Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 5S

Team Building Effect in Improving Employees??? Performance for Government Institutions

Sahar Kadhim Abbas, College of Nursing, University of Babylon


Individuals in today's societies have placed a greater emphasis on attaining professional aims and targets at work rather than concentrating on the idea of cooperation. Interestingly, the significance of collaboration as an important tool in the workplace seems to be overlooked by employers and workers, resulting in low performance and productivity. As a result, this investigation article aims to look at the influence of teamwork on job performance. This investigation aimed to investigate the influence of collaboration on the Babil Governorate's Directorates of Agriculture and Water Resources members and their performance and the factors connected with the idea of cooperation in the workplace. This research examines the influence of collaboration on workers of the Babil Governorate's Directorate of Agriculture and Directorate of Water Resources. The idea of trust, leadership, structure, and performance assessment and incentives were all examined as aspects of collaboration. The findings show a significant and strong relationship between the independent factors of teamwork, trusting climate, structure and leadership, performance evaluation and rewards, and the performance of the Directorate of Agriculture and the Directorate of Water Resources in Iraq's Babil Governorate.


Team Working, The Performance of the Employee, Trusting, Leadership


A team is a group of people who work together to achieve shared goals and objectives for service users and companies in order to offer high-quality service. Team building, event planning, and activities can instill a strong sense of direction, practical ideas and solutions, a strong sense of belonging with and on the team, and clear strategic customer-focused magnitudes in the individuals employ. Disillusionment, low morale, and negative motivation are all symptoms of poor team building and planning sessions. They do not provide the anticipated outcomes (Ali et al., 2021; Leonova et al., 2021; Nahar & Zayed, 2019; Shil et al., 2020; Tumpa & Zayed, 2016). Organizations stutter because they lack strategic direction. Everyone puts in much effort, but it is typically for the wrong activities and objectives. Employees make little effort toward completing essential action items, but nothing significant is completed (Ali et al., 2020; Hussain, 2011; Islam et al., 2013).

The capacity to work together toward a shared goal is referred to as teamwork. Teamwork is a catalyst for ordinary people to accomplish exceptional results. Collective action is widely recognized as a positive element for collaboration in any business or organization. Individuals may form teams in order to empower themselves and gain greater benefits from collaborative work done in a group setting. Getting together with others May also help individuals better understands the importance of cooperation and how companies operate, as well as foster a culture of success via teamwork. Buildings take longer to build without collaboration, governments collapse, and companies are outshined by their market competitors. Finally, without teamwork, individuals lose their motivation (Barman et al., 2020; Hussain, 2011). "A main reason why economic growth is under controlling and corporate performance is evaluated by senior management to achieve the desired objectives," depending on Wageman (Nahar & Zayed, 2019; Wageman, 1997), is because "company collaboration is the only way anything shall be conducted with efficiency and quality."

Depending to McShone (McShane & Hastings, 2004), teams are substituting individuals as the basic building blocks of companies. Team-based efforts have replaced individual initiatives in French language television programs, with teams getting more attention than individuals. Companies are looking for team members work well in groups and solve issues, not just for technical skills.

Teams and cooperation, depending on Steiner (Steiner, 1972), are not new concepts; teams and team thinking had existed for years at companies including Procter & Gamble and Botany. Once American businesses retooled in the 1980s to compete against Japanese rivals who were quickly taking market share, they embraced a new team-oriented approach. Depending to Brown et al., (Brown & Eisenhardt, 1995), managers discovered a large body of research indicating that teams may be more than the conventional corporate structure for generating fast and effective decisions. They goes on to explain that upcoming reengineering and restructuring processes would need teams, giving instances where small changes, including promoting input and feedback from line workers, lead to significant benefits.

When God stated, ''Let us create man in our image," he referred to the idea of cooperation. (KJV, Genesis 1:26). This statement emphasizes God's collaboration with other heavenly beings throughout the production process, stressing the request of working together to achieve productivity.

As a result, businesses must promote collaboration to obtain a competitive edge since it is the source of new ideas. Employees see collaboration as including a broader number of individuals than the job title implies. The idea of collaboration is that the burden is minimized and broken down into manageable chunks so that everyone might participate. Backward development in today's companies might be linked to a lack of cooperation among employees, which has a long-term influence on the organization's effectiveness. A significant amount of money is also wasted due to insufficient cooperation that to put it mildly, depletes the organization's restricted resources, with far-reaching and consequent repercussions for the organization's growth.

