Research Article: 2021 Vol: 27 Issue: 2S
Ahmed Abdulla Yousef Ahmed Alzaabi, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Ahmad Bashawir Bin Haji Abdul Ghani, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Mohammed R A Siam, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Organization Performance, Capacity Building, E-learning Training Programs, Dubai Police Force
The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating role of capacity building of Dubai police force between e-learning training program and organizational performance. For the said purpose, initially, detailed literature has been reviewed. After reviewing the literature, the ambiguities in the current available literature have been identified and new framework has been developed. The framework has been tested based on the established instruments and the data was collected from the employees of Dubai Police Force who have received e-trainings. Initially using SPSS 25 descriptive statistics have been measured and after ensuring the descriptive. Smart PLS 3 has been used to check the reliability and validity of the instrument and finally the proposed framework has been analyzed. The results of the data obtained from employees of Dubai police force revealed that e-learning and training program has a significant impact over organizational performance. Furthermore, the findings also revealed that capacity building of the employees mediates the relationship between e-learning training program and organizational performance. The findings have practical as well as theoretical significance as it opens the horizons of new research to be conducted by applying the same framework over different sectors and also guides the policy makers to work on capacity building of the employees.
The focus of the current study is to examine the impact of E-learning training program organizational performance on capacity building of Dubai police force. The performance of individuals as well as organizations increases with training Programs (Raymond, Bawa & Dabari, 2016). Whereas, in context of law enforcement agencies, employees and organizations both require to attain latest skills and knowledge (Northup, 2018).
Recently, an advanced training program i.e. E-learning Training Program has been applied in different sectors and different disciplines to facilitate the learning process among the employees and to enhance the productivity of the individuals as well as organizations in multiple ways (Belkhamza & Abdullah, 2019). Continuously, E-learning training programs are becoming integral part of the organizations with different work place settings (Yoo & Huang, 2016) and are subject to rapid technological advancements (Belkhamza & Abdullah, 2019). E-learning training programs became the standard procedure for enhancing knowledge and capabilities (Leal, 2009; Lin et al., 2019).
As through well-organized and properly designed E-learning training programs, organizations facilitate the employees to have access to superior quality contents and diversified information (Lin et al., 2019).
Although several organizations have changed their learning atmosphere for the workforce from conventional to electronic, there is still need to find out its significant impact on employees performance and satisfaction level (Belkhamza & Abdullah, 2019; Salas et al., 2012). This indicates a critical gap in existing body of knowledge among organizational interests and needs of the workforce (Belkhamza & Abdullah, 2019; Rodriguez & Armellini, 2013). Therefore, this study aims to inspect that how a well-organized E-learning training program can lead to building of individual capabilities and high-performance abilities which ultimately results into high organizational performance.
The officers working in Law enforcement agencies accomplish multiple tasks on routine bases, based on their ever-changing job responsibilities in different sectors i.e. Marine law enforcement, enforcement or marine law enforcement or police force etc. (Giovengo, 2016). Therefore, to minimize these risks, and to facilitate officers to handle these instant situations, multiple kinds of E-learning training programs have been applied (Giovengo, 2016). The training programs applied in Dubai Police force is an example of such E-learning training programs. Since last few decades, several technological developments can be witnessed in the profession of law enforcement (Northup, 2018) which appeared so rapidly and effected the employees as well as organizational performance.
These technological advancements resulted into a constant challenge to the law enforcement agencies to keep up with the changing requirements (Byrne & Marx, 2011). Therefore, every year millions of dollars are spent by law enforcement agencies in officers’ training (Byrne & Marx, 2011). On the other hand, a very limited research has been conducted to check the impact of training programs on the job performance of the employees who pass through such training activities and programs (Maurya & Agarwal, 2018). And to best of our knowledge no study up till now is available regarding the effects of E-learning training program applied in Dubai Police Force to train its personnel to deliver their best.
The importance of training is well realized by the organizations which are interested in attainment of competitive advantage over the other organizations by enhancing performance, and capacity of their employees as these qualities leads to best organizational performance (Illanes et al., 2018). According to (Ilyas, Kadir & Adnan, 2017) the effective training program positively influence both employees as well all as organizational performance. As suggested by Abdulhabib & Al-Dhaafri (2019) training of workers tend to increase their skills.
