Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal (Print ISSN: 1096-3685; Online ISSN: 1528-2635)

Research Article: 2021 Vol: 25 Issue: 2

The Effect of Breaching the Psychological Contract on the Negative Behavior of the Workers of the Five-Star Hotels in Jordan

Hayel F Al-Serhan, Al-Bayt University

Ghaith N. Al-Eitan, Al-Bayt University

Tareq O Bani-Khalid, Al-Bayt University

Abstract

This study aimed at investigating the effect of breaching the psychological contract on the negative behavior of workers of the Five-Star Hotels in Jordan. The sample of the study was (249) workers of 12 five-star hotels in Jordan. The study was based on the following hypothesis that there was no statistically significant effect at the level of significance (α≤ 0.05) for breaching the psychological contract (transaction contract, relational contract, and balanced contract) on the negative behaviour of workers of five-star hotels. The questionnaire was used to collect data while the regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The arithmetic means were also used to contrast the responses. The findings of the study came as following (i) the breach of the psychological contract was directly related to the negative behaviour of the workers, (ii) the adherence to the psychological contract reduced the negative behaviour of the workers, (iii), and hotels do not care about the employees' future goals and aspirations.

Keywords

Jordan, Five-Star Hotels, Negative Behavior, Psychological Contract.

Introduction

Workers are considered one of the most important elements that distinguish the services provided by the organization (Akramovich, & Muratovna, 2019). Organizations focus mainly on the opinions of their customers, the quality of their product, and the provided service, so they support the affiliation of employees in general, and those who concerns with customer service management in particular. Those employees are considered an essential part of the organization's strategic options, whose role is to focus on customers and provide excellent service for them. The strong psychological contract will dominate the relationship between the employees and their organization (Chambel & Castanheira, 2012; Dong et al., 2018). The worker hopes that this non-codified agreement will make him\ her feel safe and stable in an organization that has all the elements of trust. Consequently, job satisfaction, the organization commitment and the qualified performance of the employees will be noted (Bal & Smit, 2012; Pawirosumarto et al., 2017). Despite the importance of the psychological contract between the organization and the worker, many business organizations build their relationship with workers base on the terms of a written or unwritten work contract (Wangithi & Muceke, 2012; Udin & Yuniawan, 2020; Hermawan et al., 2020). Otherwise, this leads to disputing between the two parties (the organization and its employees) which may produce a high rate of employees' turnover and a low rate of job satisfaction (Freese et al., 2011). In contrast, the worker who belongs to his\her work has high energy and can positively deal with the factors that affect his\ her professional and personal life (Schaufeli et al., 2008).

On the other hand, the negative behaviour of workers such as failure to use resources properly, theft, and verbal and physical abuse harm the organization. The reasons behind this behaviour are (i) the lack of confidence between the organization and its employees, (ii) Non-compliance of the organization with the employment contract. Thus, the negative work behaviours can be bad behaviour, aggression, and hostile work behaviour (Yang & Treadway, 2016; Goh & Kong, 2018). Studies discuss that positive behaviour is related to the employers' appreciation of their workers and their keenness to take care of them (Newman et al., 2011). Because the psychological contract is considered a modern administrative issue in the Arab environment, which has not been sufficiently studied, this study comes to show the role of the psychological contract in attracting workers to work at Jordanian five-star hotels and reducing their negative behaviour that comes from breaching psychological work. Accordingly, the problem statement can be shown more clearly through the following questions:

1. What is the level of breach of the psychological contract for workers of five-star Jordanian hotels?

2. What is the level of the negative behaviour of workers of five-star Jordanian hotels?

3. What is the effect of breaching a psychological contract on the negative behaviour of workers in Jordanian five-star hotels?

