Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Review Article: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 2S

Shariah Commandments Regarding Encouragement for Economic Activities

Abdul Quddus Suhaib, Bahauddin Zakariya University

Tariq Mahmood, Bahauddin Zakariya University


Hardworking, Idleness, Shariah Commandments, Snobbery, Gap


Many Islamic commandments encourage human beings to remain busy in economic activities. This is why that begging has been discouraged. Similarly such professions that are not allowed because of its prohibition of goods are not allowed in Islamic teachings. According to teachings of Holy Quran, Man is created for the welfare of other human beings. This is why, trade is being done not for the cause of only earn profit but for the advantages of Hereafter. Idleness is not allowed in Islam and hardworking is encouraged. Unfortunately, in present Islamic World, many people do not take interest in doing hard working but some of them want to remain idle. Due to idleness of some people, the hard working people are actually discouraged when they are not said encouraging comments. Besides these, the culture of snobbery is also being done by idle persons in pretending that they have servants for their household works. This thing is also creating many other problems for some families where these servants are presenting their services for earning very small amount of income. While these servants are presenting their services all the day ignoring their own children and their own household works. This also shows that the gap between the poor and the rich is greater that must be lesser or curtailed.


Man cannot remain alive for the meal but there are other objectives of life, those should be fulfilled. Therefore meal is not the purpose of life but this is the source to fulfill the purpose. And source should remain source rather than to become purpose. Qutub, et al. (1996) it is fact that man is considered as social animal because he cannot survive lonely in this worldly life. Therefore, he has to depend upon on others to survive mundane life.

Earning with hand and trading is honorable profession. The proof of greatness of this profession is that Holy Prophet (PBUH) himself traded twelve years. Some of the Holy Prophet’s companions also adopted this profession. After the pious & guided companions also did trade and became famous in this sector also. If the profession of trade is adopted with Islamic limits then besides earning plenty of wealth, person can get high status in hereafter. But sorrowfully, very few people are such who are truthful and right doing traders and avoid from deception and wrong doings. Such people are appreciated. Salahuddin
Y. In Islamic teachings, the thinking about the matters of worship only as Islamic is not Islam in actual.Because other matters of life are also included in Islam that demands that no one could deceive the other. But very few people stress upon the matters of life as Islamic by fulfilling the complete duties.

According to Islamic point of view, to earn livelihood is the important problem of human life, so the economic problem is not only the economic problem but it has the importance of social, religion and ethical. And in present era, it has adopted political importance. Tayyebah (2002) in present era, mostly people deal with the other people on the base of their economic status. This is why that in present age of materialism, poor are considered as doubtful on the base of their poverty in the societies. The famous sayings of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) can be quoted here for the importance of purity. As, it is narrated in Hadith of Siyah Sittah: “The person, who cheats, is not one of us”. It is sorrowful to mention that in present era Muslims are not free from these types of unfair activities that denote that economic condition is in vulnerable for consumers and for developmental activities also.

Literature Review

In Islamic Shariah, In Holy Quran at many places of many chapters (Surahs), it is commanded to work in a permitted way. And many places, it is forbidden to earn livelihood illegally and with wrong doings. Besides Hadith Sciences, practical actions of Holy Prophet (PBUH) and rightly guided companions’ actions are also practical example for the Muslims especially and for mankind generally. Besides these basic sources of Islamic Shariah, in many fiqh books, in Islamic Economics books, Ibne Hazm, Ghazali, Shah Waliullah, Madoodi, Umar Chapra, mahmood Ahmad Ghazi, M.Akram Khan, Taha Hussain, Dr.Ghulam Murtaza and many others have explained about Earning through permitted ways and tried to explain Islamic point of view. Besides this, many articles and thesis are also available online and on papers also but this research will be an addition for understanding economic activities under Shariah regulations.


In this research, for best understanding, some historical and some conceptual research will be used. As some of Holy Quran and some quotations of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.) sayings are necessary to quote according to topic.


Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.) said on the Day of Judgment, “No Arab has superiority over non-Arab and no non-Arab has superiority over Arab. No dark person has superiority over the white person and no white person has superiority over the dark person. Criteria of honor in the sight of God are righteousness and honest living.”

