Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal (Print ISSN: 1087-9595; Online ISSN: 1528-2686)

Research Article: 2023 Vol: 29 Issue: 4

The Effect of Green Entrepreneurship Education on the Aspect Towards Green Entrepreneurship through the University Community

Bouguesri Sarra, Hassiba Benbouali University

Kelleche Abdellah, Hassiba Benbouali University

Citation Information: Sarra, B., Abdellah, K. (2023). The effect of green entrepreneurship education on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship through the university community. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 29(4), 1-13.


This study aimed to analyze the impact of green entrepreneurship education on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship in the university community. It was based on the study and analysis of the opinions of a sample consisting of 264, divided between teachers and university graduates. After collecting and analyzing the data, the study concluded that there is a weak statistically significant effect of green entrepreneurship education on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship. This is a result to the weakness of education programs and teaching methods. So, the researchers suggest the necessity to support the aspect towards the green university in order to enhance the role of the university through the sustainable development process.


Green Education, Green Entrepreneurship, Green Entrepreneurs, Entrepreneurial Aspect.

JEL Ratings

I23, Q50, J24.


Education with its various categories and stages is considered an essential tool in guiding and preparing individuals as an effective power for the economic and social dynamism of societies. Therefore, today it attracted the attention of countries and various institutions in order to adopt it as a tool to achieve the transformation towards a green economy and eliminate various bad and destructive economic practices that are not constructive to the environment. Considering, in particular, the risks that threaten the environment and the creation of the idea of linking economic activities, it is necessary to depend on education as a tool to get rid of traditional economic practices. This supported the creation of a new classification of education called « green education ».

On the other hand, supporting entrepreneurship is an important choice to motivate the individual as a constructive and productive power in society. However, that choice had to adapt to the nature of the economic and social transformations in which different societies are proceeding. Hence, it was necessary to submit this field with its various activities to the relevant idea of transformation, i.e. towards supporting the green economy, rather than limiting it to traditional practices and activities.

As for the effectivity of the entrepreneurial personality for imposing constructive choices, it was important to go towards supporting green entrepreneurship instead of traditional entrepreneurship, which supports the idea of transformation towards a green economy. Therefore, it is possible to focus on entrepreneurs who have an environmental sense as a fundamental step for this transformation and an aspect for sustainable development.

Problem of the study

The problem can be constituted as follows:

What is the impact of green entrepreneurship education on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship in the university community?

The following sub-questions may be asked:

• Is there a statistically significant effect at the level of significance (α ≤ 0.05) for teaching green entrepreneurship on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship among university youth?
• Are there statistically significant differences at the level of significance (α ≤ 0.05) for the effect of green entrepreneurship education on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship among university youth due to personal variables?

Hypotheses of the study

In order to answer the problem of the study, we attempt to test the following hypotheses:

•There is a statistically significant effect at a significant level (0.05 ≥ α) for teaching green entrepreneurship on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship among university youth.
•There are statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05 ≥ α) for teaching green entrepreneurship on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship among university youth due to personal variables.

Objectives of The Study

The main objective of this study is to measure the impact of green entrepreneurship education on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship in the university community. Another objective is to specify how that effect occurs, based on measuring the impact of each of the green learning environment, teaching methods and education programs, as well as the effectivity of the professor on the green entrepreneurial aspect that is determined by the cognitive dimension, the emotional dimension, and the behavioral dimension.

Methodology of The Study

In order to measure the impact of green entrepreneurship education on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship in the university community, and to determine the characteristics of green education that supports the spirit of green entrepreneurship, the researchers depended on the descriptive analytical approach in light of the dimensions of the studied variables and analyzing the relationship between entrepreneurial education and the spirit of green entrepreneurship for the university student.

First: The theoretical framework of the study

I. Green entrepreneurial education:

Entrepreneurship education is an important choice in order to achieve development and resist the various economic and social challenges facing most countries of the world. It directly aims to develop the capabilities and skills of the individual that enable him/her to involve in entrepreneurship and qualify him/her to be a source of values. Also, entrepreneurship education aims to make students able to run their own projects through an appropriate course of study or an integrated program that goes beyond the idea of providing information (Jeanine, 2007). Moreover, it was considered as a total of educational activities and methods aimed at promoting the spirit of entrepreneurship within students and providing them with the skills necessary to establish their own projects (Slimanehind, 2010).