"Since they have a nice reward for their hard effort, two is better than one. Because if one of them falls, the other can help companion up. Nevertheless, how would it be if just one person falls and no one else is present to help him up?" (KJV, Ecclesiastes 4:9-10). This means that cooperation might gain things that a person cannot do alone. "Teamwork is defined as "a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common goal, performance targets, and strategy for which they are jointly accountable" (Katzenbach & Smith, 1993).

In today's culture, there has been a strong focus on individual success at work, with managers and workers seemingly overlooking the idea of collaboration. As a consequence, management regards collaboration as a small performance instrument, resulting in low market performance and productivity. As a consequence, the study's goal is to find out how cooperation affects organizational performance.

Literature Review

Individuals working together to achieve a similar objective, rather than in a sales team or a sports team, is known as teamwork. It has also gained in significance as a result of the fact that many large corporations have developed specific tests to evaluate potential workers' ability to work as part of a team. As a consequence, collaboration has become a key goal in most organizations, with the notion that it gives employees a sense of ownership and encourages cooperation (Kandavel & Sakthivel, 2018).

Teamwork has existed for as long as everyone could remember, and few organisations do not use it in some way. Service teams, production teams, Managing teams, and even whole companies are often referred to as teams. Many companies are now embracing a "team-based" way of working, which implies that working in a team is the main way to obtain work done in these organizations. As a result, companies stress the importance of working as a team and hiring individuals who are doing so (Richard, 1991).

Depending to McShone (McShane & Hastings, 2004), teams were substituting individuals as the basic building blocks of companies. Team-based efforts have replaced individual initiatives in French language television programs, with teams getting more attention versus persons. Companies are looking for people who want to work in groups and solve issues, not just for technical expertise.

Teams and cooperation, depending on (Steiner, 1972; Brown & Eisenhardt, 1995), are not new concepts; team thinking and teams have been for long period of years at Procter & Gamble and Botany. Once American manufacturers and automakers retooled in the 1980s to compete against Japanese rivals who were quickly gaining market share, they embraced a new team-oriented approach. Depending on Brown et al., (Brown & Eisenhardt, 1995), managers discovered a large body of research indicating that teams may be more than the conventional organizational structure for making fast and effective decisions. They are going on to say that future reorganization and reengineering processes would need teams, citing examples of how basic adjustments like inviting input and feedback from line employees might result in significant gains.

Teamwork and Performance of Employee

Several academic and practitioner investigates were conducted in recent years on the influence of collaboration on employee occupational performance (Jones et al., 2007). The rationale for focus because the practical idea that collaboration has a significant influence on the company's success and the people who work there. Some studies describe teamwork as a significant occupational skill essential to accomplish and realize the organization's visions, goals, plans, and objectives and activate and improve the employees' performance. Some many causes and explanations explain and emphasize the connection between collaboration and workplace performance levels and quality.

Understanding the influence of collaboration on performance is essential, depending on Jones et al., (Jones et al., 2007), since some scholars regard teamwork as one of the main driving forces for increasing a firm's performance. While working in a group, team members improve their skills, knowledge, and talents (Fröbel & Marchington, 2005). Depending on researchers and experts, good collaboration behaviors and ideas might enhance workers' performance and productivity while also improving their capacity to resolve disputes and deal with urgent and unexpected issues at work.

A team is a group of individuals who collaborate to complete a task or achieve a common goal. This skill has risen in importance to the point that many large companies have developed specialized tests to evaluate their employees' capacity to operate in teams. The ability to work as part of a team has become an essential skill which every employee should have in order to be employed. Teams are a highly useful and essential concept in any occupational and developmental process since they were utilized many millennia ago throughout the foundation and growth of human civilization. Teamwork is a precise organizational metric that reveals various characteristics in various companies, including non-profits (Mulika, 2010). Depending on Conti and Kleiner (Conti & Kleiner, 1997), teams provide more chances for involvement, difficulties, and accomplishment emotions. To maintain staff productivity and emphasize the need of working together as one united entity to achieve the organization's goals and objectives in the most effective way possible, several companies have started to adopt a team-based strategy in their job performance. The phrase "team-based approach" focuses on the basic method through which members of an organization carry out tasks in teams. Managers stress the significance of cooperation and its ability to enhance the work environment for workers whilst still boosting productivity, creativity, and the company's eventual effectiveness as a result of such techniques being used in the workplace.

