Journal of Entrepreneurship Education (Print ISSN: 1098-8394; Online ISSN: 1528-2651)

Research Article: 2024 Vol: 27 Issue: 2

Subjective well-being in the COVID-19 era

Julio E. Crespo, Universidad de Los Lagos

Cruz García-Lirios , Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México

Germán Moreno, Universidad de Las Américas

Citation Information: Crespo, J.E.,Lirios, C.G., Moreno, G. (2024). Subjective well-being in the covid-19 era. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 27(S2),1-10.


The quality of life has been extensively studied from a psychological perspective. This study aims to establish a model that explains life satisfaction and the significance of other disciplines in identifying resources that make individuals happy. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 100 students to examine the relationships between factors such as life satisfaction, expected capabilities, opportunities, trust in relationships, perception of justice, environmental assessment, standards context, and perceived resources. A structural model was used to determine that the perceived availability of resources indirectly determines life satisfaction through standards context. The findings were compared with the existing literature and theoretical frameworks were discussed.


Quality of Life, Life Satisfaction, Group Norms, Availability of Resources, Perceived Capabilities.


Youth in Mexico are undergoing a stage of employment, and education and are distant from their referents from other OECD country's technology. In education, enrollment is in greater proportion to the number of young people in the State of Mexico followed by the Federal District. It is possible to see that the high school level is higher than others or Veles. This implies that the degree of skill is low, but opens the training opportunity which has been identified as a key determinant of the quality of working life. Although there is extensive enrollment in technical training, sex opportunities are similar, although, at the top level, the trend favors males. This means that the physical differences have been reduced to a minimum when the labor market, but knowledge management is geared toward males as the National Research System levels II and III are more occupied by men. Although the State of Mexico has a greater increase in access to media in early childhood education, basic and, on the upper level and graduate is the Federal District which offers more options concerning other organizations.

It highlights the state of Nuevo Leon as a second instance in terms of opportunities for professional and specialized training. This means that when establishing criteria for quality-of-life perception students of Nuevo Leon have a greater perspective of students of the State of Mexico or any other different from the Federal District entity. Coverage, absorption, and approval of some degree of studies are indicators of educational quality and therefore quality of life. The Federal District, Nuevo Leon, and Coahuila stand out as the states with the highest values for all three indexes, however, broadband access is lower in Mexico compared to other countries. While Korea, Norway, and Denmark lead the ICT access, Mexico is lagging in terms of broadband penetration which impacts on its education system and quality of life even more young people than any other group established by age. While the countries with the highest broadband coverage set as the main economic activity productive information processing by a computer, Mexico focused workforce of their youth in customer services, and this may encourage their purchasing power is minimal concerning other OECD countries. Most young people in Mexico receive between one and two minimum wages (28.8%) followed by two and three salaries (22.3%) and three to five salaries (15.4%). The workday is not only meager in terms of purchasing power but also accounts for more than 40 hours established by the ILO and reaches an average of 8 hours more than international standards (43.2%) and in other cases over eight hours (30.8%). In short, education, technology, and employment are essential factors to explain the quality of life of young people in Mexico because it is objective indicators where perception is reduced to a minimum.

However, the quality of life also involves a subjective component. Both dimensions, objective and subjective are complementary to the analysis of the quality of life of young people in Mexico. Theory of Human Development (HDT for its acronym in English), the Theory of Social Reliability (SFT), the Theory of the Commons (CRT), the Theory of Human Capital (HCT), and the Theory of Ecology Development (DET). The precise purpose of this study is to establish the relationship between the theoretical and conceptual to explain the quality of life in students of a public university in the State of Mexico factors. The answer to the research question can be explained des a comprehensive theoretical framework in which the theories not only complement the relationships among the factors proposed but also integrate combinations in a manner favorable to the development or oriented to their detriment. Employment is assumed as the cost of rent capacity. A substantial increase in worker skills represents an increase in their income. Thus, specialization and qualification of employee promote an exponential cost of time when their skills are employed. Referring to the perceived resources, capabilities extol its value when a shortage is observed, although the abundance is also a use of skills to configure a system, the shortage seems to merit greater value to management capabilities, management, and optimization. About life satisfaction, capabilities are represented as a development tool in which work, family, and personal satisfaction are included, as main indicators of life satisfaction.