Literature Review

The Psychological Contract

The concept of psychological contract is one of the modern concepts of managerial thought so, few attempts define an accurate concept of the psychological contract, for example, Argyris, (1960) believes that the psychological contract is an explanation of the relationship between employees and their managers within the facility and it is a form of implicit understanding that goes beyond the written formal contract. Moreover, Levinson (1962) explains that there is a reciprocal relationship between the employer and the worker. While Rousseau (1989) confirms that the psychological contract refers to the individual's beliefs about the terms of the mutual agreement between the worker and the organization. Schalk & Roe (2007) discuss that the psychological contract is not fixed but rather flexible and can be changed over time. This leads to changes in the behaviour of workers, and this is the reason why there is no unified concept of the psychological contract, so everyone sees it from his\ her point of view, even if they all deal with expressions of promise, commitment, and expectations in their definitions (Dadi, 2012). Based on the above concepts, it can be summarized that the concept of a psychological contract means that the workers and the organization can get their rights if they follow the terms of the contract. This study adopted the following concept of breaching the psychological contract: it is an emotional reaction that results from the anger and disappointment of the worker due to the non-compliance of the organization to the terms of the contract.

Types of Psychological Contracts

Despite the difference and lack of clarity between scholars in defining a specific concept of the psychological contract, they agreed on the types of contracts mentioned by Rousseau (2001, 2004), these are: Transactional contracts: it is the mutual, and outright consent between two or more parties that determine the fundamental operating conditions of the relationship. It includes the employment procedures and arrangements that depend on a limited or short term period. This contract is based mainly on the economic exchange and the specified tasks of the worker that he\ she should do at a specific time in the organization. According to these contracts, the workers are concerned only with the material aspects which are served their interests and they do not have any ability to provide any additional service. Relational contract: it is also called cooperative contracts. It is unlike transactional contracts since it is based on long-term duration. It is characterized by the lack of clarity of tasks. Workers are obligated to support the firm, manifest loyalty and commitment to the organization. Balanced contract: this type is characterized by being concerned with the needs of the worker and the organization. Employment procedures and arrangements are opened, flexible and approved with the success of the organization. Thus, both workers and the organization participate in the process of developing each other. Workers are rewarded based on their role in achieving competitive advantage.

Breach of psychological contract

As a reaction to the non-compliance of the organization to the contract, the psychology of the workers and their emotion will be affected by the breaching of the contract. (Suazo & Stone-Romero, 2011). The breach of the psychological contract is negatively reflected in the behaviour of workers as a reaction to their feeling of betrayal by the organization. Ishaq & Shamsher (2016) summarized these reflections as following:

1. Emotional effects: these come in the form of offended, betrayed and angry feeling.

2. Directional effects: these come in the form of dissatisfaction and non-commitment.

3. Behavioral effects: these come in the form of silence, leaving work, vocal expression, and threats.

The relationship between breaching the psychological contract and negative behaviour of workers

Negative behaviors in the workplace have various forms such as absenteeism, late arriving, poor effort, sexual harassment, unethical decision-making, hesitating to follow manager's instructions, slowing of work, sabotage and the spread of rumours (Appelbaum et al., 2007; Mowafi, 2011). Therefore, the organization has to study the reasons behind the negative behaviours of the employees (Le Roy et al., 2012) Nobin & Gupta (2018) believe that workers have psychological contracts with their boss since the working interview and remain with them throughout their working in the organization. They expect that their boss will inform them about their duties and rights in the interview. If the psychological contract is implicit and not fully understood by both parties (the employer and the employees), the employees will have doubt and bad impression about their organization which leads them to engage in negative behaviours. Bies & Tripp (1996) argue that workers behave negatively at work due to several breaches of psychological contracts such as injustice, self-threat, mistrust and personal humiliation. Those workers will resort to adopt the negative behaviour and consider it a logical reaction to the breaches. Accordingly, the main hypothesis of the study can be formulated as follow

H0: There is no statistically significant effect at (α≤ 0.05) for breaching the psychological contract (transaction contract, relational contract, and balanced contract) on the negative behaviour of workers in fivestar hotels in Jordan.