Depending on Cohen (Cohen & Bailey, 1997), teams are displacing people as the fundamental building elements of organizations. Collaboration was being taught as an important educational idea in schools to learn how to build professional abilities as part of an educational process. Likewise, managers define key professional abilities such as conflict resolution, communication, cooperation, and good interpersonal skills as vital requirements for the workplace. As a consequence, employers and managers are always on the lookout for individuals who can collaborate and work collaboratively as a necessary skill in every job.

Structure and Leadership

The team will not function if it could not agree on who is accountable for what and ensure that all participants shared the task. Managers or team members must offer direction and structure to agree on the specifics of work and how they will collaborate to integrate unique skills. Many pieces of research on effective leadership and team performance were performed. The distinction between transactional and transformative leadership was made by Burns (Forester & Clegg, 1991). Bucic, Robinson, and Ramburuth (Bucic et al., 2010) discovered that the leader influences the team and that the leader's leadership style (ambidextrous, transactional, or transformational) is important for team learning and performance. The capacity to establish a clear vision, the ability to comprehend corporate culture, the ability to concentrate on performance improvement, and the ability to promote innovation are all leadership characteristics that affect goal accomplishment (Gomez, 2017). Employee happiness and performance are also influenced by leadership styles. Members of the team who are satisfied with their job are more likely to seek out ways to make a meaningful contribution to the team's goals. A team's success depends on a transformational leadership style that is backed up by clear roles and responsibilities for members of the team. A effective leader will motivate, inspire, and encourage his team to achieve greater success. A team's structure plays an essential role in its success. Depending on Mickan and Rodger (Mickan & Rodger, 2000b), an organization develops two primary team structures to gain its objectives: project teams and functional teams. Functional teams seem to be in charge of various functions including finance and marketing, and they will be characterized as permanent members of the firm who are responsible for executing and achieving the company's objective as well as addressing major conflicts and issues. On the other hand, project teams are established to achieve specific objectives. They're temporary, and members of the team frequently return to their normal employment after the project is over.

Team Trusting

The concept of team trusting develops when team members believe in each other's competency and professional abilities. Depending on Rodger and Mickan (Mickan & Rodger, 2000a), there is a positive relationship between performance and trusting team. Team trusting can enhance teamwork's behavioral ideas and beliefs, empower people's personalities, and develop their abilities and talents. Employees' performance improves as a result of this magical ability. Although establishing a trustful work environment is one of the organization's key duties, each team member should be accountable for fostering the idea of trust with other team members. Comfortable feelings and the ability to cooperate amongst members of the team are critical for long-term success and high performance at work. The concept of cooperation can only be achieved when trust has become an essential component of the team's foundation. Trust creates a pleasant and healthy work environment where team members may openly discuss and offer any subject or idea without fear of judgment or condemned.

Performance Appraisal and Rewards

A performance evaluation is a systematic, continuous process that compares an individual employee's job performance and productivity to pre-determined criteria and organizational objectives. Performance evaluations are often regarded as a method of providing feedback and rewards for achieving performance goals, the majority that have previously been linked to motivation in research. In most businesses, employees are assessed without explicitly mentioning their team participation and bonuses and other incentives have been based on these individual assessments. Several employees operate in teams in reality, but their performance of the team may or may not be involved in their performance assessment (Brown, 2009). Individual achievements and team accomplishments must be included in yearly performance evaluations. The main emphasis of people working in teams, depending on Rabey (Rabey, 2003), was incentives and recognition. Managers should be designed and implemented an appropriate incentive structure for their employees and encourage them to participate in team initiatives. They should also be established team objectives linked to its strategic strategy, performance of employee development, and equitable payment systems (Manzoor et al., 2011). Reward and recognition, depending on Herzberg (1987), might offer both internal and extrinsic drives. Performance of employee is improved through recognition and incentives, depending on Dunford (1992). As a consequence, performance appraisals and incentives were recognized as important factors affecting performance of employee.