According to the HCT, freedom of choice is the determining factor of resources and demands an individual perceives when making a description of their immediate environment and prospective situation closer. In this sense, the HCT argues that the individual's perceptions are opposed to the structural allocation of their assets. That is why justice is a balance of desires and social conventions internalized by the individual about a group to which he belongs or wants to belong.

Since the economy, development is understood as a higher stage to aspiring countries that adopted a capitalist system. The implementation of policies and financial programs in industrial areas would increase per capita income and thus the increase in gross domestic product excellence indicators of economic development. From sociology, the economic notion of development is complemented by equity, justice, and freedom (Picazo et al., 2013).

Referring to the availability of resources, the HDT maintains that the management, administration, and distribution must not only follow the three sociological elements of development but should also influence the generation, intensification of capacities, and allocation of responsibilities. In the relationship between society and state, the capabilities of citizenship, as already anticipated by the HCT, are essential in Human Development. Referring to life satisfaction, the HDT maintains that freedom of choice is essential to arrive at a state of at least individual satisfaction. That is, the person who is immersed in a scene of options is closest to the satisfaction this is because the resources are considered not only consumer goods but of personal identity.

The HDT suggests that the educational, technological, and industrial areas are structures that impact the perception of the individual at the time of perceived opportunities, capabilities, and responsibilities.

The relationship between political and civil spheres is supported by factors of public trust in which a public decision is the result of a shared responsibility and partnership between the actors involved . That is why the evaluation of public policies and social programs is not born from the quality of public services but from the relationships established between citizens ' organizations with institutions. Referring to life satisfaction, authorities, and citizens build social confidence scenarios to generate more symmetrical asymmetrical relationships. In this sense, social reliability is the result of the interplay between political structures and biased appraisals of citizens to government action with their authorities.

The SFT states that individuals, in their desire to guide their decisions and actions for a collective good, lay their expectations in policies and political programs from which ponder and evaluate scenarios of personal, group, and social development. The SFT predicts doomsday scenarios if the levels of trust between citizens and authorities are reduced to a minimum, or if levels of governance exclude actors and focus their attention on just one of them. In this sense, citizen participation not only features from a scenario of supply and demand but also focuses its interest on achieving objectives using collective action strategies.

Society and state are identified by development areas in which the interplay between individuals and groups generates scenarios significance of relations (Melendro, 2011). It is molar and molecular relationships distinguishable by their degree of significance. In the first case, resources are considered as part of the community or group, and their conservation is on the individual ecological satisfaction. In the second case, resources are used as instruments for achieving goals. Thus, the DET states that individuals construct their expectations of resources from the interaction with other individuals and groups rather than the availability of the same.

Anthropic action is to reduce to a minimum the availability of resources is unfair, inequitable bounded distribution and collection management (Reyes, 2010). In this sense, shared resources are exposed to human action as the loss of confidence among those who share resources entails the exclusion of any. It is an asymmetrical relationship that ends in tragedy because resources are increasingly scarce and increasingly shared needs.

CRT focuses attention on citizenship rather than the state, its policies, and programs on public services. He believes that education, technology, and employment are only the result of social movements that have achieved levels of human rights which include free access to education, technology, and employment in other elements. CRT maintains that in a scenario of ungovernability or unjust governance, the individual compares their political system with other systems of government and organized for collective action when this comparison is favorable for other forms of state that the individual has not experienced and that They would be implemented at least in your organization or municipality. Thus, education, technology, and employment are growth factors that inhibit the imbalance between our desires and the availability of resources or are factors of justice because they facilitate the freedom of choice as opportunities allow vocational training and thus responsible use of resources.

However, quality of life is the synthesis of resources, opportunities, freedoms, capabilities, and responsibilities. He warns (Benites, 2010): It is a dynamic multidimensional concept that encompasses several aspects in the life of a person, the concept emphasizes not only the feeling of satisfaction and personal well-being but also involves objective aspects related to living conditions and the interaction that establishes the person with their environment. It is an assessment covering the dimensions of wellness. Physical, psychological, and social. physical well-being is based on the perceived health status, psychological well - being based on the general state of mind linked to the welfare state or emotional discomfort with a sense of humor, anger anxiety, depression, and fears; social welfare is related to family functioning, intimacy; relationships with others, spiritual and existential concerns; welfare functional which is related to the ability to perform self-worth activities, autonomy and responsibility.

