Research Article: 2021 Vol: 24 Issue: 1S
Yuli Eni, Bina Nusantara University
Digital Marketing, Facebook, Instagram, Small Medium Enterprise, Systematic Literature Review
The importance of technology in the world of economy such as Small Medium Enterprise because that can reach people from various region and country. Morever, purchase transactions will also be easier, such as e-commerce. On 2019 and 2020 the value of transactions of e- commerce throughout the world increasing, whereas that known in two years the last world experiencing a crisis which strikes most major population with the virus covid-19. The based research is made because the gap between reality with the predictions was estimated. The method that using in research is a Systematic Literature Review. Result of this research is digital marketing able to push the performance of the business, most familiar digital marketing tool is Facebook and Instagram, The conclusion of this study is that the role of social media is very close in digital marketing to improve business performance.
Small Medium Enterprise (SME) is a community activity that opens a business based on the idea of an individual or group. SMEs in a country are often using to drive the economy. The role of technology, the online has been presenting opportunities. These new opportunities, for example, are doing online marketing using advertising mechanisms such as social media, blogs, podcasts, youtube, and so on, where this is useful for reaching consumers between regions and countries (Vásquez & Escamilla, 2014).
The growth of SMEs in Indonesia is projected to continues to increase from year to year (Krisnawati, 2018). The growth of SMEs is certainly supported by the role of digital technology. At the time of the world hit by the crisis in the year 2020 with the virus covid - 19, allegedly there was a decrease in the number of SMEs. Then, the crisis is instead become an opportunity for the SME to be creative and innovate to sell products goods, or services they are to consumers by way of digitizing. This is evidenced by data from statistika.com (Figure 1). In Indonesia, the transaction online in the year 2015 has reached Rp 200 billion, and at the end of the year, 2020 will increase nine times as much to Rp 1.850 trillion. The magnitude of the potential transactions is online here which is expected to encourage the well-being of the people of Indonesia. Because of Indonesia's GDP in 2016 and then reached Rp 12.406,8 trillion, about 55.6 percent of taste l of SME (kompas.com, 2017).
Based on the image of the known existence of the value of transactions of e-commerce throughout the world increasing, especially in the years 2019 and 2020, whereas as that known in two years the last world experiencing a crisis which strikes most major population with the virus covid-19. The based research is made because the gap between reality with the predictions was estimated. Their pandemic covid - 19 makes the performance of SME is getting increased, whereas many a resident who experienced the economy poorly as the case of termination relations work and other so on.
SME (Small Medium Enterprise)
SME is a business that stands alone on behalf of individuals or entities legal and certainly not a part of the effort more either be directly or not directly (Krisnawati, 2018). Based on the laws - laws the basic state of Indonesia, SME newly regulated by laws which come into force which is marked by the passing of Law Law No. 20 the Year 2008. The development of SMEs can be differentiated into four classifications, namely:
• Livelihood Activities, namely enterprises which are sector informal, more forward the interests of a living personal
• Micro Enterprise, which is a business that is more forward nature of the craftsman, but has not had a spirit of entrepreneurship
• Dynamic Small Enterprise, which is a business that already has a spirit of entrepreneurship and able to accept work subcontracting and export
• Fast Moving Enterprise, which is a business that already has a spirit of entrepreneurship and was in the process of transformation to a large business.
In the digital era when access to which is very open to the SME has grown very fast so if grouped in the group above, the SME should have been changed in a very short period. However, one thing that becomes a thread of red from the SME is the concept of the independence of entrepreneurs who became the foundation in innovation and give effect to the public.
Digital Marketing SME
Digital marketing is using internet and technology information to expand the marketing of which had to be traditionally turned into digital. In the digital era when this development of technology made an evolution, especially in the technology media, or often referred to as online media or the Internet. The media is referred to as the media until the time does not yet exist that match the growth in the number of users (Maulida, 2018).
Digital marketing is an internet marketing technique that can be done in various ways, such as optimization in search, marketing, or website creation. The role of digital is not just about marketing, but the use of the digital world as the service messaging multimedia, which can send text, images, and video can provide convenience for people age now. By because of the change in the culture and customs of society era now, the use of digital marketing when is the way most appropriate for the marketing of goods and services that will be marketed to consumers (Mogoş, 2015).
Digital marketing is one of the strategies used by companies to increase the potential for marketing communications and product promotion to consumers. Digital marketing can contribute to creating the prospect of opportunities for business new to the SME effectively and efficiently. Digital marketing also has an effect that very beyond the usual in all elements of the performance of the company. It is evident in any of the studies earlier who said that digital marketing is significantly increasing revenue, the share market is good, and profitability increased (Kennedy Onyango, 2016).