Numerous organization problem arises if the practices of capacity building fail to facilitate the employees and organizational needs (Breman, Giacumo & Boyes, 2019). Therefore, the attainment of satisfaction level of both employees as well as organizations is important by upgrading the knowledge, skills, attitudinal behavior etc. which together comes from an effective training program and e-training is one of such programs that facilitate all these needs and requirements.
Therefore, current study wants to analyze that what are the benefits of using a planned and organized e-training programs in contexts of employees as well as organizations. The Dubai Police Force has started an E-learning training program to enhance the skill, knowledge, abilities, capacity and performance of their workforce. Thus, in order to bridge this gap, the researcher is paying attention towards conducting a research study based on individual as well as organizational effects of E-learning training practices applied by the “Dubai Police Department” and will provide the recommendation to enhance the effectiveness of the E-learning training program.
The findings of the study would contribute to the prevailing body of knowledge related to the capacity building, organizational performance and e-training program used by the Dubai Police Force. Current study will result into multiple practical and theoretical contributions. As the importance of study is multifold. The research reveals the effects of e-training (E-learning) on productivity of both individuals as well as the department as a whole, capacity building of the policemen for law enforcement authorities to develop different strategies to tackle the problems and access the benefits of e-training. This study can be further applied as an input for further investigations in different contexts and in different countries related to their law enforcement agencies and other companies which are employing the e- training programs in order to test the effectives of such programs.
The main purpose of this section is to collect and compare the literature available with our proposed directions and actual practices of E-learning training programs and its effects on work force as well as on organizational productivity as a whole.
The notion of organizational performance is prevailing since years and has gone through several changes. Organizational performance is the level of accomplish of organizational objectives (Guevara, Hsu & Forrest, 2011). Organizational performance is organizational ability to perform efficiently and efficiently i.e. achievement of goals by utilizing limited resources (Guevara et al., 2011). Numerous conceptualizations of the organizational performance have been reported by many scholars in 21st century. Organizational performance is the capability of the organizations to satisfy the expectations of the stakeholders and attainment of competitive advantage (Omigie & Bosah, 2020).
According to Carton (2004), the organizations’ ability to use physical, human and capital resources to attain the maximum productivity level is the measure of organizational performance. (Ramamoorthy & Hunter, 2007) stated that the output of the organizational operations and achievement is termed as organizational performance. Whereas, (Antony & Bhattacharyya, 2010) conceptualized organizational performance as “a measure of how well organizations are managed and the value of they deliver to customers and other stakeholders” (p.43).
Sweis, et al., (2019) stated, organizational performance as a multinational construct and can be measured by various indicators i.e., satisfaction, quality effectiveness and performance. On the other side as far as government organizations are concerned, there are a lot of definitions related to organizational performance based on the interest of the scholars who seemed preoccupied with the identification and development of the construct over the years, yet in most of the government organizations there is no single measure of performance (Muterera et al., 2018).
Online learning or E-learning, instruct the trainees in various ways through web based podiums (Lin et al., 2019). Armstrong (2011) defined training as “the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning, which occurs as a result of education, instructions and development of planned experience” (p.15). In addition, many stakeholders or constituencies i.e. political leaders, citizens, interest groups, appointed officials and employees etc. are part of the government organizations who use multiple criteria of performance evaluation (Muterera et al., 2018).
Now a days further advancement occurred and organizational performance is linked with the attainment of organizational goals and objectives in long run, as organizational environment is becoming complex and full of obstacles to perform routine activities due to multiple reasons such as technological advancements, globalization, increased number of competitors and changing working conditions (Obeidat et al., 2019). From the numerous conceptualizations of the organizational performance, (Khalaf, Hmoud & Obeidat, 2019) concluded that organizational performance is comprised of many components i.e. structure of the organization, allocation of process and resources, business performance measures, strategic objectives, long term goals, company’s principles and values and reward structures etc. Finally, organization performance can be defined in terms of success of performing a particular task or function by group of people or organized teams (Masa’deh et al., 2018).
E-learning Training Program and Organizational Performance
Training is vital for the development of the employees and organizations and successful training programs are beneficial for both employees as well as employers of any organization (Yoo, Han & Huang, 2012). According to (Belkhamza & Abdullah, 2019) there are few noteworthy benefits of training programs such as enhancement of employees knowledge and increased organizational productivity.
MacDonald & Thompson (2005) found the significant impact of E-learning training practices on organizational performance during their research and talked about the significance of quality E-learning experiences along with their positive impacts on performance of the organizations (Raja, 2019). Emami, et al., (2012) stated that, training-based learning activities are very important to achieve positive outcomes to the organizations in the form of productivity.