However, the perceived availability of resources against established goals determines the motivation to participate as long as the dissident group perceives that social change is possible. That is why the HCT, SFT, HDT, DET, and CRT are theoretical frameworks that conceive the quality of life as a mediator of relations between society and state instruments. In this chain of conceptual links, education, technology, and employment are factors enhancing development, justice, reliability, and collective action. The quality of life in the brandished theoretical framework, is a link in the chain of rationality that presupposes freedom of choice, opportunities, capabilities, and responsibilities not only oriented to development, justice, reliability, or social mobilization but also aimed at building a collective identity in a social and generational sector are young people can access resources claim their demands.

However, studies concerning the theoretical and conceptual framework are few and rather have focused on the quality of life in its subjective dimension, mainly from perceptions of welfare. Studies on the quality of life have established significant gender differences regarding transportation, employment, and recreation (Baldi & García, 2010). Also, when it has been weighted as a perceptual system resource around the individual and referring to the primary group is considered a style of personal welfare-oriented social integration (Barranco, 2010).

However, the quality of life in its negative dimension is determined by anxiety and depression in medical situations of uncertainty and deteriorating health (Machado et al, 2010). That is, the quality of life is the result of the perception of scarcity of resources rather than the generated future expectations or from personal abilities, opportunities seem to be reduced to a minimum, and thus the responsibility of self-management improving expectations through relationships among members of a social, family or school group.

Eight alluding to the quality-of-life dimensions were found (Grimaldo, 2010). This is the economic well-being, interpersonal relationship, family situation, neighborhood context, social capital, and health. This means that the quality of life is a web of expectations that are based on a figurative nucleus to influence the decisions of resource allocation. That is why when an individual is undergoing one, health, family, or interpersonal economic situation often think that their quality of life has been substantially modified (Sadeghzadeh, 2012). Immediately, aesthetic, emotional, and rational expectations trigger actions aimed at creating opportunities, skills upgrading, and establishing responsibilities of the individual to the group to which he/she belongs or wants to belong (Derya, 2013). That is, the quality of life is a history of the formation of group identity and a sense of belonging anchored to freedom of choice, expectations of justice, and collective mobilization. It is through this process that the quality of life in their perceptual phase generates emotions of distrust of authorities arising in dissident citizen actions. Rather, the perception of quality of life, referring to the notion of social justice, is related to conventional styles of development that the individual has learned since childhood and now as an adult translates as reliability or confidence, but realizing that the relationship is asymmetric with its authorities then mobilizes the resources needed for civil disobedience.

The quality of life, in its dimension of life satisfaction, requires a set of indicators to guide not only the perception of the individual but also collective action (Tariq,2012). A low level of life satisfaction is sufficient to activate the process of social dissent, but a high level of life satisfaction does not generate collaborative, supportive, or empathetic relations.

However, low levels of life satisfaction, which indicate minimum standards of quality of life, allow the formation of support networks. This is the case of the new gay or lesbian social movements environmentalists who by forming self-help groups generate greater SWB who only receive a wealth of resources (Andersson et al., 2020). As the quality of life is specific and limited to psychological factors, expectations of discontent, indignation, and civil disobedience are increased, but social skills such as creativity and innovation of minority groups against the ideological or pragmatic imposition of the majority (Abolfotouh et al., 2013).

In short, the quality of life in economic, political, social, health, educational, employment, and technological terms is a multidimensional construct (Quiceno & Vinaccia, 2013). Relations between opportunities, skills, responsibility, fairness, reliability, and mobilization-oriented life satisfaction can be specified from a model. It is 7 variables around which the dependency relationships between economic, social, and personal factors, political, and group affect life satisfaction. The HCT warns that capacities would have a significant impact on life satisfaction as a high level of education is offset by a highly satisfying lifestyle. Furthermore, if the relationship between skills and satisfaction of real or symbolic opportunities, then as indicated by the HDT human development is complemented.

