obligations, between those who make up a family or a couple (Garcia, 2019). It is a redistribution of objectives, tasks, and shared goals that concern the members of the family or the couple, and whose benefits will be disseminated in the personal, family, or couple development; although such a proposal excludes organizations, which only refer to the granting of maternity or paternity leave, without taking into consideration the growing needs of education and civic training of children (Carreon et al. 2017). It is not even known whether this family’s domestic coresponsibility would have an impact on the development of creativity, or whether it would inhibit it. In addition, knowledge networks limited to constant innovation could see their objectives hampered if each person is delegated an external activity or one far from their capacities. Well, domestic co-responsibility not only refers to domestic work but also to parenting and family support that involves empathy and accompaniment for shared mourning. That is to say, such coresponsibility extends the functions of talents to other tasks distant from the creation of knowledge, which would limit that primary objective by eater democratization of tasks, functions, and contributions in the home (Garcia, 2017).

Even both teleworking and family domestic co-responsibility reveal the overload of roles that is more likely in pregnant, giving birth or first-time women, in terms of motherhood, since, by increasing their rights, their obligations also intensify, which has repercussions on their performance, performance, and self-care, displacing their talent towards activities that could be carried out by domestic staff, or delegated to these people (Martinez et al., 2019). In both cases, teleworking and family co-responsibility, the overload of roles can explain the detachment of the one who has and provides more economic resources to the family or the couple relationship. It is an asymmetric relationship in which a provider role will gradually move away from internal affairs, delegating decisions that do not concern budgets or expenses to the spouse or partner (Garcia et al., 2017).

This is how parental self-efficacy, the ability to train and educate children based on exemplary performance at work, seems to be reduced to its minimum expression since labor conflicts are increasingly growing and their repercussion within the family or partner is unavoidable (Garcia et al., 2018). Cooperation and solidarity, when reduced at work, have repercussions on family detachment. Despite the imponderables that limit the access and consolidation of women in the labor market, the tourism sector is an example of the deployment of skills, abilities, and knowledge related to parenting and entrepreneurship in a highly competitive sector, but ideal for the capacities of women in terms of cooperation and solidarity both in the breeding and in the sale of coffee and its derivatives (Garcia et al., 2017). In the coffee-growing context, female entrepreneurship differs from social or male entrepreneurship, in terms of willingness rather than creativity, terms of cooperation networks rather than knowledge networks, and support rather than innovation (Sandoval et al., 2022). This is how microfinancing makes a decisive contribution to the development of entrepreneurial women, but it is the support and help of help that would determine a balance between pregnancy, motherhood, and upbringing, for economic, productive, and productive activity. paid job. It is known that, in the process of pregnancy, decision-making is conditioned by the group norm, as is the case with the mother, but when the couple or conjugal relationship is perceived as lasting, not only does a commitment emerge, but also a negotiation related to the common welfare, the antecedent of coresponsibility in domestic work in the affectivity of the couple and the family.

In the case of maternity, the factor that explains the balance between it and works entrepreneurship lies, very specifically, in the so-called family support; again, the mother is a central element in the scheme of caring for the pregnant woman and eventually in the upbringing of her children. It is a question of a double subordination of women that explains the reduction of the overload of roles in women who aspire to continue with their insertion in the labor market. Finally, in the case of parenting and its relationship with female entrepreneurship, it is well known that organizations play a preponderant role since maternity leave is the beginning of the installation of a nursery in the workplace and the delegation of responsibilities among those who make up the childcare system at work. In this way, the daycare system in the labor market supposes the establishment of a system of self-care and care of children, this to work functions and the alternation of times and movements, taking into account the so-called rotation and supervision system of both functions (Valdes et al., 2018). It is an innovative system in itself, since it allows, among other things, to carry the identity of the company to future generations as long as the balance between parental efficacy and work self-efficacy prevails. In this way, the nursery system in the workplace involves the establishment of a new organizational form around the management, production, and transfer of knowledge. That is to say that the objectives, tasks, and goals now imply the stability and well-being of the family or the couple, as well as the socalled shared self-care of the children and the responsibilities when this involves the rotation of care or productivity (Garcia et al., 2017).