Methodology of The Study

As it is one of the causal explanatory studies, this study used a descriptive and analytical approach that relies on studying the phenomenon. This approach includes the scholar interacting with society as well as a human which help them collect rich data on the investigated phenomenon (Khalid et al., 2017). Based on the research questions, this study used a descriptive and analytical approach. The tool for collecting data is the questionnaire and SPSS 20 is used to analyze the data which explain the relationships between the independent variable (the breach of the psychological contract), and the dependent variable (the negative behaviour of the workers). The questionnaire is designed based on (Sekaran, 2003), literature reviews, and the standards developed by researchers, which showed high reliability and stability. The questionnaire consists of three parts: The first part: includes the demographic information about the sample such as age, gender, experience. The second Part: contains (26) paragraphs to measure the impact of breaching the psychological contract. Various measures and studies used, such as Wangithi & Muceke, (2012), Rousseau, (2004) this part consists of three dimensions: the relational contract, the balanced contract, and the transactional contract. The third part: contains (15) paragraphs to measure the negative behaviour of the workers, which have been developed with the help of measures of (Gruys & Sackett, 2003; Robinson & Bennett, 1995). This part has two dimensions: the negative behaviour towards the organization, and the negative behaviour towards colleagues. The answers are divided into five levels in the questionnaire according to the five Likert scales, ranging from strongly agree which is given (5) degrees, agree which is given (4) degrees, agree with a moderate degree which is given (3) degrees, disagree which is given (2) degrees, strongly disagree which is given (1) degree: As for the levels adopted by this study to the mean of the variables to determine the degree of agreement, the researchers identified three levels (high, medium, low) based on the following formula: Length of Period = (Upper Limit Alternative - Minimum Alternative) ÷ Number of Levels (5-1) ÷3 = 1.33, so the levels will be as follows:(Low level from 1 to less than 2.33, Medium level from 2.33 to less than 3.66, and a high level from 3.66 to5). To verify the validity of the tool of data collection (questionnaire) and its reliability for collecting data, it is tested by a group of Jordanian university professors who are expert and specialized in the field of study. Based on their suggestions, some amendments are made. The reliability of the study tool is also verified by the reliability coefficient using Chronbach Alpha for all sub-dimension items of the field of study, as shown in Table 1. The above Table shows that all correlation coefficients are statistically significant at the significance level of α≤ 0.05 for all fields of study, which indicates that all fields of study are true for what they are designed for. The table also shows that the Cronbach alpha values are high for all fields, ranging from (0.838 to 0.906), and all the items of the questionnaire are (0.948) so that the questionnaire is in its final form and ready to be distributed to the participants. To ensure the validity and reliability of the study tools and data are collected, the following statistical methods are used:

Table 1 Reliability of Dimensions
Dimensions No. items Chronbach Alpha
Transactions contract 6 %83.8
Relational contract 8 %84.3
Balanced contract 11 %83.8
Psychological contract as a whole 25 %90.9
Negative behaviour towards the organization 7 %88.2
Negative behaviour towards people 8 %90.6
Negative behaviour as a whole 15 %94.8

1. Frequencies and percentages of personal and functional variables for the study sample.

2. Cronbach alpha coefficient and Pearson correlation coefficient to find the retest reliability for all fields of study.

3. Mean and (S.D of the responses for all fields of study.

4. Variance inflation factor (VIF) and Torrance.

5. Results of applying the multiple regression equation to study the effect of breaching the psychological contract (transaction contract, balanced contract, and relational contract) on the negative behaviour of workers in five-star hotels in Jordan.

Population of the Study

There are 47 five star hotels in Jordan (Al-Gharaibah, 2020). This study selects 12 hotels in Amman\ Jordan. These hotels are Radisson SAS Hotel, Sheraton Amman Hotel, The Regency Palace Hotel, Kempinski hotel & Resorts, Amman Marriott Hotel, Four Season Amman Hotel, Grand Hyatt Amman Hotel, Holiday Inn Hotel, Intercontinental Jordan Hotel, Le Meridian, Amman Hotel, Le Royal Hotel, Crown Plaza Amman. The population of the study consisted of all workers (2800) of 12 five-star hotels in Jordan,