However, the process involving freedom of choice, necessary capabilities, and life satisfaction, according to CRT, depends on the availability of resources and their distribution among species. In the case of common resources, there is a zero-sum tragedy in which stakeholders rather than cooperate and establish an administrative stewardship of resources, wantonly compete and suppress the possibility of growth of other species. That is why the availability of resources indirectly affects life satisfaction. Although the availability of resources pacesetter in the organization of human groups, is the state about citizenship, as warns the SFT, which determines the spread of resources. When the relationship between civil society and authorities is asymmetric, then the quality of life fades, but when there are relationships of trust, then emerges life satisfaction. In another scenario, the relationship between citizenship and justice authorities raises expectations that undermine or ennoble responsibility. This is because, according to the DET, politics is concomitant with the economy. Higher levels of governance are observed in prosperous countries while ungovernability underlies weak economies. That is why the expected justice directly affects citizens' life satisfaction with their political system.

The process of confidence, skills, and life satisfaction is raised by the SFT. The relationship between society and development-oriented State has in the formation of human capital its main link. SFT proposes that development, unlike growth but with high standards of life satisfaction, is an essential factor in the relationship between political reliability and personal life satisfaction. The indirect relationship between justice and satisfaction is to be mediated by the capabilities of supposed ecological development scenarios. The CRT notes that the relationship between authorities and citizens is defined by molar and molecular actions that will affect individual satisfaction.

Molar acts, unlike molecular actions, involve meaningful relationships that are contrasted by the individual in crises. By contrast, little meaningful relationships are understood as molecular events from which it is not possible to build a collective memory, social dissent, and civil disobedience. Thus, the justice system is considered a molar action, it determines life satisfaction while being regulated by personal abilities.

However, the CRT notes that opportunities are the determinants of relations between reliability, justice, capabilities, and satisfaction. Thus, freedom of choice is linked with political reliability and individual capacities influence life satisfaction. This is because the trust between citizens and politicians depends on options of choice in employment. If there are job opportunities, then political reliability increases and generates high skills that affect states of satisfaction. Or, the opportunities are disseminated as justice factors affecting the generation of job skills while it is possible to observe the increase in personal satisfaction with life.

However, freedom of choice and opportunities posed decisions, demands, and resources from which gestate opportunities. This issue is that the CRT maintains that the availability of resources, but especially the dilemma of their distribution affects the development of communities or groups sharing scenarios and contexts. The story of a community or group seems to be undermined by cooperation and trust networks while resource availability permits. In a situation of scarcity dilemmas and thus the tragedies of common entities emerge. In this sense, the CRT maintains that the opportunities are the result of a shared responsibility between the parties involved. Thus, resource management indirectly affects satisfaction through opportunities, reliability, justice, and abilities. In the first instance, resource scarcity would generate a reduction in levels of public trust in the public administration, and would affect the choice options slowing consumption capacity, once the purchasing power is committed, levels of citizen satisfaction are reduced to a minimum. In this vein, the shortage may also affect public perceptions of injustice, against the lack of government antigenic, choice capabilities are reduced to influence life satisfaction.

In contrast, when the availability of resources is scarce, but abundantly perceived by the public, choice opportunities appear to influence public confidence and thus in decision making seeking satisfaction not only personal or group but social. This also involves a process of justice before the distribution of resources via public services. In this scenario life satisfaction precedes choice options to be perceived as abundant transferring the effect of social justice to life satisfaction. Furthermore, the relationship between the valuation of the environment (resources) and life satisfaction (needs obtained) is understood by the CRT as a direct and meaningful process. It is an asymmetrical relationship as resource scarcity copes with increased expectations creating a scenario that compromises the public confidence in their future rulers and the capabilities of future civil society. The CRT notes that in the case of social norms regarding the administration, and therefore the distribution of resources, its relationship with satisfaction in being direct and significant is a structural reductionism or, in the interrelation with social justice and capacities implies the emergence of a democratic system of citizen opening partnership against the State.