However, in this new dimension of daycare centers at work, a discussion is opened regarding its determining factors, since it will be necessary to anticipate scenarios of imbalance that explain labor rotation and not co-responsibility, as well as absenteeism instead of childcare. children at work. Therefore, if the theoretical relationships between the determining factors of the balance between female entrepreneurship and parenting put forward in the consulted literature were adjusted to the empirical observations in female coffee growers from Xilitla in central Mexico, then the explanatory theoretical frameworks of the relationships between the factors that explain the balance between female entrepreneurship and their child-rearing and domestic work, as well as social and family support, will anticipate scenarios of co-responsibility between couples or families involved in an innovative entrepreneurship project (Sanchez et al., 2017). Even though the theoretical, conceptual, and empirical frameworks have established the conditions from which it is possible to anticipate a balance between the demands of the labor sphere or productive work for the functions of the domestic and family sphere known as reproductive work, the Xili scenario, due to its status as an entity that expels migrants, generates file entrepreneurship that is more imitative than innovative, as well as a family and domestic coresponsibility oriented towards the overload of female and male roles in the heads of the family, reasons why the relationships between the variables of the theories put forward in the literature will be different from the empirical observations (Garcia et al., 2017). Because the studies of female entrepreneurship deal with variables that have not yet been explored in their internal structure, their factorial composition were estimated considering that; 1) the multitrait dimensions of entrepreneurship are more consistent than the one-dimensional measurements; 2) multitrait estimates tend to be scattered as long as they do not exceed a threshold of three to seven indicators per factor; 3) the internal consistency of the instrument that measures the dimensions of the entrepreneurship will be greater if it is empirically tested on a sample greater than 130 (Garcia, 2016).

The objective of the present work is to establish the differences between the structure of entrepreneurship reported in the literature to the observations of the present study in a pandemic scenario.

Are there significant differences between the structure of entrepreneurship reported in the literature concerning the observations of this study?

The premises that guide the study suggest that innovation emerges in a health crisis, but entrepreneurship is also an opportunism agreed upon between the parties (Garcia, 2021). In this way, the pandemic is a constructed opportunity, even when the parties involved react to a crisis of scarcity of resources, COVID-19 activates a negotiation process through expectations of opportunity, innovation, and satisfaction, as well as a mechanism of trust in government, technology, science, nice, and humanity.


A non-experimental, cross-sectional, and exploratory study was carried out. A nonprobabilistic selection was made of 117 women coffee growers from central Mexico, specifically from the municipality of Xilitla, who are young (M=260.34 SD=0.014), have higher secondary education (M=11.23 SD=0.12 years of study) and an income just above the minimum (M=3,641.23 SD=0.034).

On this occasion, the Carreon (2016) was used, which includes 41 items alluding to the balance between the world of work and the domestic, family, and emotional spheres. Each item is answered with one of five options: 0=never, 1=almost never, 2=sometimes, 3=almost always and 4=always.

The Delphi technique was used for the homogenization and clarification of the concepts included in the reagents, as well as the response options. Confidentiality and anonymity of the answers were guaranteed in writing, warning the respondents that the findings would not negatively or positively affect their economic, political, and social status of respondents.

The surveys were applied in the home before the telephone agreement. The information was processed in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 13. Cronbach’s alpha reliability parameters were estimated to establish the consistency of the instrument in other contexts and study samples. The validity was carried out with adequacy and sphericity tests, as well as an analysis of principal axes with Promax rotation. Adjustment and residual statistics were weighted for the contrast between the model and hypothesis.


Table 1 shows that the alpha values for the general scale exceed the essential minimums (general alpha of 00.979), evidencing the internal consistency of the scale and the reduction of measurement errors in different contexts and samples (Merino, 2016).

