Research Article: 2020 Vol: 23 Issue: 2
Juhanis Juhanis, Makassar State University
Hasmyati Hasmyati, Makassar State University
Benny Badaru, Makassar State University
Citation Information: Juhanis, J., Hasmyati, H., & Badaru, B. (2020). Students motivation in taking sport entrepreneurship: A case study in an Indonesian university. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 23(2).
The aim of this research is to explore the students’ motivation of Faculty of Sport Science, entrepreneurship in sports field. This research used qualitative research methodology by the students of Physical Education Department of the Faculty of Sport Science consisting of 312 students by 30 respondents. The Researcher obtained the data using questionnaires and interviews. The technique of data analysis is used descriptive with the percentage of the results of the research conducted on the motivation of entrepreneurship Physical Education Department Faculty of Sport Science. The obtained results are of 6.67% students in the higher category, 30% students in the high category, 30 % students in the medium category, 16.67% students in the low category and 16.67% students in the lower category. Generally, the motivation for entrepreneurship in the sport field by the students of Physical Education Department Faculty of Sport Science is in the medium category with an average rating of 118.40.
Motivation, Entrepreneurship, Sports Sector.
Entrepreneurship is the process of identifying, developing and bringing vision into life. The vision can be innovative ideas, opportunities and better ways of doing something. The end result of that process is the creation of new businesses to be put into risk or uncertainty.
Entrepreneurship includes the activities that needed to create or implement a company when all markets have not yet been formed or the components of the production function are not however fully known. People who do entrepreneurship activities are called entrepreneurs. The question arises why an entrepreneur has a way of thinking is different from human being. They have motivation, perception and emotion, which are strictly related to the values, attitudes and behaviour as superior human being.
According to Puspayoga (Minister of Cooperatives and UKM) (2017) in a press release “stated that the number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia is still low than the other world. Based on economic census data in 2016, the population in Indonesia reached 252 million people, there were 3.1% entrepreneurs or 7.8 of the population in Indonesia”. According to Alma (2007, p. 24) “that entrepreneurs are people who drive the economic system, by promoting new goods and services by creating new forms and new ways of application.”
The definition above emphasizes that an entrepreneur is a person who sees an opportunity and then creates a new opportunity or product and takes advantage of the opportunity. The entrepreneur is also an innovative person whether it creates new things, gives a touch of creativity to old products even makes new products. They are able to see an opportunity and then take the opportunity to become a business opportunity not only that, consistency is a part of the entrepreneur's journey to arrive at their target point.
The appearance of sports in entrepreneurship can be seen by the sports industry. Several figures have given their definitions relating to the sports industry. Ibnu (2011) argues that the development of the sports industry still requires the participation of the government in socializing the opportunities for entrepreneurship in the field of sports. The progress of the sports industry has a strategic value because it is associated with efforts to empower the small people's economy and is part of poverty alleviation efforts. A conducive business climate in the sports industry sector is also an indicator that sports development actually has a very wide accompanying impact. The impact is not just limited to the sports community, but also to society at large, related to social welfare issues. Furthermore, Miller and his friends in Harsuki (2007) state that the sports industry is all products, things, services, places, people and thoughts that offered to the customers relating to sports.
By the statement above, it describes of the student activities Faculty of Sport Science in Physical Education Department are always be a part of the daily routine in lectures even outside of the class, they always be active to develop their sports. The students of Faculty of Sport Science especially in Physical Education Department, always practice to hone and to improve the ability in the field of soft skills and hard skills by learning how to become a professional student or be a professional coach with the aim to develop the physical and spiritual health potential of their self and their students.
The Physical Education Department also cares about the continuity of the knowledge of its students in order to support the ability of the students; it is also given an entrepreneurship course as a tactical step in order to equip their students to be able and to have innovation to be a part of entrepreneurship. From the Entrepreneurship course that lasts for 1 semester, it equipped with knowledge that is given in lecture is not just a theory, but the students are required to apply the theory in an entrepreneur effort initiated and carried out by students who take the course. In this case the students are required to organize an event that related to entrepreneurship.
Entrepreneurship course also aims to provide encouragement, insights and reference after graduated so, the alumnus of Physical Education Department not only want to be a civil servant because being an employee is like a safe path, that every month the state will provide salaries. However, it cannot directly change the innate views of each student, what needs to be done is to continue to provide motivation and concrete steps to embody an Independent Indonesia, it means that Indonesia will start moving towards the ladder stage as a developed country.