A cross-sectional quantitative study was carried out. A nonrandom selection of 100 students was conducted. The criterion of choice was having a paid, internet service and having been enrolled in the school semester activity. They interviewed 60 women and 40 men (M = 20.13 years and SD = 2.36 years). The economic status to which the sample belongs was medium-low with around 1500 USD monthly household income (M = 950 USD and SD = 24.5 USD)

Education: The sample declared to belong to the public university in question (M = 2.13 years of study and SD = 0.47 years). 67% of respondents had a scholarship or financial support (M = 100 USD and SD = 7.5 USD). Expenditure on tuition (300 USD per semester), useful (250 USD per semester), Internet (50 USD monthly), and transportation (35 USD weekly) generates an estimated investment of 1000 USD per semester (M = 870 USD and DE = 15.67 USD).

Employment: 36% of the sample declared work before or after attending the school (M = 400 USD and DE = $ 23.5 monthly). Of the respondents who work 78% said that their wages would rise substantially if completed their vocational training (M = 1200 USD and DE = $ 45.5 expected monthly). By contrast, 84% of respondents stated that their income would be lower if only they had basic secondary education (M = 250 USD and SD = 14.6 USD).

Technology: 57% of the sample has Internet access (M = 470 USD and DE = $ 15.7 per month) while 93% have mobile phone service (M = 140 USD and DE = $ 10.2 monthly). Facebook (46%), Twitter (27%), and Google+ (14%) are the most used social networks for school purposes or job searches.

Questionnaire Quality of Life from the educational, technological, and labor dimensions depending on factors availability of resources, social reliability, social justice, opportunities for choice, selection skills, and perceptions of satisfaction was constructed. The application of the surveys was conducted at the premises of the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, after processing by the authorities of the institution. When solving the questionnaire, respondents were instructed to write any questions they may have regarding the survey. After gathering the information, he was captured in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for its acronym in English) version 21.0 to estimate multivariable parameters in Structural Analysis Moments (AMOS for its acronym in English) version 6, 0

An analysis of normal considering the kurtosis parameter and reliability assuming an internal consistency or alpha Cronbach was performed. Then we proceeded to estimate the construct validity prior sphericity and suitability of the instrument to the study sample. Then, bivariate correlations or multivariate covariance were estimated to anticipate causal relationships in structural models, adjustment, and waste.

Normal: The kurtosis parameter is Used to set the proximity of the responses to the mean and standard deviation. Close to the unit values were taken as evidence of normal distribution.

Reliability: The internal consistency of the reagents for the scale was weighted by Cronbach's alpha statistic. Higher than 0.60 and less than 0.90 values were taken as evidence of symmetrical relationships between reactants and psychological traits that are sought to be measured.

Validity: Alignment with the Kayser Meyer Olkin parameter in which values greater than 6.00 were considered as a requirement for construct validity is weighed. Sphericity with Bartlett's test was also estimated, chi close to unity and level of significance less than 0.050 square value were assumed as a second requirement for exploratory factor analysis of principal components with varimax rotation. The correlations between the item and the factor above 0.300 were assumed as indicators of a construct. Regarding the percentages of explained variance, greater than 20% were considered as evidence adjustment model specifications to the observed data.

Correlation: The Pearson r parameter was used to calculate the negative or positive relationships between the factors in the construct validity. Those close to zero and unity were taken as spurious and collinear relationships. Instead, the values between the extremes were considered as probable associations dependence.

Covariance: Estimation phi was used to establish the association between a factor and another about another factor. The correlation values were identified as spurious, and the dependence relationships were collinear.

Structure: Parameters phi were used to estimate covariance, statistical "gamma" regression to estimate the mediators of exogenous factors, and parameters "beta" for the regression of the mediator’s endogenous factors. Statisticians "delta,”"epsilon" and "sigma” are used to calculate measurement errors of exogenous indicators and indicators of endogenous factors and disturbance of endogenous factors. The criterion for interpreting the values close to zero and the unit was also considered for the above parameters.

Adjustment: The contrast of the model was carried out from the estimated Index Goodness of fit (GFI for its acronym in English). Close to the unit values were considered as evidence of acceptance of the null hypothesis.

Residual: The contrast model was also performed from the calculation of Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA for its acronym in English). The near-zero values were considered as evidence of the fit of the model specified concerning the data.