Sample of the Study

Based on Krejcie and Morgan table (1970), the sample is 258 workers. Therefore, 25 surveys are distributed to each hotel. 262 surveys are received (% 87.3) and 249 are valid for statistical analysis, at a rate of 83% of the total distributed questionnaires as shown in the Table 2: Table 2 shows that the majority of workers in five-star hotels are males, as their percentage is (79.51%), while the percentage of female workers is low, at a rate of (20.481%). The researcher believes that this is due to the nature and culture of Jordanian society which does not accept this kind of job for females. The table also shows that the percentage of (39.35%) of the respondents are young people whose ages are less than (30), which indicates that five-star hotels are looking for young people to hire and train them so that they stay with them for a long time. while the age group (30 years - to less than 40 years old) occupies the second place in the ranking with a percentage of (32.93%) of the total sample, while the percentage of the age group from (40- to less than 50) is (40.09%). This group is the one whose children completed their high secondary school and joined the university. Consequently, they suffer from financial problems due to insufficient pension. Therefore, they look for a job that increases their income and improves their living conditions .Also, the authors note that there are only (9) workers over the age of (50) years who work in five-star hotels in Jordan. The reason behind a few old workers (9) is attributed to their ages are unsuitable to this kind of work since it needs strong people who can work for long hours and under pressures. It is also clear from the table that the majority of workers has (5 to less than 10 experience years), which constitutes (40.160%), then a group (less than 5 years), constitutes (32,128%), followed by a group (From 10 to less than 15 years) as it constitutes (21.68%), and a group (15 years or more), which constitutes (6.024%).

Table 2 Distribution of the Study Sample According to Variables
Variable Groups Frequency Percentage
Gender Male 198 79.51
Female 51 20.481
Total 249 100.0
Age Less than 30 years 98 39.35
30years -less than 40 years 82 32.93
40years-less than 50 years 60 24.09
More than 50 years 9 3.61
Total 249 100.0
Years of experiences Less than 5 years 80 32,128
5years-less than 20 years 100 40,160
10 years-less than 15 years 54 21,68
More than 15 years 15 6,024
Total 249 100.0

Questions of the Study

1. What is the level of breach of the psychological contract for workers in five-star hotels in Jordan?

The results in Table 3 indicate positive agreement for this variable at the mean level of the study sample, with a mean of (4.04), which is higher than the mean for assessing the levels of the responses of the sample. And a relatively simple standard deviation of (0.467), which gives a clear indication of the psychological contract variable for the study sample in five-star hotels in Jordan.

Table 3 Results for the Transactional Contract and the Balanced Contract Dimensions
Means and (S.D) for the transactional contract dimension
N Rank Items Mean SD Degree
1 3 The hotel considers the employee an important person to keep. 4.06 0.711 High
2 2 The hotel responds to employees' interests. 4.12 0.717 High
3 1 The hotel assigns the staff clear tasks. 4.14 0.750 High
4 6 The hotel appreciates the efforts and extra work of the workers. 3.79 0.647 High
5 5 The hotel provides training opportunities for employees to
develop them.
3.84 0.800 High
6 4 The hotel cares about the employee well-being 3.93 0.735 High
Total 3.98 0.541 High
Mean and (S.D) of the balanced contract dimension
N Rank Items Mean SD Degree
7 4 The hotel stimulates high performance. 3.97 0.698 High
8 2 The hotel applies standards of excellence. 4.12 0.613 High
9 1 The hotel provides all the work requirements. 4.18 0.629 High
10 3 The hotel allows employees to develop themselves. 4.10 0.769 High
11 7 The hotel provides training and education to meet the
performance requirements.
3.91 0.715 High
12 6 The hotel helps the staff improve their educational level and
obtain educational degrees.
3.92 0.723 High
13 8 The hotel helps employees build an external relationship which
may be exploited by them to find an alternative job.
3.84 0.671 High
14 5 The hotel provides privileges to the workers and their families 3.96 0.502 High
Total 4.00 0.462 High