The expectancy of giving entrepreneurship course is able to foster the interest in students' entrepreneurship science of sports, but it also wants to show the students that there is still a way to success is through the path of becoming an entrepreneur. Becoming an entrepreneur in difficulty trying to have to take risks and take advantage of opportunities that exist. According to Machfoedz (Suryana & Bayu, 2013) entrepreneurship is a person who is responsible for preparing, managing, and measuring the risk of a business. According to Kasmir (2011) "Entrepreneur is a person who takes the risk to get a business in various opportunities". Whereas I feel confident with ability if I manage it myself, my business will definitely succeed. It means that the business course must be taken by full time students.
Motivation derived from the Latin movere, means encouragement or moving. The importance of motivation because motivation is the thing that causes, channels and supports human behaviour so, they want to work hard and enthusiastically to achieve optimal results (Hasibuan, 2016). GR Terry in Hasibuan (2016) suggests that motivation is the desire that is found in an individual who stimulates it to take actions. According to Wahjosumidjo in Rusdiana (2014), motivation is a psychological process that reflects the interaction of attitudes, needs, perceptions, and decisions that occur in a person. Psychological processes arise due to factors within a person in the form of personality, attitudes, experience and education whereas to the outside of the other factors are highly complex.
According to Wibowo (2011), entrepreneurs are people who are skilled in taking advantage of opportunities in developing their businesses in order to improve their live. Scarborough and Zimmerer in Wibowo (2011) said that entrepreneur is a person who has an entrepreneurial character and applies the nature of entrepreneurship in his life. In the other words, entrepreneur is a person who has a high creativity and innovative spirit in his life. According to Suryana (2006: 6) "Entrepreneur is a person who makes creative and innovative efforts by developing ideas, and gathering resources to find opportunities (opportunities) and improvements (preparation)". An entrepreneur never forget to think about the welfare of society so, they always think critically to look for innovations in creation of product for the community.
Motivation is closely related to the fulfillment of a need, acting to meet the needs and achievement of those needs, so that if someone does not feel want those needs then he tends not to want to do anything to fulfill those needs. Entrepreneurial motivation is closely related to the desire to achieve something better. According to Alma (2013: 89): Motivation is the willingness to do something, while the motive is a need, desire, drive or implus. A person's motivation depends on the strength of his motives. Motives with enormous power will determine a person's behavior. So, motivation can be stimulated from the outside but the motivation is growing within itself. According to Budiati et al. (2012: 91), "a person's motivation to be an entrepreneur is divided into three, namely ambition for independence, self-realization and driving factors, with each indicator as follows; ambition for independence of freer activity, desire for own business, desire to be more respected, desire applying new ideas, wanting to develop a hobby in the business of self-realization, i want to gain a better position in the environment, i want to motivate and lead others, i want to carry on family traditions, i want to implement ideas or innovate driving factors, want to earn more income good, wants to be an entrepreneur if you get laid off ". This is supported by the opinion of Lukiastuti in Sari (2013: 7), stating that the dominant factor in student motivation for entrepreneurship is the opportunity factor, satisfaction factor, and freedom factor. Furthermore, according to Sari (2013: 6), “there are factors that can motivate entrepreneurial students including self-success, tolerance of risk, and freedom of work”.
The research method is a method that related to the research that can use as an assessment in order to the research can be working perfectly. This study uses case study research methods. The researcher acquires the data by directly interview consisting 30 students by Faculty of Sport Science in Physical Education Department in 2019.
The population of this research is all the students of Faculty of Sport Science in Physical Education Department State University of Makassar. As the number of samples used in this research consisting of 30 students by using purposive sampling technique.
This research uses technique to collect the data by:
1. Interview is characterized by questions and answers. In qualitative research, interview is suitable with data collection methods used to obtain information directly from the source. Interview is usually intended to obtain information and opinions orally from a person that is called a respondent by talking directly with that person. In this research, the interview used is unstructured interview which is characterized by flexible questions, open answers and relatively have longer time.
2. Observation is a systematic observation and recording of symptoms that appear on the object of the research. Observation can be participatory and non-participatory. In participatory observation, the observer participates in the activity of observation. Otherwise, in non-participatory observation, the observer does not participate in the activity being observed.
3. Documentation is the way to collect the data through records, archives, transcripts, books, newspapers and magazines.
Variable motivation for entrepreneurship in sports can be seen by the result of surveys used a questionnaire that consisting of 32 items that divided into 4 indicators. They are:
1. Making entrepreneurial planning.
2. Student motivation in the entrepreneurship process.
3. Student creativity in entrepreneurship.
4. The students’ productivities in entrepreneurship.
The criteria that is used to show the score of entrepreneurial motivation in sports are generally the motivation of entrepreneurship in sports an average of 118, 40 are in intervals of 117-121 that categorized in the medium category with percentage of 30%, by the interview of students motivated to entrepreneurship in sports in form of sports equipment. Based on the description analysis of entrepreneurship motivation in sports are obtained the results in the following graph (Figure 1).