Eight factors [KMO = 6.25 were established; X2 = 14.25 (23 gl) p = 0.000] concerning life satisfaction (items SV1, SV2, SV3 and 45% of the total variance explained), expected capacity (EC1, EC2, EC3 and 37% of the total variance explained), trust relationships (RC1, RC2, RC3 and 33% of the explained variance), perception of justice (PJ1, PJ2, PJ3 and 31% of the explained variance), expectations of opportunity ( EO1, EO2, EO3 and 27% of the explained variance), assessments of the environment (VE1, VE2, VE3 and 25% of the explained variance) standards context (NC1, NC2, NC3 and 23% of the explained variance) perceived resources (RP1, RP2, RP3 and 21% of the explained variance) KMO = ,768; ⌠χ2 = 435,3 (23gl) p < 01⌡Method: Principal Ways; Rotation.

In the Case of the descriptive results a tendency to make positive choices for answers to items of the factors of life satisfaction, expected capabilities, relationships of trust, norms of context, and perceived resources, and a negative prevalence is observed factors perception of justice, opportunity and rating expectations of the environment.

Regarding life satisfaction, the item SV3 (M = 2.47: DE = 0.49; C = 2.04) won the closest value to the "very satisfactory" option while the item SV2 (M = 2 01, DE 0,27; 2,08) approached the "unsatisfactory" option. That is, the survey sample appears to guide their life satisfaction toward educational, technological, and labor scenarios close to satisfaction

Regarding the expected capabilities, the item CE3 (M = 2.71; DE 0.41; C = 2.01) approached the "far preferable". In contrast, the item EC1 (M = 2.47, DE = 0.37; C = 2.01) approached the "little better" option. In this sense, the survey sample seems to direct their responses to a near-efficient option perception of their abilities.

Meanwhile, in relationships of trust, the item RC2 (M = 2.94, DE = 0.48; C = 2.05), unlike the item RC3 (M = 2.04; DE = 0,93; C = 2.01) approached the "very reliable" option. This suggests that confidence is perceived as a key element of relations between the surveyed sample.

As for the perception of justice, item PJ3 (M = 1.27, DE = 0.31; C = 2.05) compared to item PJ2 (M = 1.59, DE = 0.15; C = 2 01) is closer to the "highly undesirable" option is a biased appreciation of justice. This is because the injustice that the survey shows perceives its authorities seems to be a central element in their life satisfaction.

In the case of the expectations of opportunity, the item EO3 (M = 1.14, DE = 0.31; C = 2.05) about the item EO2 (M = 1.38, DE = 0.59; C = 2.01) reflects a trend toward the "little option" which suggests that opportunities are considered almost nil by the survey sample.

It is the same case of valuations of the environment since item VE3 (M = 1.03, DE = 0.26; C = 2.03) compared to item VE1 (M = 1.46; DE 0.49; C = 2,01) shows a tendency to "very efficient" option that is the result of considering public services as a system of unequal distribution among the survey sample.

Regarding the rules of context, the item NC2 (M = 2.70, DE = 0.59; C = 2.01) in contrast to the item NC3 (M = 2.35, DE = 0.63; C = 2.07) approached the "very significant" option. This means that the conventions that guide the actions of the individual to be evaluated positively show the influence of the system on an indicator of the quality of life in the survey sample.

Finally, the factor of perceived resources, RP3 item (M = 2.75; DE = 0.21, C = 2.03) compared to Item RP2 (M = 2.14; DE = 0.56; C = 2.08) reflects a "very cooperative" tendency on the part of the survey sample. This means that the distribution of resources probably influences the perception of scarcity and therefore the need for sharing.

The reliability of factors 1 to 8 (respective alphas of 0.72, 0.74, 0.79, 0.74, 0.78, 0.75, 0.75 0,71y) evidence a regular consistency between items since the overall reliability of the instrument was 0.69

The association between factors shows that life satisfaction and expectations of opportunity (r = 0.582), expected capabilities and perceived resources (r = 0.719), trusting relationships with perceived resources (r = 0.625), perception of justice expectations of opportunity (r = 0.613), expectations of opportunity with perceived resources (r = 0.509), assessment of environment standards context (r = 0.495) and standards context perceived resources (r = 0.321) mean that a model could estimate the specification of relationships between factors, although it was expected that would have negative relationships between perceptions justice, expectations of opportunity and ratings of the environment as their means, deviations and kurtosis warned a negative prevalence regarding the trend positive of the other factors.