The method that using in research is a Systematic Literature Review. Systematic Literature Review is a method of systematic, explicit, comprehensive and can be reproduced to identify, evaluate, and synthesize the body that has been completed and recorded works were produced by researchers (Okoli & Schabram, 2012). The adoption of the Systematic Literature Review consists of six stages, namely:
• Defining the question of research related to developing the theory of the beginning of framework on the phenomenon that is studied.
• Determine the characteristics that are required of the study primer associated with the inclusion craft criteria for exclusion and/or examples of research methods, the focus of the study, the outlet, and the use of language
• The samples of literature that is relevant associated with determining the procedure search. For example, searching in databases and reference, and determining said the key to making the initial sample.
• Choose the literature is concerned relating to the application of the inclusion criteria of exclusion and/or.
• Synthesize the literature associated with the application of the scheme of coding and extract the information that is relevant from the literature and synthesize studies to summarize, integrate, or collect findings that differ across studies major.
• Report the results related to the reported results of the review as well as provide an overview of reviews of literature and the results of the findings of the discussion of thematic.
In the Systematic Literature Review method, there are quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method of a systematic literature review is used to synthesize research results with a quantitative approach. While the approach is qualitative in Systematic Literature Review used to synthesize the results of research that is descriptive qualitative.
This study, using a database source to search literature. The Source database that is used is using Scopus search, application perishes 7. Selection of tools that is to facilitate the process of finding journals and restrictions in published journals that desired by the researcher. Besides that, with the help of tools, the process of searching within the application can be done with more specific because it can unite word keyword search by writing using (AND and OR ). This research uses ALL (digital AND marketing) AND (LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2021) OR LIMIT- TO (PUBYEAR, 2020) OR LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2019) OR LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2018) OR LIMIT-TO (PUBYEAR, 2017)) AND (LIMIT-TO (SUBJAREA, "BUSI")) AND (LIMIT- TO (EXACT KEYWORD, "Social Media")) AND (LIMIT-TO (LANGUAGE, "English")) AND (LIMIT- TO (SRCTYPE, "j")).
The mapping and analysis process is carried out using the help of the VOS viewer tools. Results search the database based on Scopus Search resulted in some articles to facilitate the process of analysis and evaluation so that the author can determine and sort out the articles are following the purpose of research. In addition, this research also uses the VOS viewer application to help map a broad picture of digital marketing research in the world. The following is an analysis that will be mapped by this study which consists of:
a. The author is the name of the author in the published article so that it can be known who made it.
b. Title, a title to determine the topics that are discussed in the content of the article, to facilitate the reader to analyze in descriptive about such topics are discussed in the article mentioned.
c. Year, a year of issue which facilitates the reader aware of the publication of the article, to facilitate the mapping of the research further.
d. Source, a list of sources in articles that have been published so it can easy readers know of Which source of the article is published.
e. Publishers can make it easier for readers to find out who published this article.
This research takes journal sources with a time scale of 2017-2021 with the topic of digital marketing. Having searched for the journal by using the Scopus search found 1406 journals with the criteria of digital marketing based on the topics that exist in business management.
Deskriptif Analysis Literature Based on State
Digital marketing research has indeed spread throughout the world. The following is the result of a mapping of 1406 journals from all over the world that research digital marketing (Figure 2). Based on Figure 2 explains that of the entire world's most lots researching about digital marketing is a country the United States
One study from the USA was examined on factors of quality that affect the implementation of websites for businesses hospitality scale of Small and Medium-Sized (SME) where the research is to define and explain the relevance of the factors that relate to digital marketing. Research is also identified that the role of digital marketing can help SMEs to improve the potential of the business in all areas of industry (Kriechbaumer & Christodoulidou, 2014). However, research from other countries has also been widely used, such as research from African countries. One of the examples is a study that examines in Nigeria that clicking adoption of digital marketing to increase sales of businesses small and medium-sized (SME). The results of research that show that the adoption of the tools of digital marketing such as email, google, social media, and ads online is significant will increase the sales of SMEs. In addition of the results of the study are also saying that the SME can maintain the increase in sales by utilizing more than one means of digital as part of a strategy of marketing (Oladimeji Is-haq, 2019).
If combined between countries with years of research published, the United States occupied the position of the highest in the year 2019. This is due to the possibility of the concept of digital marketing in the year 2019 a lot of interest, especially for SME country such as shows in Figure 3.