Transactional Contract

The results in Table 3 indicate that there is an increase in the mean of the transaction contract dimension, reaching (3.98), and a relatively simple mean standard deviation of (0.541). Also, it is found that the mean is more than the statistical significance; which means that this type of psychological contract is very clear among the study sample. So, this type of psychological contract occupies the third rank between the sample in the aforementioned hotels. Among the most important items that contribute to enriching this variable is No (3) which states that (the hotel assigns employee’s clear tasks) with a mean of (4.14) and SD of (0.541), this is an indication of the clarity of the employees' tasks, thus alleviate the psychological and work pressures of the work. While the lowest percentage in this variable is for item No (4), which states that (the hotel appreciates the efforts and extra work of the workers with a mean of (3.79) and a standard deviation (0.647). This indicates that the hotel cares about what achieves its goals as an organization without caring for the workers and their desires. Thus it will negatively affect their morale, performance and behavior. The results in Table 3 points out an increase in the mean of the balanced contract dimension, which is (4.00), and the standard deviation is (0.462). We note that the mean is more than the level of significance which points out that this type of psychological contracts should be clear between the workers. The balanced contract regarding the study sample is the second rank between the sample in the aforementioned hotels. Among the items that contributed to the enrichment of this type of contract is No. (9), which states (The hotel provides all the work requirements), as it is ranked the first between the other items with a mean of (4.18) and a standard deviation (0.629), which indicates a discrepancy in the study sample answers. While item No. (13) is the lowest, which states that (The hotel helps employees build an external relationship which may be exploited by them to find an alternative job.) with a mean of (3.84) and a SD of (0.671), which indicates that the hotel does not allow any relationships with other customers or other organizations that the worker may find it an option or an alternative if he\ she finds a better offer. The results of Table 4 points out that the mean of the relational contract dimension is high, which is (4.15), and a SD is (0.399). It is found that the mean is higher than the level of significance, which means that this type of psychological contracts is clear and significance between the workers. This type of psychological contract occupied the first rank of the sample in the aforementioned hotels. Item No. (16), which states (The hotel rewards the employees who deserve). It is ranked the first with a mean (4.33) and a SD (0.692). This indicates the hotel’s commitment to reward the employees. While item No. (23) is ranked at the last which states (the employees feel that the hotel will fulfil its future duties to them) with a mean of (4.01) and the SD is (0.672). It explains that despite the hotel pays bonuses, but the employees have a feeling that the hotel will not fulfil its duties to them. As a summary of what is stated in the tables above, we can draw the following conclusions regarding the mean and (S.D) of the dimensions of the independent variable (the psychological contract):

Table 4 Mean and (S.D) of the Relational Contract Dimension
N Rank Items Mean SD Degree
15 7 The hotel provides job security and stability for employees. 4.10 0.570 High
16 1 The hotel rewards the employees who deserve it. 4.33 0.692 High
17 5 The hotel pays attention to its staff well-being. 4.15 0.580 High
18 2 The hotel seeks to strengthen the relationship between the
employees.
4.27 0.720 High
19 11 The hotel cares about its employees ’future goals and
ambitions.
4.06 0.632 High
20 4 The hotel provides a healthy, safe and risk-free work
environment for the employees.
4.18 0.587 High
21 3 The hotel assigns staff to tasks that suit their capabilities 4.26 0.614 High
23 12 The staff feel that the hotel will fulfil its future duties to them 4.01 0.672 High
24 9 Workers understand their duties towards the hotel. 4.09 0.589 High
25 10 Employees expect to increase wages or bonuses for their
performance and contributions to the hotel business
4.09 0.818 High
26 6 The hotel   pays   salaries   that   equal   the   efforts   of   the
employees.
4.11 0.599 High
Total 4.15 0.399 High

1. The mean for all dimensions of the psychological contract is (4.04) and the standard deviation is (0.467). The mean is higher than the default mean which examined the response levels of the study sample.

2. The relational contract is ranked first in terms of importance with a mean of (4.15), followed by the balanced contract, then the transactions contract.

What is the level of the negative behaviour of workers in five-star hotels in Jordan? Table 5 explains the analysis of the opinions of the workers, about the dimensions of the dependent variable (negative behaviour). The results are a negative agreement for this variable and the mean is (2,28), which is less than the default mean to assess the levels of the responses of the study sample, and a SD is (0.683), which is less than (1) according to (Hair et al., 2010). This indicates that the sample agrees with this result. Table 5 is a detailed description of the views and responses of the study sample on each negative behaviour dimension of workers in five-star hotels in Jordan: Table 5 shows that the mean of negative behaviours of workers is low (2.23), which is less than the default mean, and a SD is (0.705) which points out that there is a great agreement in the responses of the sample, as the values of the (S.D) are less than 1 according to what is suggested by Hair et al, (2010). The authors attribute this low result to the level of negative behaviour in the hotels. While item No. (33) states: (Ignoring the instructions and orders of the direct official is the highest mean (2.45), and a medium degree, and a standard deviation is (0.802), which shows no discrepancy between the responses. While item No. (27) which states: acquisition of business property without prior permission is the lowest, with a mean of (2.16) which is less than the default mean and a standard deviation of (0.931) which is less than (1). Thus, it indicates that there is honesty and sincerity between the employees of the hotels so that they do not take anything that belongs to the hotel without getting permission. Table 5 shows that the mean level of negative behaviours for workers towards their colleagues in the aforementioned hotels is low, as the mean for this field is (2.33), which is less than the default mean and a standard deviation (0.661), which indicates that there is a large agreement in the responses of the study sample, as the (S.D) is less than 1 according to (Hair et al., 2010). The authors attribute this low result to the level of negative behaviours of workers towards their colleagues at work due to the good relations between workers at the workplace, but it can be said that workers in those hotels have negative behaviour in their daily life. While item no. (41) Which states (insulting their colleagues at work) is in the first rank between the other items of the same field, with the mean (2.45) and a SD is (0.802), which indicates no discrepancy between the responses. As for item no. (35) which states (discussing confidential work issues with unauthorized people) is ranked the last of the items with a mean of (2.19) which is less than the mean and a SD (0.988) which is less than 1. This indicates a strong agreement between the responses.