Hence, it refers to the various methods and programs of education that lead to the creation of effective entrepreneurial aspects among individuals. It is reflected in their ambitions and it raises their motivation for work, achievement and initiative. It consists of the various educational activities aimed at enhancing entrepreneurial thinking, behavior and skills, and also giving the student a set of entrepreneur traits and characteristics.

Accordingly, entrepreneurial education can be considered as various educational programs that are presented in distinct ways and methods. It aims at acquiring the student theoretical and applied knowledge, aspects and convictions in the field of entrepreneurship which help him to have the ability and desire to establish, manage and develop micro-enterprises. By promoting a spirit of initiative and development and a spirit of creativity and innovation, entrepreneurial education can contribute to enhance the students’ self-efficacy and make them confident, proactive and challenging individuals.

The concept of green education:

As for the urgent desire for transforming towards a green economy, higher education today should add to its priorities the goal of promoting an environmental sense within students who are supposed to manage the future economic activities.

Several schools became interested in developing this concept, such as the Global Foundation (FEE) that launched a sustainable school program in the world. It aims at forming environmental ambassadors around the world. Ireland has also adopted a national program for environmental learning based on environmental schools and a green education curriculum that integrates the following main topics: Waste, Energy, Water, Travel, Biodiversity, Global Citizenship (Iwan, 2017)

Green education includes enhancing the knowledge and convictions of individuals about the importance of protecting the environment and the various methods and techniques that contribute to that. Hence, this educational style differs from traditional education from several aspects, as explained by (Rao, 2016) through the following table 1:

Table 1
Comparison Between Traditional Education And Green/Sustainable Education
Traditional education Green/Sustainable education
Aspect towards profit only Community service, profit and environmental aspect
Teaching methods are outdated Modern teaching methods
Low demand for graduates Demand for green jobs is high
traditional curriculum contemporary curriculum
Using old technology Green technology is adopted
The environment is deteriorating The environment is upgraded

The green education model, according to (Rao, 2016), consists of three basic components, which are demonstrated through a form that embodies them in three stages and frequent steps through the following order:

• Creating awareness among the public to achieve sustainable development and the expected results if society fails to do so.
• Focusing on green education curricula by including the current knowledge and skills required in the green industry.
• Applying the green concept practically in both industry and society to maintain sustainability.

To apply this model actually, there is a need for investments with the need to reformat in all respects according to (Climate Literacy Network), which is demonstrated in the following points: (Ledley, 2009)

• Re-equip universities, institutes, research and training centers according to the nature of green schools
• Training and preparing the work power in fields related to the green economy
• Restructuring education at all levels and enhancing environmental education in order to provide students with a good understanding of the relationships between environmental, economic and social systems • Providing more environmental education opportunities for the ones who do not have access to education services
• Organizing public education programs to inform the public and develop a consumption culture in relevanceto environmental goals
• So, green education plays an important role in enhancing students' aspects and awareness of environmental issues. It contributes to increasing the awareness of individuals and societies about the basics of energy and climate and how to make decisions related to the environment (Tamara Shapiro Ledley, 2009).
• As for the topic of green entrepreneurship education, few studies have dealt with it, as it was defined as education that includes strategic training in order to educate individuals, communities and institutions about the role of green entrepreneurship through the process of sustainable development (Benjamin Anabaraonye, 2022).
• Based on the definition of green education and entrepreneurial education, green entrepreneurship education can be considered those curricula and educational programs that aim to create skills and intellectual abilities among students that make them enjoy the characteristics of entrepreneurial thought and an environmental sense at the same time. This thought includes the entrepreneur who bears the burden of solving and overcoming environmental problems. This is through combining the objectives of green education and entrepreneurial education, and is based on the following dimensions:
• The green educational environment that stimulates and helps for the spirit of initiative, perseverance and innovation.
• Educational programs that should contain special lessons to promote environmental awareness and entrepreneurship.
• Green teaching methods and means that enable students to stimulate the spirit of creativity, innovation and renewal.
• Qualified teachers who are able to arouse the spirit of initiative and develop an environmental sense among students