Table 1 Instrument Descriptions
R M SD A F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6
r1 30.65 0.802 0.978           -0.383
r2 30.58 0.874 0.978           -0.369
r3 10.45 1,395 0.981           0.368
r4 20.98 1,271 0.978           0.364
r5 30.45 0.959 0.978           -0.363
r6 30.43 0.874 0.978           0.339
r7 30.55 0.959 0.979           0.352
r8 30.30 1,181 0.978         -0.341  
r9 30.45 1,131 0.978         -0.324  
r10 30.68 0.797 0.979         -0.319  
r11 20.55 0.932 0.979         0.633  
r12 3.13 0.883 0.979         -0.540  
r13 30.38 0.838 0.978         -0.329  
r14 3.00 1,219 0.978         -0.313  
r15 30.33 1,047 0.978       -0.636    
r16 30.38 0.952 0.978       -0.588    
r17 30.40 0.900 0.978       -0.532    
r18 3.08 0.859 0.978       -0.456    
r19 30.38 1,102 0.978       -0.432    
r20 30.33 0.888 0.978       -0.345    
r21 30.55 0.876 0.978       -0.334    
r22 30.75 0.809 0.979     0.833      
r23 30.60 1,081 0.978     0.517      
r24 3.28 1,037 0.978     0.503      
r25 30.65 0.949 0.978     0.498      
r26 30.33 1,163 0.978     0.497      
r27 30.60 0.841 0.978     0.941      
r28 30.70 0.791 0.978     0.928      
r29 30.58 0.874 0.978   0.911        
r30 30.68 0.797 0.978   0.908        
r31 30.48 0.933 0.978   0.892        
r32 30.70 0.758 0.978   0.881        
r33 30.50 1,038 0.978   0.878        
r34 30.60 0.810 0.978   0.877        
r35 30.48 0.987 0.978   0.873        
r36 30.55 0.986 0.978 0.869          
r37 30.63 0.807 0.978 0.869          
r38 30.63 0.807 0.978 0.862          
r39 30.48 0.933 0.978 0.839          
r40 30.35 0.921 0.978 0.837          
r41 30.38 0.897 0.978 0.834          
r42 30.56 0.798 0.986 0.645          

R=Reactive, M=Mean, D=Standard Deviation, S=Skew, C=Kurtosis, A=Alpha removing the value of the item. The parameters that measure the measure of the adequacy of the data for the factorial analysis (KMO=00.781) and the sample size sphericity test exceeded the required standard [X2=23.13 (34df) p=0.000], suggesting that the sample size should be greater than 100 and less than 300 (Lee & Idris, 2017).

The factors were extracted using the principal axes method and the Promax technique. The shared variance of the indicators was analyzed to establish the percentage of total explained variance of each factor, although such a procedure, by preventing the resulting factorial solution from generating inflation of the estimates by only considering the common variance, requires more advanced software than the version of SPSS (13.0) used (Costello & Osborne, 2005). Therefore, six factors were established: F1=Values (59.1% of the total variance explained), F2= Support (80.9% of the total variance explained), F3=Recognition (50.3% of the total variance explained), F4=Stimulation (40.5% of the total variance explained), F5=Solidarity (30.7% of the total variance explained), F6=Collaboration (20.9% of the total variance explained). Each item is answered with one of five options: 0=not at all likely to 4=very likely. The factor with the highest percentage of explained variance was the one that refers to a coffee-growing enterprise indicated by collaborative values (59.1%), although another five factors explained 250.3% to add up to 840.4%. Once the six factors have been established: 1) values, 2) support, 3) recognition, 4) stimulation, 5) solidarity, and 6) collaboration; covariances or possible relationships between the factors were calculated (see Table 2). It is possible to observe that the values of entrepreneurship, a factor with the highest percentage of explained variance, was linked to recognition (positive dispositions to entrepreneurship by other coffee growers), suggesting a dependency relationship.

Table 2 Correlations and Covariances
  F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6
F1 1.0           10.8          
F2 0.69** 1.0         0.429 1.2        
F3 0.71* 0.58*** 1.0       0.69 0.42 10.7      
F4 0.59* 0.61* 0.49* 1.0     0.52 0.97 0.96 10.6    
F5 0.43* 0.72* 0.51** 0.71* 1.0   0.62 0.43 0.69 0.56 10.3  
F6 0.57* 0.48* 0.61* 0.60* 0.56* 1.0 0.68 0.94 0.70 0.76 0.27 10.7

For its part, the association between stimulation (perceptions of opportunity and challenges) with solidarity (favorable loan dispositions) suggest another dependency relationship that, together with the correlation between values and recognition, implies an explanatory model of local coffee entrepreneurship.

The correlations or associations between the factors put forward indicate possible dependency relationships between all the factors, highlighting the associations between values and recognition, as well as stimulation and solidarity, although the case of lesser association is also relevant between values and solidarity (favorable disposition to the entrepreneurial society) in the explanation of the relationships between the factor’s indicative of female entrepreneurship.

However, collinearity and multicollinearity are central problems on the scientific research agenda because they increase the percentage of total variance explained and the dependency relationships (Mela & Kopalle, 2002). Collinearity only affects multiple linear regression models without influencing the predictive power and reliability or internal consistency of the measurement instrument (Adeboye et al., 2014). Therefore, the associations between the factors of values and recognition, as well as stimulation and solidarity, do not affect the internal consistency of the general scale and the subscales, nor their possible relationships in a structural model Figure 1.