Based on the reality that performance of the law enforcement agencies is very crucial for the security of any country, therefore effect of e-training on the overall organizational performance of the Dubai police force is very important to study. Scholars have recommended to include multiple criteria related to researches about performance of organizations (Jain & Moreno, 2015). Therefore, it can be said that Dubai police department is working to the same ideology and is continuously providing E-learning training facilities to its workforce in order to attain maximum achievement level which can enhance the departments’ performance as a whole.
Relationship of E-learning Training Program and Capacity Building
There must be a clear understanding to the organizations while conducting the training sessions that these training programs will defiantly lead to enhancement of workers abilities and expertise which are the basic job requirements with the passage of time and with technological advancements (Jones & Honorato, 2016). The individuals with more self-capabilities and confidence are the one who have the abilities to instantly learn the required skills for a particular job and those skills are not exclusively taught in many universities and can only be acquired through proper training sessions at workplace. Capacity building training programs are very important to be incorporated in order to bridge the gap of abilities and skill between professional experiences and academic instructions, whereas, training serve the purpose of building capacity in individuals (Jones & Honorato, 2016). The building of the capacity in individuals along with the identification of the need to further develop the new skills that may result into designing and achieving the new objectives is capability development (Jensen & Krogstrup, 2017). Adding to that, (Thirus, Starbrink & Jansson, 2016) stated that, well trained works are more capable an efficient in performing duties are more credible at personal as well as institutional level and results into successful people.
In a study conducted by Amd & Roche (2018), it was found intellectual skills are enhanced by the E-learning training sessions as they actually enhance the abilities of the individuals. Similarly, many studies shown that based on training relational skills are enhanced and as a result a positive impact on intelligence is left which ultimate results in enhanced individual capabilities (Amd & Roche, 2018; Cassidy et al., 2016; Hayes & Stewart, 2016). In another study conducted by (Dunst et al., 2018) it was found that respondents of the study commented that the E-learning training lessons are fruitful in capacity building of the individual workers. All these findings of existing literature indicate that E-learning training programs results in capacity building of the Dubai police force as these training programs are solely designed to enhance the internal capabilities of the officers and workforce in order to deal with any kind of uncertain situation or handle the risks.
Relationship Between Capacity Building and Organizational Performance
“Capacity building seeks to improve the performance of organization because capacity building is a system-wide, planned effort to increase cooperative performance through purposeful, planning and actions” (Nwankwo et al., 2017). According to (Melton & Meier, 2017), for organizations to be more productive and efficient there is need to build capacity as most of the organization cannot prosper because of lack of capacity building among their workforce. High capacity workers impart a very positive role towards organizational productivity whereas, the workers with low-capacity face many difficulties while developing and implementing innovations and are less adaptive towards change and less productive (Andrews & Boyne, 2010). In a study conducted by (Nwankwo et al., 2017) effect of capacity building activities on performance of multipurpose cooperative organization was studied in Osun state Nigeria. “To develop an economy, cooperative organizations have significant and substantial roles to play High-capacity workforce to reflect strong policy, program, and resource management allowing them to be adaptable, effective, and efficient” (Andrews & Boyne, 2010). Melton & Meier (2017) stated that, based on as an effective measure of effectiveness, capacity of individuals results into long term performance capabilities of the organization (Ingraham & Donahue, 2000).
Likewise, Meier & O'Toole (2002) also depicted that organizational performance is positively impacted by the quality manager same like the employees who are experienced, thus representing the fact that capacity in terms of quality is very productive for organizations. There are other multiple studies which focused on the importance of capacity of the individuals for the enhanced organizational performance (Yeoh, 2009). Similarly, empirical results of the (Lane, Salk & Lyles, 2001) showed a significant positive association between capacity building and performance. The results of the model presented by (Perlines & Araque, 2015) claimed that individuals innovative performance is positively linked with performance of the organization. Capacity building is the strength of the any organization as when employees are competent, they work for the betterment of the organization ultimately resulting into higher performance (Jensen & Krogstrup, 2017). The ability to perform is termed as capacity, and they ways and means to develop, enhance and strengthen capacity is known as capacity building (Gerard et al., 2019). Thus, keeping in view all these evidences, it can be said that capacity building is very important to manage sustainability, growth development, productivity of the organizations based on the understanding that performance is highly affected by the skilled workforce. Therefore, it can be said that for the excellent performance of Dubai police Department it is very important to build the capacity of the workforce so that they can contribute their best while performing multiple tasks and contribute words organizational performance as a whole.