Green Entrepreneurship

Many approaches have emerged about the concept of entrepreneurship, including the descriptive approach that requires understanding the role of the entrepreneur in the economy and society based on economic analysis, and the behavioral approach that requires explaining the activities and behaviors of entrepreneurs according to their own circumstances. While the phased approach relied on temporal and situational analysis of personal and environmental variables which plays an important role in enhancing or disrupting the entrepreneurial spirit, it was considered as: the dynamic of creating and exploiting business opportunities by one or several individuals in order to obtain value (Michael, 2006).

Within the most important definitions given to the concept of entrepreneurship, there is one presented by Boyd and Vozikis, 1994, who considered it as a valuable, creative human action based on the exploitation of opportunities regardless of the lack of resources and capabilities. It is based on a vision, willingness and commitment to lead others towards achieving goals with readiness to fully assume risk and responsibility (Bose, 2012).Accordingly, the entrepreneur proceeds from his environment in which he sees opportunities and drives him to realize his ambitions, and does not argue with a lack of resources and capabilities, but rather has the ability and determination to overcome all obstacles, face risks and assume responsibilities.

As for the increasing interest relating environmental issues, feeling the importance of green economic activities and institutions of all types and sizes, and making them environmentally peaceful, the concept of green entrepreneurship emerged to complement and enhance the efforts of transformation towards a green economy, by making the field of entrepreneurship keep pace with the changes and developments taking place in the field of economy and society. This can motivate institutions to be a pioneer in preserving the environment and embodying the concept of sustainability, especially as it represents a large percentage of economic activities. Therefore, it is considered (Gibbs, 2012) that green businesses represent a major power in the comprehensive transformation towards a more sustainable business model, and thus it represents the motivating power for the establishment of a comprehensive and sustainable economic-environmental-social system, which is consequently not limited to environmental awareness. But it extends to social attitudes and practices, and thus it is a perfect field for the development of the green economy and the transformation of the nature of the capitalist system.

There are several studies that discussed the issue of entrepreneurship, but studies relevant to the field of green entrepreneurship were limited. The survey of various studies conducted in this field indicates that there is an agreement of views about this concept (Kumar, 2017). The first to use this term, Gustav Barle, in his book The Green Entrepreneur, considered it as: "investment opportunities that protect the earth and make money." A business chain based on innovation, formulation and implementation of corporate strategies to achieve environmental advantage and generate profit at the same time (Haldar, 2017). While Robert Hall distinguishes between green business enterprises that require to achieve the greatest amount of profits by seizing green investment and marketing opportunities, and green social enterprises that require to promote green, environmentally friendly ideas, products or technologies and turn them into business projects.

The aspect towards green entrepreneurship at the present time represents a difficulty and a challenge, but it has opened new marketing and investment opportunities for entrepreneurs, due to the resulting investment fields, such as investment of the field of waste recycling, renewable energies, green technology and other environmental issues and problems that require treatment. Green entrepreneurship has many aspects based on two main dimensions: green product and green processes. It was illustrated by Stuti & HaldarIndira in the following figure 1:

Figure 1: Components Of Green Entrepreneurship
Source: (Stuti Haldar, 2017, 710)

The concept of the green entrepreneur

The concept of the green entrepreneur refers to the person who has the same characteristics, traits and ambition as the ordinary entrepreneur, but he has a high level of sense and environmental awareness, where the main difference that distinguishes the green entrepreneur from the traditional entrepreneurism that the green entrepreneur wants to create a model. This model is considered a business that is economically profitable, environmentally conscious and creates social value, i.e. it combines economic, environmental and social objectives at the same time. It represents that economically and socially active person who plays a major role in transforming ideas into reality by adopting business projects that involve a certain level of risk and destructive creativity which overcomes and solves environmental problems in society and enhances competitiveness (Haldar, 2017). It has been defined as a person who targets market opportunities at his best, and successfully offers his innovative products and services in accordance with the principle of environmental protection (Dixon, 2007). It is based on the establishment and management of a project designed to face an environmental problem or satisfy a specific need.