The result of the research shows that the motivation of entrepreneurship in Physical Education Department Faculty of Sport Science, are in the higher category. Nine students in high category are motivated to do entrepreneurship in appliance sports. Furthermore, there are several other students in the medium category; they are motivated to do entrepreneurship in appliance sports. There are five students in the categories of low and five students in lower category. They are motivated to do entrepreneurship sports services. Generally, the motivation for entrepreneurship in the sports fields of the students Physical Education Department Faculty of Sport Science is in the medium category with an average rating of 118.40 (descriptive data).
The economic growth of a country is marked by the prosperity of its people, the lack of unemployment and many available jobs, in addition to education, industry and technology. The influence exerted from this economic sector can change the civilization and way of life of a nation to the level of its smallest individual. A country which has a certain sector role that cannot be underestimated is by entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs in a nation are very important because the economic performance is almost always closely related to trade activities for example food products, fashion, retail, property, agribusiness, livestock, plantations and services. When stepping back from the journey and entrepreneurial knowledge, it can be found that there are so many opportunities that can be done in starting a business.
Entrepreneurs are expected to help overcome the problem of unemployment which every year has an increase. Entrepreneurship in general is opening a new business so, it can provide employment for many people around itself. According to Kasmir (2011: 19) "Entrepreneurs are people who have the courage to take risks to make a business in various opportunities. Being brave to take risks means to be mentally independent and be brave to start a business without being overwhelmed by fear or anxiety even in uncertain conditions." To succeed in the entrepreneurship, people need to work collaboratively with others (Rosmaladewi & Abduh, 2017) and establish sense of cultural sensitivity (Dollah et al., 2017).
There are so many factors supporting the success of an entrepreneur, starting from the inner motivation that must be owned because this supporting thing is very important as initial capital to keep on trying and struggling in maintaining motivation and enthusiasm from within itself. There is no definite situation in the world of entrepreneurship; someone in carrying out entrepreneurial activity is determined by the ability in it. Entrepreneurs have great business confidence is to become a successful business.
An entrepreneur does not have to be able to create new products. The ability of innovation and creativity is related to how someone is able to analyze opportunities, create or renew products that are different from existing ones. These products must have a selling value that is able to compete in the market. Based on the information that becomes the perspective of people about entrepreneurs is there is an action in seeing opportunities and always highly motivated to personify their business and not be afraid to take risks.
Increase and continuing to improve the ability of self to be the most important thing to conquer of laziness and minimize failure. In addition, it is part of identity in business (Abduh & Rosmaladewi, 2017). Continued learning means also updating knowledge and also learning experiences from others, especially learning about failures that people have previously done which means it is not necessary to do, learn also means evaluating yourself from the scientific aspects that are already owned or even that have been applied.
Every human being has the motivation or encouragement from within itself to do something, until the person has one reason or goal that held in living it. As the results of the interview above, their motivation is present when and after attending entrepreneurship, lectures and finally they are moved to try entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship while studying in state university, it becomes a challenge for them because they must be able to divide their time. A time to learn, selling, break, tasks, organization and exercise. It is a kind of multi-status of learning (Utami et al., 2019).
Based on the results of the research, the students’ motivation of entrepreneurship in Physical Education Department Faculty of Sport Science, obtained two students in the higher categories, by these students motivated to do entrepreneurship in fitness. There are nine students in high categories who are motivated to do entrepreneurship in appliance sports. Furthermore, there are nine students in the medium categories; they are motivated to do entrepreneurship in appliance sports. There are five students in the categories of low and five students in lower categories. They are motivated to do entrepreneurship sports services. Generally, the motivation for entrepreneurship in the sports fields of the students Physical Education Department Faculty of Sport Science is in the medium categories with an average rating of 118.40 (descriptive data).
Looking at the enormous enthusiasm in students for entrepreneurship, it is necessary to have further to follow-up by the bureaucracy to encourage the students to develop their creativity and continue it to be applied such as encouraging them to create PKM (Student Creativity Program), PMW (The Students’ Entrepreneurship Program) and Business Plan competitions that are frequently and widely held by the higher students even private agencies to the country.
By the biggest of its motivation, even if necessary the department can collaborate with institutions or organizations that can help to facilitate the students' interests and creative ideas that we called cooperating with Hipmi organization (Indonesian Young Entrepreneurs Association), TDA (Hands on), JCI (Junior Chamber International), IWAPI (Indonesian Association of Women Entrepreneurs) and Coaching Indonesia Academy. Here are some organizational references and cooperation agencies that can be done to provide information and networking facilities to the students.
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