The above mentioned saying of Holy Prophet declared on the occasion of Hajja-tul- widah. It clearly denotes that near Allah, the status of superiority is piety rather than caste, color and tribes.

• In Holy Quran, it is stated: “Let there be no compulsion in religion”.1

• This means that for preaching of Islam, persons cannot compel others to accept Islam.

• It is commanded Muslims to use polite manner in preaching rather than harsh behavior. This denotes when harsh behavior is not permitted then in what way, other man may be compelled.

• In reality, Islam has no compulsion to anybody in adaptation of religion so that each one could adopt belief according to his own will. Then he cannot blame to any other person.

In another verse, it is stated that about the creation of man and woman in these words:

• “O mankind! We created you from a single couple of a male and female and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other. 2

From the above verse of Holy Quran, It is clear that a man has not preference to any other on the base of creed, caste and color. Actually, the purpose of tribes division is only identity among them not is superiority on the base of nation or caste.

Justice and Fairness

“Stand out fairly for justice, as witness to God even though it is against yourselves, or your parents or your king, be rich or poor.” 3

Justice is necessary for promotion of fair dealings in the society. It is commonly tradition from Hazrat Ali (R.A) that a state can be established with Kufr but it can be established in with injustice. In this way, it is common proverb that “delay in justice is denied in justice”. For real sense, this may be stated that if someone got justice from court or from any other person or organization after his death, this justice will be not useful for dead person. Therefore, it is called that justice must be provided without delay.

Role of Women

It is universal truth that role of women is vital in every society and in every family either the family belongs to Muslim or non-Muslim. Anyhow, it cannot be denied that it is Islam that has provided rights to women and upward the status of girls that were killed in their childhood. But after getting rights with the advent of Islam, They have gotten rights in their inheritance also. And they performed their active role in the society. This is why about getting education; there is no difference between the women and the men. As the famous Holy Prophet’s commandment also shows in the given lines: “The acquisition of knowledge is a duty (incumbent) on every Muslim, male and female”. It is because of that in each society of the world, women are more or less half of population. In this way, the philosophy and wisdom can be imagined.

A critical reexamination and reworking of the concept of Truth- Right (al-haqq) and of its foundation are both possible and necessity. Let’s keep in mind that Quranic term ‘al- haqq’ applies to God truth, sender and receiver of the “rights of God” (haquq Allah). By respecting these rights one puts oneself in the right, al-haqq, see the true reality, and benefits from the rights that follow from it. In the Arabic language, the movement from the singular haquq to plural haquq translates a transliteration of “right extracted from the religious force of al-haqq and dispersed in the management of contingent personal individual rights Lee (1994).It is fact that that there are different rights and duties of men and women according their physical and mental powers. This is why that the first organization that was set up by the Allah is the family. By which different relations are created for the benefit of the whole family. All these are joined with the spiritual basis rather than material basis. There is no single one institution like that family system in the whole history of mankind.

Islamic Teachings

Islamic thought has always included a discourse on the right of God and the rights of man (haquq Allah/haquq Adam) with the forded having primacy and priority over the latter. That is why traditional thought insists that each believed perform the five canonical obligation, profession of faith (Shahada), prayer, alms giving, fasting at Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Makkah. It through obedience that the faithful internalize the notion of the rights to God: summoned to obey in this way, all creature find themselves constrained to respect the social and political condition for living completely this relationship between rights of God rights of man. In other words, respect of human rights is the respect of and the basic condition for respecting the rights of God.4

Anyhow, if all persons fulfill their duties in right manner, then most of our problems will be eliminated. Actually when someone does not perform his duty as required this thing create problem for others also. As a whole, this imagination create problem for the other members of society.

In fact, a true Muslim is a trustee of two types of trust. He knows that from the countless blessings of God, there are two biggest and important trusts, these are Islam and life. From in these both trusts, he knows that which trust has preference over the other. He does not prepare to save life instead of sacrificing the Islam. But for saving Islam and for spreading Islam, he always prepares himself to sacrifice his life. In this way, his purpose remains always for the highness of Islam. No other purpose can become more important than this purpose. 5

In Islam, persons are taught that lessons so that they could survive in a better way by preferring others’ to their own life matters. This is why, true followers of Islam prefers other men on them. But in absence of this emotional movement, no one can create aspirations of brotherhood. In presence of emotion of sacrifice, man becomes brother to other Muslims.