Figure 1 Structural Equation Modeling

Even an extension of the model with other variables that the literature reports as entrepreneurship derived from formal labor rights protection systems, or entrepreneurship from a corporate social responsibility approach, would contribute to the construction of an explanatory model of local coffee entrepreneurship. Associations are dependency relationships between the factors in question. This is the case of support as a determinant of collaboration, which suggests that female entrepreneurship would be indicated by an association and dependency relationship between the heads of families, who, in an evident way, support through collaboration between them for the implementation of a nursery in their workplace and the rotation of shifts for the care of children and the sale of coffee products and their derivatives. In the previous paragraph and before concluding the statistical review, it is important to repeatedly warn that the survey carried out and reported in this space is merely hypothetical; that is, in reality, these women do not have their children in any nursery; only their attitude and point of view were detected, given the possibility of having regular daycare services for their children. In the context of Xilitla and the sample of women coffee growers, supportive relationships prevail in which the coresponsibilities of caring for children and selling coffee and derivatives are rotated to possible coffee growing entrepreneurship projects such as the sale of coffee on the way home housing, sale through clambake or sale in areas not heavily traveled by tourists while combining this function with childcare..


The contribution of this work to the state of knowledge lies in establishing the reliability and validity of an instrument that measures female entrepreneurship from six dimensions related to 1) values, 2) support, 3) recognition, 4) stimulation, 5) solidarity, and 6) collaboration, but concentrated in the recognition factor which explains about 60% of the total variance. Consequently, it is necessary to adapt the instrument since if female entrepreneurship, according to the literature consulted, is due to the formation of a personality of tolerance to risk and creativity, or to the formalization of management, production, and knowledge transfer, more imitative than innovative, then it is necessary to explore the informal dimension of entrepreneurship.

Now then, the type of study, the type of sample selection, and the type of statistical analysis; limit the results of this study to the context and the study sample (Garcia, 2021). This means that the extension of the study to other contexts and samples is recommended, as well as the inclusion of other indicators related to the factors of values, support, stimulation, solidarity, and collaboration as dimensions inherent to female coffee entrepreneurship. As for the theoretical frameworks; both conceptual and empirical ones reviewed, focused on the determinants of innovative and imitative entrepreneurship; Rather, the present work has shown that six dimensions prevail in terms of the imitator rather than innovator item since the study sample seems to reproduce its home functions in the workplace, by extending the care and upbringing of children to the childcare center. work, or, show solidarity with other female heads of the family. It is convenient to observe the differences and similarities of female entrepreneurship in other work areas, productive contexts, and study samples to clarify the prevalence of the ethics of female care over the ethics of male conviction regarding coffee entrepreneurship (Elizararaz, 2018).

Therefore, ethics is not a simply code of moral norms but, prior to all codes, a view of life that constitutes a world in which we can exist in relationships with others and ourselves. How deep the gap goes between such convictions is very difficult to know (Crespo, 2022).


The present work has demonstrated the reliability and validity of an instrument that measures female entrepreneurship, based on six dimensions related to 1) values, 2) support, 3) recognition, 4) stimulation, 5) solidarity, and 6 ) collaboration; however, the results obtained support the hypothesis that these dimensions and their dependency relationships seem to explain the extension of female domestic workers to the workplace, rather than a fusion between the tasks and capacities of care, empathy, and parenting, as well as the self-management and selfmanagement capabilities. This is so because female entrepreneurship is indicated by opportunities, challenges, and monetary and organizational challenges that limit or encourage the innovation of female coffee growers.

People-centered approach to development incorporates other relevant issues such as the empowerment of women, recognition of cultural differences, and strengthening civil societies to ensure full participation at all levels of decision-making. If these suggestions are on the right track, it is relevant to emphasize a significant implication of its duties and capabilities. For this reason, these outcomes surely entail not only a long-time political agenda but a new way of communication and cooperation for new entrepreneurs.


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Received: 13-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. AJEE-22- 12552; Editor assigned: 15-Sep -2022, Pre QC No. AJEE-22- 12552(PQ); Reviewed: 29- Sep-2022, QC No. AJEE-22- 12552; Published: 14-Oct-2022

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