The Teams’ Effectiveness

Without a doubt, teams have a major effect on performance of employee and the institution's future. Depending on studies on the subject, the concept of teams is useful and beneficial in enabling organizational development and increasing performance of employee (Oseiboakye, 2015). Basically said, the primary goal of the collaboration is to utilize an effective technique to improve workers' occupational performance and their abilities and talents that support job needs. Bacon and Blyton (Hoque & Bacon, 2006) recognized two key elements that increase team members' communication abilities and improve teamwork: self-management team skills and interpersonal team skills. In their case of investigation on successful teamwork, Tarricone and Luca (Tarricone & Luca, 2002) define effective teams as follows: "Successful teamwork relies on synergistic influences occurring between all members of the team generating an atmosphere in which all members are have the ability to participate and contribute in encouraging and nurture a positive, effective team environment." Depending on many investigating, employees who work in teams are highly productive comparison with workers who working alone (Jones et al., 2007). Working in a group boosts an individual's productivity by allowing him or her to acquire or enhance essential professional skills via unrestricted learning, collaboration, and sharing of ideas and experiences. As a consequence, collaboration is an important part of a company's or institution's development and functioning.

Parameter Related to Teamwork

Creating a competent team is tough due to present technological challenges and increasing competition across industries. The many kinds of issues that have recently arisen as a result of advancements in all areas make establishing a strong cooperation structure in an organizational context more challenging. The most successful elements for resolving such difficulties in cooperation are positive communication, confidence, and good leadership. Forming a successful team is almost impossible without these components. The following elements are important in terms of collaborative competence and efficiency:

• Trusting among all team’s members.

• Preparation to participate in various discussions centered on concepts.

• Evolving the capacity to stick to choices and plans of action.

• Effective team structure and leadership, with clearly defined roles and duties for team members.

• Team members' performance should be evaluated properly, and exceptional work should be rewarded and recognized.

• Focus on gaining collective consequences.

Research Methodology

Kind of Research

This research is classified as descriptive research. A descriptive research method was utilized to examine the topic utilizing in-depth data and explain it from many perspectives.


The target populations for the investigation is the Directorate of Agriculture and the Directorate of Water Resources members in Babil Governorate.

Sample and Sampling Technique

The population of members in the Directorates of Agriculture and Water Resources in Babil Governorate has been sampled with 119 responses. The Directorate of Agriculture and the Directorate of Water Resources in Babil Governorate have been given questionnaires. Purposive sampling has been utilized to choose respondents depending on their knowledge of the topic under investigation. Convenience sampling was utilized to select respondents among workers, depending on the capacity and desire to participate in the survey.

Data Collection

The kind of data, sources of data, data collecting instrument, and data collection method are all listed here:

Type of Data

Since the answers to the questionnaire depended on a rating scale and can be ranked, ordinal data were utilized in this research.

Source of Data

The distributed questionnaires were utilized to gather primary data. This information was obtained from representatives of the Babil Governorate's Directorate of Agriculture and Directorate of Water Resources. Primary data were utilized in this research since it aids in the investigation of occurring on the ground and the suggestion of useful results and suggestions.

An Instrument for Data Collection

The primary tool utilized to gather the necessary data for the investigation seemed to be a questionnaire, which was also utilized to maintain the database's integrity and honesty.

Instrument Validity

In all areas of the investigation, the research has been intended to guarantee validity and reliability. It was verified that the participants had a clear comprehension of the questionnaire's questions.

Instrument Structure to Meet Research Objectives

Depending on the research goals, the questions in the questionnaire seem to have been basic and direct. The survey was straightforward to comprehend to allow the participants to give useful data to fulfill the study's goals.

Procedure for Data Collection

The necessary information was gathered from several workers at the Babil Governorate's Directorate of Agriculture and Directorate of Water Resources. Since surveys have been given to all respondents who have been readily available to the researcher, the convenience sampling method was employed.

Method of Data Analysis

In this research, quantitative data analysis has been utilized. In addition, correlation and ANOVA have been employed to determine the connection between the independent and dependent factors and the influence of the independent factors on the dependent factor (performance of employee).

Analysis and Interpretataion

The descriptive statistics for the demographic factors have been computed after they were analyzed. Correlation and multiple regression tests are utilized after descriptive statistics. as shows in Table 1.

Table 1
The Questionnaire That Has Been Created Including The Following Question
Administrative Position Director 6 Assistant Manager 7 Head of the Department 3
Head of
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