The green entrepreneur is not every person who invests to face environmental issues from a purely economic standpoint, or is committed to protecting the environment in compliance with legal and marketing requirements. Rather, he is the person who enjoys an entrepreneurial spirit and an environmental sense at the same time, which makes him creative and innovative in the environmental field, and effective economically and remarketing.

What should be noted is that there is a difference in the level of entrepreneurs’ convictions to adopt and defend environmental issues, and then the type of behavior that they can be characterized under certain economic and social conditions, which in turn are characterized by diversity and change (Taylor, 2003). Therefore, by identifying four types of green entrepreneur, based on two types of personal and external influences, there was a matrix that depends on two dimensions: the personal aspect of the entrepreneur, which changes from the economic aspect to the sustainable aspect, which carries pressing ethical and environmental values, and the dimension of variables environmental, which extends from weak or soft influences to strong influences, and this was clarified by the following figure 2:

Figure 2: Green Entrepreneurvarieties
Source: (David Taylor, 2003, 11)

The above figure shows four types of green entrepreneur, according to personal aspect and environmental influences, as follows:

1. Innovative opportunist:

He is the entrepreneur with an economic aspect, that is, who focuses on economic standards and goals in performance, but strong environmental conditions force him to integrate environmental choices within his activity. He takes advantage of marketing opportunities in the environmental field to make them a source for his profitable commercial activity. What is remarkable in this category, thanks to his innovative capabilities, the innovative opportunist can easily integrate into societal changes and aspects, which impose environmental choices on economic activities, but it cannot continue to gain an environmental competitive advantage away from the saturation of values. In short, companies that have come to realize the necessity of greening are strategically integrating it into their relationships with sustainable market opportunities, compared to those that pretend to incorporate greening only into their management processes (Muo, 2019).

2. The Visionary hero:

He is the person who proceeds from his personal convictions with a sustainable environmental aspect, to discover marketing and investment opportunities, defying environmental difficulties and obstacles in order to embody his personal vision.

3. Ethical dissident:

This entrepreneurism characterized by moral and environmentally peaceful personal convictions and values, which have a motive towards establishing marginal business and economic activities, i.e. outside expectations and familiar, so that they comply with environmental aspects and standards. In this context calls the green entrepreneur the as “innovator”. Disturbing, in which established business models and user expectations are replaced and transformed. This is a vision that is somewhat consistent with Schumpeter’s view of green entrepreneurship as a “creative destruction process” in which the entrepreneur creates new products and processes that challenge traditional methods (Schaltegger, 2002).

4. The spin-off green entrepreneur:

That is, by chance, a profit-driven green entrepreneur who is guided by economic goals rather than personal values and convictions, making environmental choices under the pressure of soft environmental powers such as friends, family, and the cultural and social backgrounds that surrounds him/her.

Aspects towards green entrepreneurship:

The aspects, as Thompson views it, are the best indicator for judging voluntary behaviors on the basis of the idea that any studied action is preceded by the intention of performing a behavior (Thompson, 2009). Its concept, some of them know it on the basis of individual decisions, while others know it on the basis of intellectual readiness, while others go to consider it a mixture resulting from an interaction between psychological characteristics and the experience gained by the individual, as it was considered by Krueger (1993) as an individual tendency that involves the individual’s intention to start a new commercial project in the future. As it was defined as an organizational desire to find and accept new opportunities, it is related to the decision to start a new project (Bose, 2012), and the intention to undertake this project precedes the decision in itself. It is defined also as: an intellectual state in which the individual tends to find a new facility or value under certain conditions (Yvon, 2002), as these aspects are affected by several factors ranging from psychological, social, cultural and economic. The entrepreneurial education plays a prominent role in building and directing it, as confirmed by some Studies conducted in this field.

As a result, the aspect towards green entrepreneurship can be considered as those tendencies and desires that characterize a person and make him take a positive attitude towards green entrepreneurship, and his personal willingness to engage in this field, driven by the desire to achieve economic goals and a commitment to environmental and social values. So, there are three identified dimensions of the aspect towards green entrepreneurship: the economic one, the social one, and the environmental one.