In Shariah Commandment, achievements of betterment and avoid from calamities for man is necessary. Today’s modern science and investigation have proved these Commandments. It provides moment of pleasure to a true Muslim and this thing increase his faith. On the other side those people who have sub-sections about the perfection Islamic Shariah for every age and they also spread bad thinking in the society. Proofs of science give them trouble. And the scientific proofs which favor the Islamic Commandments’, all are sufficient to throw water on the conspiracies of the opponents of Islam.6

According to Hadith teachings, the faith of Muslims may be increase or decrease by their deeds and by adopting good company and by good deeds, level of faith increases. And By adopting bad company and indulging in bad deeds, bad thinking may arise in the minds; this may decrease the level of faith. This is why, it is commanded that always remain busy in positive activities.

The Muslims have economic and political freedom in regarding the individual and collective struggle. Every person is free in choosing the domestic, economic and political matters. But this freedom should not cross the sacred boundaries of Islamic teachings. Because in being Muslim, it is also included that after accepting beliefs and moral requirements, the prohibited things should not be performed. Because in the crossing the divine boundaries, there will be loss of individual and society’s loss. In prohibited action the earring of wrong doing, the interest bearing, black marketing, bribery, helping the enemies, spreading and publishing the vulgarity and oppressing the rights of others. 7

For enhancement of positive deeds, it is commanded to indulge always in positive and good activities so that positive attitude may develop in the societies. And man could perform his duties in a peaceful way.

Islam teaches the worship of God and removes the worship of wealth. So it depends on person that he prefers economic activities on his Deen. But a believer who has promised to obey his lord and his Prophet, this thing is not suitable that he gave preference to economic activities over the purpose of life. Therefore he is not on the name of any country not on the name of any generation and not on the name of any profession. But he is called the Muslim due the relation of Islam only. And this link is very strange. About this, Holy Quran told that for the Muslims, highest status is due to piety and honest near God rather than any mundane status or wealth.8

Actually, piety is that characteristic that is desirable in this world and the world hereafter. This is why Holy Quran and Hadith sciences recommended mould you with this valuable trait.

In Islam such status is given to trade, any other profession did not get like status. Who can be lucky more than this can get noble status with earning money? And who can be worst from that person, who might destroy this life and the life hereafter by making permitted things to prohibited and prohibited things to permitted things. So it is duty of every trader that he may get the profit of the world with the profit of hereafter world by his earning. So he should adopt best character and ethics also.9

In this way, it became clear that if trader does not use unfair means in trade then he will be awarded in both worlds because in this world people will like definitely those persons who adopt right ways in their bargaining. In the past, in Indonesia regions and Malaysia regions Islam was spread due to fair dealings of traders.


The tradition of justice in Islam is a historical tradition. Justice has been a living experience in the lives of the Muslims. Islam should note judged by the periods of history presided by the Umayyad and Abbasids. There have been long periods however of injustice, tyranny and oppression. But there have been protest and revolts. 10

Justice is such trait that is liked by everyone and it is recommended by every society in every time and place. Therefore, a famous saying of fourth caliph Ali (God Pleased with him) is quoted that societies may survive with non-Muslims but societies may not survive without justice. This means justice is necessary for survival of worldly lives.


Hoarding money is a pointless exercise that can never benefit us like saving for a rainy day that away never comes. Hoarding money requirement away in the bank or in a safe may give a sense of security but it will be the downfall of many on the Day of Judgment.

Hoarding is a general term for amassing, stock piling, accumulating stashing money, food, jewelry, even items that are worthless. Hoarding money does not benefit us at all. 11 In Islamic terminology, storing food is called “Ehtekar” (Hoarding) while storing of money is called “Ektanaz”, These are dangerous against economic activities because of “Ehtekar” people have to pay increased prices due to shortage of goods while “Ektanaz” creates short of investment in economic activities.