The analysis of covariance, as correlations showed positive relationships between life satisfaction and ratings of the environment (Φ = 0.610), expected capabilities expectations opportunity (Φ = 0.692), trusting relationships with resources perceived (Φ = 0.729), perception of justice perceived resources (Φ = 0.624), expectations of opportunity with standards context (Φ = 0.714), assessments of the environment perceived resources (Φ = 0.624) and standards of context with resources collected (Φ = 0.735).

Covariances brandished warn that the specified relationships seem to explain a system of quality of life centered on life satisfaction, expected capabilities, relationships of trust, norms of context, and resources collected more than perceptions of justice, expectations of opportunity, and ratings of the environment.

The model of structural relationships shows that the factor that increases the explanatory power of perception of resources on life satisfaction is the standard of context (γ = 0.52), followed by the environmental assessment factor (γ = 0, 37), expected capacity (β = 0.31), relations of trust (β = 0.28) and perceived justice (β = 0.24). That is, the satisfaction of actions relating to the academy, technology, and employment is influenced by the availability of resources received through the ingrained behaviors of students. This finding exalts a case of the Theory of the Commons whereby the customs of groups internalize resources as elements of community and identity. This is because the conservation of resources due to ingrained habits in the sense of belonging is essential for personal, group, or community satisfaction. The contrast of the dependency relationships [X2 = 12,35 (12 gl) p = 0.000; GFI = 0.975; RMR = 0,000] evidence acceptance of the null hypothesis.


In the dependent relationship between anxiety and low perceived quality of life, the present study has found that the availability of perceived resources determined indirectly life satisfaction through context rules. In this regard, the activities of roots among the shows seem to be mediators of the perception of scarcity of resources on the expectations of satisfaction in terms of education, technology, and employment in youth surveyed (Machado et al, 2010).

However, the study alluded depression was the second predictor of low satisfaction of perceived life and this means that after both conditions, expectations of satisfaction are reduced to a minimum while this investigation the exclusion of pathologies It suggests that the quality of life, in its dimension of satisfaction, is determined by the distribution of resources among the relations established in the survey sample groups.

The quality of life has been considered two overriding dimensions; subjective and physical, he involved the relationship between the availability of resources and basic psychological processes in which group relations would not affect the perception of satisfaction.

Although in this study the relationship between trust and perception of justice are variables related to the dynamics of groups to which the individual belongs, its explanatory power is less than the value of resources (public education, technology, and employment) and personal capabilities (freedom of choice, skills, and knowledge), although the rules of context (ingrained behaviors) increase the relationship between available resources and life satisfaction. However, it is essential to include personal pathologies in the model of dependency relationships to contrast their influence on life satisfaction.


Quality of life, in its dimension of satisfaction with public education services, Internet, and employment, in the sample of young people surveyed is determined by the perceived availability of resources through the rules of context, but the factors relating to group dynamics and the perception of justice and trust relationships increase the explanatory power of resources received lesser incidence opportunities and capabilities as well as the assessment of resources (utilities).

The indirect relationship between perceived resources and life satisfaction suggests that there are group and personal factors that regulate the impact of a shortage or perceived abundance of resources, although the state of knowledge cautions that these are the psychological variables that determine directly the perceptions of life satisfaction.

Life satisfaction to interrelate with perceived resources, assessments of the environment, standards of context, perception of justice, trust relationships, opportunities, and expected capabilities can be explained from psychological, sociological, or economic frameworks, but it must include theories and constructs of economic and political order as their exclusion reduces the quality of life to the perception of respondents.


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Received: 04-Dec-2023, Manuscript No. AJEE-23-14451; Editor assigned: 06-Dec-2023, PreQC No. AJEE-23-14451(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Dec-2023, QC No.AJEE-23-14451; Revised: 25-Dec-2023, Manuscript No. AJEE-23-14451(R); Published: 30-Dec-2023

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