2. The field study

2.1. Methodology of the field study:

This study aims at measuring the impact of green entrepreneurship education and the aspect towards green entrepreneurship in the university community. A sample of university youth (students and graduates) were selected, consisting of 264 belonging to five universities, after 32 forms could not be retrieved and 8 were canceled because they were not suitable for study.

The questionnaire depended on collecting the students’ opinions and attitudes towards entrepreneurship, which included two dimensions: one of them is green entrepreneurship education, which consists of twenty questions, and the second dimension is about the attitude towards green entrepreneurship, which in turn consists of fifteen questions. The Likert scale was used to measure the strength of statements.

The researchers measured the questionnaire’s stability by using the Krumbach’s alpha coefficient, where its value was 0.79, which indicates the relevance of the questionnaire’s statements stability and clarity with the dimensions related to it.

2.3. Description of the study sample:

The following table 2 shows the method of distributing the study sample according to the general variables of gender, age, educational level, and division.

Based on the data of the above table, we note that the distribution of the study sample members was variable according to personal variables, according to gender. We note that the percentage of females controls the percentage of males, but according to the age variable, the group under 30 years of age is the controlling group. As for the educational status variable, we note that the percentages of students are greater than the percentage of graduates.

Table 2
Distribution Of The Study Sample According To Personal Variables
Variable Feature Frequency Percentage
Sex Mention 96 36.36%
feminine 168 63.64%
Age under 30 years old 152 57.58%
From 30 years and over 112 42.42%
Educational Status Master student 176 66.67%
graduate 88 33.33%

1. Analysis of the results of the study:

The following table 3 shows the average answers of the study sample members for each variable of the study:

Table 3
The Arithmetic Mean Of The Answers Of The Study Sample Members
The dimension SMA standard deviation Degree
Green entrepreneurship education 3.57 0.321 Average
The aspect towards green Entrepreneurship 3.28 0.623 Average

We note from the above table that the result of the study sample’s response to the first dimension of entrepreneurial education in all its paragraphs recorded a result of 3.57 as an arithmetic mean. It means they view that green entrepreneurship education at the university is relatively average, as it occupied the fourth paragraph related to theoretical knowledge on the subject of entrepreneurship. The highest value indicates the adequacy of theoretical education on the subject of entrepreneurship compared to applied education. Finally, the paragraph related to lessons on renewable energies and green technology was mentioned. This indicates the lack of interest in education programs for promoting the aspect towards awareness concerning the importance of using renewable energies and green technology.

As for the result of the response of the study sample members to the second dimension, which is the aspect towards green entrepreneurship among university students, a result of 3.14 was recorded as an arithmetic mean. It means that their attitude towards green entrepreneurship was average. This percentage varies from one paragraph to another, where it ranked first in the fifth paragraph related to tendencies towards associations and initiatives for environmental protection. The last rank was given to the second paragraph related to measuring the extent of students' interest in news of environmentally friendly companies.

Testing The Hypotheses Of The Study

Testing the first hypothesis: The hypothesis is as follows:

« There is no statistically significant effect at the level of significance (α≤ 0.05) for green entrepreneurship education on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship in the university community. »

The test results were as follows in table 4:

Table 4
Results Of The First Hypothesis Test
Sample Sum of squares Degree of freedom Mean squares The calculated F value Significance level
Deviation 4,427 1 4,427 17,807 000b
The error 31,729 263 243 - -
The total 36,156 264 - - -

Consequently, there is a weak positive, statistically significant effect of green entrepreneurship education on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship among university youth, at the morale level of 0.000, which is less than 0.05. This indicates the significance of the results for the relationship between the two variables (Table 5).