There are plenty of ahadith that inform us that hoarding is of no benefit to us. God also tells us, this world is an illusion that we temporarily live in. Nothing in this world matter, nothing material will save one souls from damnation. There are many people in this world who have more money than they know what to do with but it does not mean they are happy. Money does not bring happiness, especially if it is not shared. Why is it that there is so much money in the world yet only a few has access to it? 12

This is truth that with money and monetary resources, easiness becomes possible but real happiness of heart and soul cannot be imagined. The logic may be given that if with the help of money, satisfaction becomes possible then all poor would remain unhappy and all rich would be found satisfied. But in actual, with money and monetary resources, goods of comforts and luxuries can be purchased but real satisfaction of heart and soul cannot be purchased.


Actually gambling is discouraged in Islamic teachings because it discourages hard working and promotes to earn with leisure ways that is not suitable for the members of such society that has mission to guide the whole world.

Gambling is very lowest work. This is worst expression to earn income without hardworking. Due to this hatred, jealousy and bad emotions in hearts arouses in the individual of the society. This eliminates the emotions of mutual sympathy and love and creates the emotions of heartedness. Quran declared it clearly haram (prohibited). About this act it is duty of Islamic state to due legislation. 13

In present era, gambling is being done through advance technologies i.e. internet resources and other technologies. This means that technology is being used in negative activities also. This is not simple thing that must be controlled.

To buy a thing cheap at one time and sell the same dear at another time is called speculative business. Islam condemn also this sort of business as speculative are mainly intercedes private gains in negation of the larger interests of their society. Most of the speculators creates artificial scarcity of goods and thus create an inflationary pressure on the economy of the country.14

Actually, hoarding and black marketing are prohibited because these create shortage of goods. This is why these are prohibited in Islam. And due to shortage of goods, people have to purchase at high rates.

Shariah commandments all are implemented slowly with the passage of time. After migration to Medina, in first 13 years of Makkah, no command was implemented because in first 13 years, obedience was made firm and strong. After migration to Medina, halal haram commandment, prohibition of interest and wine, commandment of prayer, Azan Hajj and Jihad were given. Jihad commandment was given in 7th Hijrah year and interest was prohibited in 9th of Hijrah year. 15

This denotes that before the prohibition and permitted of anything, mentally training is provided. This is why that all commandments are not given in single time. Actually, this relates to psychology of man for easiness in implementation of commandments. In this way, it may be clearly stated that from prohibitions man should try to avoid and actions of commandments must be done so that welfare Muslim society might emerge in the world.

A renowned Muslim scholar, Dr. Yousuf AL-Qardawi, wrote in his book “the lawful and prohibited in Islam”. A general rule of the Islamic Shariah derived from the Quran and the Sunnah is that it is haram for the Muslims to eat or drink anything which may cause his death either quickly or gradually such as poison or substances which are injurious to health or harmful to body. The staggering growth of the cancer, mental abnormalities and other modern diseases in the west is almost epidemic. 1500 people die from cancer every day in US. 1 out of 3 American will develop same form of cancer during his life time. The cancer rate is growing even among children. In sura AL-Baqara verse 195 Allah commands: “Do not throw you into destruction”. Today there is not standard in some Muslims or otherwise, to guarantee the tayyib aspect of food and other consumable accept organic. All other standards are of commercial origin. 16

In developed societies, drinking is common habit of the people while in big cities of developing countries, drinking has become the common habit of some rich people. And it is sorrowful that in Muslim societies, still there are such big hotels and restaurants where alcohol is served after presenting the meal. This thing clearly denotes that Muslims are not acting fully on the principles of Islamic teachings. Due to these types of situations, Muslims are backward and still they are copying others’ cultures.

Therefore, it is not true that anything or some parts are left or ignored. In other words, one part is taken while other part is left. As the people of Bani Israil accepted the one portion of Torat but they refused the other portion of Toraat. In this time some sections of people are trying that its many commandments should be ignored by people. But in actual Islam is one unit it cannot be divided into parts and nor its any part can be ignored from action. That is why, Islam demands us that Islam should be accepted in every sphere of life.17

In the past, if we analyze the previous revealed religions, all were changed with other religions when its followers bring modifications according to their own will and on the benefits of the world.