Capacity Building as Mediator between the Relationship of E-learning Training Program and Organizational Performance
Study of the organizational performance is the back bone in the field of management and human resource management, therefor, researchers define and measure the concept of organizational performance with a broader range of theories and approaches developed over time by expert’s theorists (Andersen, Boesen & Pedersen, 2016; Lee et al., 2019). Marot & Dunn (2010), studied the effect of positive constructs on the capacity building in turn its impact on organizational performance and stated that a positive relationship exists between these variables but still effect of E-learning training program in those antecedents was missing. As this gap exist and it is very important to bridge the gap related to the effect of E-learning training program on organizational performance through mediating role of capacity building.
A research conducted by Jones & Honorato (2016) explained the importance of E-learning training programs on the capacity building of the employees to get best out of their abilities. Similar were the findings of the (Amd & Roche, 2018), who found that intellectual skills are enhanced by the E-learning training sessions as they actually enhance the abilities of the individuals. On the other hand, (Breman et al., 2019) studied the effect of capacity building on performance of the Non-For-Profit Organizations (NPOs) and Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) and found a significant positive correlation between the two constructs, thus, representing the importance of capacity building of the employees to enhance organizational performance. Regardless of the immense important to find out the actual association of the effect of E-learning training programs on the organizational performance through the personal characteristics like capacity building there are very few studies available on these three constructs in a combination (Breman et al., 2019). Therefore, researchers of current study tried to address it and ill conduct this study in context of Dubai police force to explore and prove this unique association based on the effective training program utilized by Dubai police force and police workforce capabilities to handle multiple difficult situations as well as the results of these learning actives which are very clear and evident from the success of Dubai police over the globe.
This section presents the fundamentals of methodology applied and the elements of research design of the current study. Quantitative methodology has been used in this research. This research focused on examining the impact of E-learning training program on capacity building and organizational performance of Dubai police force. This training program of E-learning applied in Dubai Police department was originated in 2009. As police workforce is encountered with numerous situations which are sometimes very critical to handle with quick decisions that may impart long last effects either positive or negative. Therefore, this research focuses on the understanding the effects of e-training by studying its impact on positive outcomes in context of Dubai police force.
For the said purpose Dubai Police force is chosen as population and constitute the sampling frame. Data has been collected from the Department of Dubai Police using non-probability sampling. Respondents were contacted via email and telephone and those people were contacted who had attended the E-learning training programs. Five-point Likert scale ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree was used for the measurement of all items. The questionnaire was distributed mainly through emails. All the questionnaires were translated into Arabic language in order to be more understandable for the respondents in their native language, to avoid any further ambiguities. After two weeks of initial contact, gentle reminders and follow-ups were made via telephone and email. Six hundred and ninety (690) questionnaires were distributed and the response rate of 75.79%.
A six item scale adapted from Karia, et al., (2016) was used to measure the E-learning training program of the Dubai police. Likewise, a six-item scale adopted from (Wood, 2016) was used to measure the capacity building of the Dubai police. Finally, Four items was adopted (June & Mahmood, 2011) measure Organizational Performance of the Dubai police.
For this study, descriptive statistics was used for demographic information of the respondents using SPSS 25. To analyze the results, SmartPLS3 was used to check the validity and reliability of the instrument and afterwards for testing the proposed framework. After collection of the data summaries of the demographic features of the respondents have been analyzed. These summaries can include the visual, i.e. “simple-to-understand graphs” as well as quantitative, i.e. “summary statistics”.
The demographic statistics of respondents showed that majority of them (77.8%) were males than females (22.2%). Sample depicts a good representative of the overall population of the study as shown in figure 2
Age distribution of the police workforce who participated in the survey showed that the ratio of the young participants in age brackets of 20-30 years (26.1%) and 31-40 (49.8%) years old is higher as compared the participants (18.1%) above 41-50 years of age. Whereas, only 5% respondents were above 50 years old.
As far as the educational qualification is concerned the results are mentioned in figure 4 which shows that 304 respondents had a high school qualification, 106 were having bachelor’s degree and very few i.e., 38 had master’s degree and about 8.4 % respondents were also qualified other than these three criteria.