Table 5 Results of Negative Behavior Towards the Organization and Colleagues at Work Negative Behaviour Towards the Organization
N Rank Items Mean SD Degree
27 7 Acquisition of business property without prior permission. 2.16 0.931 Low
28 4 Spending a lot of time on issues that is unrelated to work. 2.25 0.923 Low
29 3 Take a break during work more than the time allowed 2.26 0.870 Low
30 6 Late arrival to work without prior permission 2.19 0.988 Low
31 2 Presenting fake receipts or invoice to obtain additional funds 2.30 0.872 Low
32 5 Slow performing of the work 2.21 0.811 Low
33 1 Ignoring the instructions and orders of the direct official. 2.45 0.802 Low
Total 2.23 0.705 Low
Negative behaviour towards colleagues at work      
N Rank   Mean SD Degree
34 6 Drug and alcohol abuse at work. 2.26 0.870 Low
35 8 Discussing confidential work issues with unauthorized people 2.19 0.988 Low
36 5 Not achieving their full potentials and abilities to work. 2.30 0.872 Low
37 7 Delay in doing their job to get overtime wages. 2.21 0.811 Low
38 2 Rude joking with colleagues and disrespecting them. 2.45 0.872 Medium
39 4 An appropriate behaviour towards the colleagues 2.35 0.780 Medium
40 3 Creating problems when talking about sectarian issues and social
norms with colleagues.
2.44 0.869 Medium
41 1 Insulting colleagues at work. 2.45 0.802 Medium
Total 2.33 0.661 Low

Test Hypothesis

Table 6 shows that the values of the variance factor test for all variables are less than (10), while the value of the tolerance test for all variables is more than (0.05), therefore it can be said that there is no high correlation between the variables, thus, this indicates the absence of a statistically significant correlation between the independent variables mentioned in the (correlation) table, so, this supports the possibility of using them in the form, as what mentioned by Gujarati (2004). To answer this hypothesis, multiple regression analysis is performed as shown in Table 7. Table 7 clarifies the results of multiple regression analysis of psychological contract in the negative behaviour of workers in five-star hotels in Jordan. The correlation coefficient (R = 0.760a) explains a strong relationship between the dimensions of the independent variable and the dependent variable, and the value of the coefficient of determination is (R2 = 0.578) points out that 57.8% of the differences in negative behaviour are due to the existence of the psychological contract. While (42.2%) is due to other variables that are not included in the study. The (f) value for the regression analysis model is (111.96) with a level of significance (0.000), This points out that this model is valid for predicting the dependent variable (negative behaviour) through the independent variable, the psychological contract with its dimensions (the transactions contract, the relational contract, and the balanced contract). Accordingly, the main null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted, which states that “there is no statistically significant effect at significance (α≤ 0.05) for commitment to psychological contract (transaction contract, relational contract, balanced contract) on the negative behaviour of workers in five-star hotels in Jordan.” The table indicates that (B) value of the dimension of the transaction contract is (- 0.548), while (t) value is (-4.552) with a significance level (.000). This indicates that the dimension is significant and rejects the first sub-null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis which states that "there is a statistically significant effect at the significance level (α≤ 0.05) of the commitment of the transactions contract between the negative behaviour of workers in five-star hotels in Jordan." The negative (t) value also indicates that the relationship is negative, which means that when the commitment to transaction contract is increased in the hotels, the less negative behaviour among workers. The Table also shows that (B) value of the relational contract dimension is (-0.330), and (t) value is (3.095) with a significance level (0.002). This indicates that the dimension is significant, and rejects the second null hypothesis and accepting the alternative hypothesis which states, {there is a statistically significant effect at the significance level (α≤ 0.05) of commitment to the relational contract of the negative behaviour of workers. A negative (t) value also indicates that the relationship is negative, which means that the more the commitment of the relational contract in five-star hotels in Jordan, the less negative behaviour among workers in these hotels. As for (B) value of at the dimension of the balanced contract is (-0.370), while (t) value is (-4.552) with the level of significance (.000), which indicates that the dimension is significant, and rejectsg the third sub-null hypothesis and accepts the alternative hypothesis which states that there is a statistically significant effect at the significance level (α≤ 0.05) of commitment to a balanced contract in the negative behaviour of workers. The negative (t) value also indicates that the relationship is negative, which means that the more committed to the balanced contract in five-star hotels in Jordan, the less negative behaviour among workers in these hotels.