Similarly “Deal Carnegie”, writes that it is a fact that religious person cannot fall prey in any psychological disease”. He writes more that according to my thinking, in our age it will be true if all the psychologists were called the advisers of new style, these advisers advice us to hold the rope of the religious family. This is not only important that will save us from the fire of hell of other world. But by acting upon the religious principles, we cannot save from hell which is standing physically before us in this world. Without catching the power of religion, we cannot save from the hell.18

Communication Style

It is commanded by Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.) that Muslims should talk according to the ability of listeners. By this ability and obeying on this commandment, Muslims can get satisfaction in their communications. In this way, no one has problem for the others. And for the promotions of etiquettes, it is necessary for the Muslims that they should adopt such manners in their lives.

In Islam, communication between people should be polite king and direct. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that” God likes that when someone does something, it must be done perfectly well”. Ali one of Islam’s early leader, said, “The best discourse is expressive great, brief and interesting “. These comments suggest that advertiser should strive for excellence as an end itself in addition to communicating truthfully about product and services.19

Advertisements and publishing is not prohibited if these are done under the Islamic ways and Islamic guidelines. And all these are based on real situations and free from vulgarity and deception.

The Quran does not prohibit advertising and indeed advertising is used to promote the Islamic faith. Nevertheless there are several Islamic values that have important implications for advertising. Deceptive advertising should be avoided. A saying of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), “He who cheats is not one of us”, was made in the content of a sale incident in market place. The lesson from this event was a seller who knows of a defect in something being Bold is obliged to disclose it before the sale. Muslim jurists have defined deception as hiding defect which are not prominent to the public.20

As it is said that Islam is only the religion of some rites of worship by some conservative or by some those persons who have no knowledge about Islamic teachings. Actually, Islamic are complete code of life about mundane life and the life for hereafter.

Reformism offers a more popular response to modernity. The reformist says,” look Islam is basically compatible with western ways. We must go back to one own ways by adopting those of west”. To reach this conclusion, reformers reread the Islamic scriptures in a western light. For example, Quran permits mean to rake up to four wives on the condition that he treats them equitably. Traditionally and quite logically, Muslims understood this verse as permission for a man to take four wives. But because a man is allowed only one in west, the reformist performed a relight of hand and interpreted the verse in a new way: the Quran, they claim, requires that a man must treat his wives equitably which is clearly something no man can do it there is more than one of them. So, they concluded Islam prohibits more than single wife. 21

Actually Quranic commandment about the number of four wives is allowed with the condition of justice and equality. Therefore, it is upon the men that they should behave equally but if they think they cannot do just manner among the wives then it is better that be confined to one woman as wife.

Act upon the opinion of those people who are experts in their skills. From the Seerah (practical character) of Holy Prophet, it is advised to us that the opinion of experts has great value than common man. For example, Holy Prophet (PBUH) acted upon the opinion of Habeeb Bin munzar in the battle of Badar who was specialist in making hide places underground for battle. And Holy Prophet ordered to dig a huge Khandaq on the proposal of Hazrat Salman Farsi because he had complete knowledge in this skill. 22

For the advantages of mankind, Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) has taught that the proposal of experts must be adopted. Similarly, in case of sickness or problem, consulting of their relevant experts or specialists is obligatory for Muslims.

Some western writers wrote this wording without any proof or argument that in 19th and 20th century some Muslim scholars are stressing on fraternity and equality. Muslims have learned these from the revolution of France. While in 18th century, when French revolution took place, their three famous slogans were, liberty, fraternity and equality while they have learned all these words from the Holy Quran and Sunnah. These words are used mostly in the verse of Holy Quran and in saying of Holy Prophet No person ponder that the leaders of French revolution was how much impressed from the teaching of Holy Quran and Sunnah. From French revolution to one hundred years ago, French writers were mostly those who know Arabic and “Rosoo” was one of them from those writers. 23

It is historical fact that many non-Muslims were impressed from the teachings of Holy Quran. And many educationists also admit the superiority of Islamic teachings irrespective of their religions, regions and believe.

The development of inter Islamic trade is absolutely vital for economic growth and prosperity of Muslim world and it is the most effective way to bring Muslim countries together. The basic problem is that the Muslim world by an large lack a coordinated inter Islamic trade policy any objective plans or targets for achievement strong and comprehensive financial institutions (with the exception of Islamic development bank) and other effective institutions and bodies which could be instrument in the growth of inter Islamic trade. 24

Actually, many people of Muslim developing countries are imitating the culture of developed countries without considering its influences on Islamic culture and traditions. This is why, now such rites and traditions can be seen among the Muslim societies. Sometimes these are considered as symbol of modernity, sometimes these are being are used as snobbery among the people. This type of culture is anti- developmental and anti-cultural for the promotion of Islamic culture.