In contrary to the age and qualification the experience statistics stated in figure 6 show that most of the respondents were well experienced i.e., 62.2% respondents were having experience of more than 10 years, for working in Dubai Police force. 12.6 % had a service experience of 7-10 years, 17% had been serving the Dubai police force since, 4-6 years and very few respondents were having least experience of 1-3 years.
Instrument Reliability and Validity
Validity is the extent to which a test covers what it aims to measure (Creswell, 1994). The “construct validity” refers to the extent of latent construct measure the underlying items (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). Tests of validity and reliability were performed to establish the discriminant validity amongst variables. Descriptive as well as correlational analyses were performed. To test the proposed framework, measurement and structural models were analyzed by applying different tests. According to (Chua, 2012) reliability of an instrument can be tested through Cronbach alpha. The reliability values start from 0.65 to 0.95 which popularly regarded as good reliability e.g.,=0.9 excellent, >0.8 good,>0.7 acceptable,>0.6 questionable,>0.5 poor and<0.5 rejected.
“Cronbach’s α” and “Composite Reliability (CR)” were calculated to assess the reliability of measures as per directions provided by (Henseler, Ringle & Sinkovics, 2009; Mansoor, Awan & Syed, 2020). Table 2 depicts the reliability of all the reflective measures on the basis of the values of Cronbach’s α (above 0.70) and CR. In addition, “convergent and discriminant validity” was assessed. As “factor loadings” of all indicator variables were => 0.70 with significant loading of each item (p<0.01) onto its underlying variable and “Average Variance Extracted” (AVE) of latent variables was above 0.50 for all study constructs, therefore, “convergent validity” was established (Hair et al., 2010).
Factor Loadings, Reliability, and Validity. “Note: Cr: Composite Reliability; Ave: Average Variance Extracted”
|Constructs/Indicators||Factor Loadings||AVE||CR||Cronbach’s a|
Along with factor loadings Henseler, Ringle & Sarstedt (2015) suggested that Heterotrait-Monotrait (HTMT) ratio is a more accurate measure of discriminant validity while using smart PLS which is further validated by many scholars (Mansoor, Fatima & Ahmed, 2020). As it is the rule that the value of HTMT ratio should be less than 0.9. In current study all 3 that all values were less than 0.9 for the entire model depicted below.
|E-learning Training Programs||0.812||0.809||-|
After ensuring the reliability and validity of the instrument Bootstrapping technique was employed to assess the structural paths. To test the model, 500 sub-samples were used. Overall model fitness or change in the model was measured by the Coefficient of Determination (R2). The results of the R2 show that there was a 76.4% change in organizational performance due to independent and mediating variables. It shows a good fit of model. R2 results also revealed that there was a 45.8% change in capacity building due the provision of e-learning training programs.
In Table 3, the results presented show the following: e-learning training program is positively and significantly related to organizational performance (ß=0.342**, t=4.864); e-learning training program is positively and significantly related to capacity building (ß=0.418***, t=4.970). Likewise, capacity building is positively and significantly related to the organizational performance (ß=0.141**, t=4.864). For analyzing the mediating effects indirect and positive effect of capacity building on organizational performance in the presence of e-learning training programs as a mediator was found (ß=0.157**, t= 3.123, p<0.010).
Thus, the proposed framework that Capacity Building of the police workforce mediates the relationship between E-learning Training Programs and Organizational Performance of the Dubai Police is supported by the findings of the study.
|H1||ELTP -> OP||0.343||5.67||0||Supported|
|H8||ELTP -> CAPB-> OP||0.157||3.123||0.01||Supported|
The framework of the study is supported, which shows that there is a significant positive impact of E-learning training programs conducted by the Dubai Police force over organizational performance and capacity building of the workforce mediates this relationship. The results regarding impact of E-learning training programs with organizational performance of the Dubai police department are in line with the findings of (Belkhamza & Abdullah, 2019) who stated that among the most prevailing benefits of the training is the enhanced organizational productivity.
In addition, scholars like Liu, et al., (2012); MacDonald & Thompson (2005); Emami, et al., (2012); Moradi, et al., (2018); Ko & Ko (2012) also supported the importance of training for achieving the long term productivity of the organizations based on the fact that performance of the organization is largely depend upon the human resource and if that human resource is well equipped with all the knowledge and skills via training programs the productivity is multifold.