Table 6 Results of Multicollinearity Tests
Dimension Tolerance (VIF)
Transactional contract 0.38 2.633
Relational contract 0.317 3.157
Balanced contract 0.725 1.38
Table 7 Results of Multiple Regression Analysis of Psychological Contract
Model R R2 Adjusted R2 SEE Durbin-
Watson
Negative behavior 0.760a 0.578 0.573 0.436 2.072
ANOVA
Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Negative behaviour Regression 63.950 3 21.317 111.96 0.000b
Residual 46.646 245 0.190    
Total 110.597 248      
Coefficients
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized
Coefficients
T Sig
Negative behaviour Consistent B Std. Error Beta 23.498 0.000
Transaction contract 7.316 0.311   -6.597- 0.000
Relational contract -0.548- 0.083 -0.444- -3.095- 0.002
Balanced contract -0.330- 0.107 -0.228- -4.552- 0.000

Findings

The psychological contract is very clear between the workers in five-star hotels in Jordan. The hotel management does not take a good interest in appreciating the extra work efforts of the staff. 2. The hotel assigns a clear task for its employees which clarifies the required role of the employees, facilitates the performance of work and reduces mistakes. 3. The hotel provides all the necessary supplies and tools which makes the work easy for workers 4. The hotel does not help its employees build external relationships that the worker could exploit it to find an alternative job. 5. The hotel is obligated to provide the rewards that the employees deserve, which motivates them to double their efforts and provide high-quality services. 6. Hotel employees feel that the hotel will not fulfil its future duties to them; in addition to that, it does not care about the employees' future goals and aspirations. 7. There is a clear awareness between the workers of the five-star hotel about the relational contracts which focus on the human factors within the organization. This dimension is ranked the first of the sample. 8. Workers in five-star hotels in Jordan have a clear vision regarding a balanced contract that combines the advantages of a transaction contract and a relational contract, and this type of psychological contracts occupies a second place between the sample in the aforementioned hotels. 9. The mean level of practicing negative behaviours for workers in five-star hotels in Jordan towards the hotel in which they work is low. 10. The mean level of the negative behaviour of workers in five-star hotels in Jordan towards their colleagues at the aforementioned hotels is low. 11. The psychological contract in all its dimensions is positively related to the negative behaviour of workers in five-star hotels in Jordan. This means that the increased interest in implementing the provisions of the psychological contract contributes to reducing the negative behaviour of workers in five-star hotels.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Five-star hotels should commit to psychological contracts for employees and fulfil them because of their clear impact on reducing negative employee behaviour. 2. Five-star hotels should pay more attention to transactional contracts, that is, contracts relate to the financial gains of employees because they have a great impact on their personal lives and their families, which will positively affect their behaviour and their work in the hotel. 3. Hotels should focus on relational contracts, which are concerned with the human aspects of the lives of individuals. 4. Hotels should appreciate the employees' additional efforts to raise their morale and increase their loyalty. 5. Five-star hotels must be aware of the importance of the confidence of the employees which will contribute to their stability and satisfaction. 6. Five-star hotels must provide a state of compatibility by implementing psychological (spiritual) and transactional (physical) contracts.

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