Some of the states declared themselves Islamic Republic in their constitution and engaged themselves in serious efforts towards adoption of Shariah within their base of laws, while others decided to declare them self-secular and remained indifferent to the adoption of Islamic laws. Yet for several other Muslim states question of adoption of Islamic laws is still widely open and is a matter of consideration. 25

Concluding Remarks

In nutshell, it may be stated that Islamic teachings dislikes idleness and backwardness. This is why, it is commanded that Muslims should try to solve other problems with depending on his arms. But unfortunately, now working with own hands are discouraged. Men and women are feeling shyness in doing his minor works also. Now tendency to hire persons for person services is also becoming popular in Muslim and developing countries. This thing is creating such circumstances that now people are giving preference to hire people for personal works than doing works. Now in culture different things are being adopted as snobbery and jobbery. Especially, by imitating, some persons are using these things in their families. In young people, this culture is disturbing the social structure also that requires that solution must be sought by practicing Islamic teachings in all fields of life.

End Notes

1 Al-Quran, 2:256.

2 Al-Quran, 49:13.

3 Al-Quran, 4: 135.

4 MuhammadArkoun, “Rethinking Islam”, p-108.

5 Gilani Sayyed Asad, “Islami Tarze Hayyat”, Lahore: Feroz Sons, 1st edition 1989, pp-56-57.

6 Al-Qardawi Dr. Yousaf, “ Fikri Tarbiyyet k aham taqazey” Lahore: Islamic Publications, 3rd edition 1999, p-306.

7 Hijazi Fakhruddin, “Tamaddane Insani per Anbiya k Asraat”, (Dr. Riyaz Ahmad)Lahore: Maqbool Academy, 1991, pp-248-249.

8 Gilani Sayyed Asad, “ Islami Tarze Hayyat”,p-254.

9 Abdul Rahman Munshi, “Islamic Ethics and Etiquettes”, Lahore: Idarah Islamiyat, 1988, p-297.

10 Hasan Askari, “Society andstate in Islam: An Introduction”, Lahore: Progressive Books, 1979, p-163.

11 Linda Heywood, “Why Islam Discourages hoarding”?, Retrieved from, p-1.

12 Linda Heywood, “Why Islam Discourages hoarding”?, p-2.

13 Gilani Sayyed Asad, “Islami Tarze Hayyat”,p-97.

14 Khan Ishfaq Ahmad, “The Quranic Encyclopedia”, Multan: Quranic Education & Social Services, 2008, p-370.

15 Hashmi Ayyaz Zaheer Dr., “Islam Aour Insani Haqooq”, Lahore: Hannan Publishers, 2009, pp-190-191.

16 Ghani Auyeskanov, “Islamic Consumerism”, Retrieved from, Retrieved 20th October, 2009, p-5.

17 Al-Qardawi Dr. Yousaf, “Fikri Tarbiyyet k aham taqazey”PP-202-203.

18 Al-Qardawi Dr. Yousaf, “Fikri Tarbiyyet k aham taqazey” p-282.

19 Gilliam Rice& Muhammad Al- Mossawi, “Implication of Islam for advertising Message”,Retrieved from, pp- 5 &6.

20 Gilliam Rice& Muhammad Al- Mossawi, “Implication of Islam for advertising Message”, p-6.

21 Daniel Pipes, “Islam & Islamism”, Retrieved from, Retrieved on 1st Decenber, 2013.p-2.

22 Al-Qardawi Dr. Yousaf, “Fikri Tarbiyyet k aham taqazey”, P-130.

23 Ghazi Mahmood Ahmad Dr., “Asre Hazir Aour Shareiate Islami”, Islamabad: I.P.S., 2nd edition 2015, p-96.
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24 Siddiqui Jawad-ul-Haq, “21st century & the birth of United States of Islam”, Karachi: U.S.I. Publications, N/M. p-

25 Siddiqui Jawad-ul-Haq, “21st century & the birth of United States of Islam”, p-80.


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