The findings related to relationship of E-learning training program and capacity building of the Dubai police workforce are similar to the results of the (Jensen & Krogstrup, 2017; Jones & Honorato, 2016) based on the fact that training boost up the self-capabilities of the individuals and the individuals with more self-capabilities and confidence are the one who have the abilities to instantly learn the required skills. Adding to that many other scholars like (Amd & Roche, 2018; Cassidy et al., 2016; Dunst et al., 2018; Hayes & Stewart, 2016; Thirus et al., 2016) also supported the importance of training related to capacity building among employees. Thus, all the findings of the existing literature support our outcomes related to capacity building of the Dubai police force due to providing them proper training as these training programs are solely designed to enhance the internal capabilities of the officers and workforce in order to deal with any kind of uncertain situation.
Current research study findings about the relationship between capacity building and organizational performance are in line with the findings of other researchers, like (Andrews & Boyne, 2010; Gerard et al., 2019; Nwankwo et al., 2017) who asserted that for successful organizations there human resource needs to be more competent, knowledgeable and skilled and that can be attained by providing them with well-developed training programs at organizational level. Furthermore, (Ingraham & Donahue, 2000; Jensen & Krogstrup, 2017; Meier & O'Toole Jr, 2002; Melton & Meier, 2017) were of the same view that it is important for the organizations to keep in to consideration the best interests of their human resource so that they can perform at their best capacity leading to the organizational productivity and that productivity is the key of survival and sustainability of any institution.
Adding to that researchers conducted studies to explain the impact of e-learning training programs on capacity building (Amd & Roche, 2018; Jones & Honorato, 2016), who found that intellectual skills are enhanced by the E-learning training sessions as they actually enhance the abilities of the individual but unfortunately despite of the fact that all these three constructs are of immense importance still to the best of researchers knowledge no study till date has examined the mediatory role capacity building between the relationship of e-learning training program and organizational performance (Breman et al., 2019).
Based on that, the researchers of current study tried to address the gap in literature and conducted this study in context of Dubai police force to explore and prove this unique association based on the effective training program utilized by Dubai police force and police workforce capabilities to handle multiple difficult situations and the results revealed that e-learning training programs build capacity among employees which in turn result in the productivity of the Dubai Police organization.
Current study will result into multiple practical and theoretical contributions. As the importance of study is multifold i.e. The findings of the study would contribute to the body of knowledge related to the unique associations of E-learning training program and capacity building of the employees for gaining maximum organizational performance of the Dubai Police Force. Furthermore, theoretically this study will provide the guidelines for the scholars to further explore the underlying mechanism of capacity building in between the association of E-learning training programs and organizational performance especially in those organizations where the main power is human resource and that human resource is in direct contact with the customers. As in case of Dubai police the police officials are in direct contact with public to facilitate them in many usual and unusual situations.
Theoretically, this research is also very helpful for the students who can consider it as a reference to proceed with further research in this area. This study is equally important for the government bodies, policy makers and private organizations for provision of quality information to design and provide multiple e-training programs for different public and private, national and international organizations as well as institutions.
Practically, this will help the law enforcement authorities to develop different strategies to tackle the problems and access the benefits of e-learning training programs. This study can be applied as an input for further investigations in different contexts and in different countries related to their law enforcement agencies and other companies which are employing the e-learning training programs in order to test the effectives of such programs. Current study also updates the importance of conducting and attending the e-learning training sessions where the interaction among the peers can further result into exchange of ideas among them resulting into more knowledgeable workforce who can get benefit from the experiences of other fellows in order to handle the unwanted situations in a best possible manner and with least damage by providing an accurate solution on time.
Along with multiple strengths, there are certain limitations associated with current study, which needs to be addressed in future to have more insights about the proposed associations and intended benefits, first of all this study has employed a cross sectional methodology in which the data has been collected at one point of time from the police workforce, whereas, future studies can implement the longitudinal or time lag studies in order to have more generalizability of the results.
Secondly this study analyzed the data collected from all the police workforce rather than collecting the data from the supervisors for the evaluation or the job performance of the subordinate to have actual performance insights. So, future studies can collect the data from the immediate supervisors for the job performance of their subordinates in order to find out the actual performance or actual change in the performance of the subordinates after attending the e-learning training sessions. Therefore, the same model can be test empirically tested by collecting data from other organizations of different sectors, like banking sector, manufacturing sector and telecommunication sector etc. in order to check the impact of learning training programs on the overall organizational productivity through different underlying mechanisms.
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