Based on the analysis of images Figure 3 most lots in the year 2019 is the country the United States and most bit is Hungary in the year 2018. However, the year 2019 end of the study about digital marketing is occupied by the Danish state. The United States became the country with the research of digital marketing is the most because there are more than 45% of the total population of the world are actively networking social media and rise to 350 million people from 2018 until 2019. With the surge in the number of users media social such, an opportunity for SMEs to know various aspects of digital marketing (Wibowo, 2020). However, not in a country like Africa too much researched on digital marketing, one of which is the research that has the purpose to determine the extent to which the adoption of digital marketing and its influence on the performance of company exporters in Kenya. Research is showing that digital marketing has an effect that a very large in all elements of the performance of the company (Kennedy Onyango, 2016). Countries of Europe are also a lot of researching on digital marketing, but the country's most researched in part the journal of information systems, such as in journals that reveal some impact on digital marketing through the Internet and the performance of online companies are driven out of the adoption and integration of subsystems Information Company. Research is taking samples that are very spacious with some 9192 companies in Europe and generate digital marketing turned out to be able to push the performance of the business in Europe, especially e-business (Tiago, 2012).
Descriptive Analysis of Literature-Based on Keywords
Research on digital marketing cannot be separated from other variables that influence or support the concept of digital marketing itself. It is seen in Figure 4 that charted the keywords that have a connection site with digital marketing.
Based on Figure 4 above, explains that digital marketing is very closely related to social media. In addition, the role of digital marketing is also related to brand awareness, brand image, and e-commerce variables. Of the entire country in the world, the application of digital marketing is not separated from the role of social media is that there currently is. It is supported by a study earlier that said that the data were reported by We Are Social, an agency of digital marketing in the United States, said that the media platform of social most much used in Indonesia by January 2017 is YouTube (49%) and by Facebook (48%). The next position is occupied by Instagram (39%), Twitter (38%), Whatsapp (38%), and Google (36%). The rest is occupied sequentially by FB Messenger, Line, Linkedin, fuel, Pinterest & WeChat (Sulaksono, 2020).
This research mentioned that an SME can market their products through digital marketing course by doing interaction with customers at any and where any who utilize social media. Research is mentioned analysis of multiple platforms and practices of digital proven effective and efficient is the use of social media as a maximum. Due to the use of social media as a maximum, SMEs can interact with consumers whenever and wherever they are so that the degree of flexibility is high to know and buy the product that is offered by SME (Makrides, Vrontis & Christofi, 2020). The research is supported also by the study of other said media platforms social major that many uses for digital marketing is Facebook and Instagram because the platform is the most familiar to most great person when it (Purwana, Rahmi & Aditya, 2017).
Descriptive Analysis of Literature-Based on Journal
The study of digital marketing has been much published in various journals, especially in journals that exist related to marketing and management. Figure 5 illustrates the mapping study of digital marketing is based on the journal's most much-published research of digital marketing.
Based on Figure 5 above can be explained that the many journals who publish on the research of digital marketing are the journal of the retailing and consumer services as much as 52 paper, the position of the two is occupied by the journal of business research as much as 47 paper, and the position of the three occupied by the journal Technological Forecasting and social change as many as 36 papers. It is exemplified by a study that was published in the journal of business research that examines the development of digital marketing to improve the economy in the world market certainly for SME. The study also said that one of the ways that SMEs can thrive is to expand sales of their products with digital marketing. Research that produces the effect of digital marketing on the sales of products in the SME (Qurratu'Aini & Hapsari, 2019).
Based on the results of the discussion can be concluded that the researcher is associated with digital marketing is not separated from the role of variables other supporting performance of the SME. The variable that most supports digital marketing is social media. The role of social media in the current era can assist SMEs in marketing their goods and services to consumers anytime and anywhere. The views of the country's most lots of researcher on digital marketing in the field of management and marketing are the United States. It is due to the increase in users of social media in the state that on 2018-2019. However, it does not rule out other countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Korea, and so on.
Recommendations that can be recommended for research for the next, if want to investigate about digital marketing is to insert variables are certainly very associated closely with digital marketing. Surely by entering variables such, the concept of digital marketing can be more targeted and be beneficial for the industry are studied, especially for SMEs when this very need of the role of digital marketing. Then the researchers subsequently also can do submit a journal to a publisher who had seen most lots have research about digital marketing such as the Journal of retailing and consumer services, the journal of business research, and the journal Technological Forecasting and social change.
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