Table 5
Estimation Of The Study Model
Sample B Standard Deviation Beta T Sig
Constant 6,129 474   10,846 000
Entrepreneurial education 617 146 342 4,220 000
Sample R  correlation coefficient The coefficient of determination-R-DEUX Corrected determination coefficient
Standard error of estimation  
Entrepreneurial education 442 195 191 49244  

Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis that indicates the existence of an effective relationship between green entrepreneurship education and the tendency towards green entrepreneurship among students at the statistical significance level 0.05. According to the relevance between them, we can measure the significance of this relevance and estimate its model as follows:

Obviously, the correlation coefficient reached a value of 0.442, and the coefficient of determination reached a value of 0.195, which is a weak value. It indicates that only 19.5% of the change in the aspect towards green entrepreneurship at the university is caused by the green entrepreneurship education approved by the university. While the rest of the percentage is due to other variables outside the model, as factors Socialization represented by family, friends, traditional and electronic media, in addition to personal characteristics.

According to the results of this study, which dealt with the problematic of the impact of entrepreneurial education on the green entrepreneurial aspect in the university community, it confirms the weakness of this education for several reasons, in terms of the accredited programs and their integration between the theoretical and practical aspect, teaching methods. The system still depends on the traditional methods and means based on memorization, with limited field visits and student interaction with the reality of entrepreneurship. Also, the third aspect is related to teachers and their effectiveness for communicating and interacting with students, communicating knowledge to them and achieving the required persuasion and direction.

The reasons for the weak relationship between entrepreneurial education and the student’s aspect towards green entrepreneurship can be explained by the weak activities of entrepreneurial education with its various dimensions. The universities did not pay much attention to green education, in terms of adapting programs, teaching methods and the institutional environment to be suitable to apply this type of education.

Testing the second hypothesis:

The hypothesis is as follows:

« There are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (α≤ 0.05) for the effect of green entrepreneurship education on the aspect towards green entrepreneurship in the university community due to demographic variables. »

The results of the test were represented in the following table 6:

Table 6
Results Of The Second Hypothesis Test
Variable Value f SIG
Sex 147,837 000
Age 2,844 095
Educational status 35,718 000

Considering the educational status variable: the differences were in favor of students in the case of schooling with an average of 3.76 compared to 3.11 for graduates. This indicates that the master students who are in the case of study are more affected by the green entrepreneurship education than the students who graduated This can be explained that the latter group is exposed to factors ,others after graduation, such as facing job requirements and various social influences, as the longer the period of time after education. So, the entrepreneurial aspect of the university graduate is exposed to change.


This study discussed the issue of entrepreneurship education directed towards supporting green entrepreneurship in the university environment. The researchers analyzed the dimensions of entrepreneurship education and green education, and its importance for supporting environmental awareness among the university community and its effectiveness for influencing future choices. The researchers also analyzed the dimensions of green entrepreneurship and its basic principles. They demonstrated the characteristics of the green entrepreneur and its importance for applying the transformation towards a green economy.

Practically, the researchers evaluated green entrepreneurship education, and measured its role for supporting the aspect towards green entrepreneurship through the university community. So, the following results were concluded:

• Green entrepreneurship represents an essential power for the transformation towards a green economy and environmental protection, due to the entrepreneur's pioneering role and social and economic position in society.
• The personality of the green entrepreneur has an environmental sense and awareness in addition to the characteristics and advantages of the traditional entrepreneur, that is, the one that combines environmental awareness with pioneering work.
• The study proved the weakness and limitations of the approved green education programs, which weakens their contribution and role for supporting the transformation towards a green economy.
• There is a weak aspect among university youth towards green entrepreneurship.
• The weak contribution of green entrepreneurship education for supporting the aspect towards green entrepreneurship through the university community. In light of giving the weak interest in the green educational environment, the choice of simple and traditional teaching methods, there is a need to focus on education programs for supporting the green aspect among students because of the weak influence power of teachers and their lack of focus for developing students' environmental sense.

In conclusion, it can be informed that improving the effectiveness of the university for supporting the process of sustainable development and integrating it into the national goals can be achievable by promoting the aspect towards the green university, which focuses on the following:

• Accrediting green spaces and energy-saving techniques,
• Adopting educational programs that support students' environmental awareness and sense and enable them to acquire skills to face environmental issues.
• Adopting interactive teaching methods.
• Targeting the development of environmental awareness and awareness among the university student, as it is the leading power that can reinforce the economic activity in the future.
• Updating the programs and teaching methods to keep pace with and support the transformations and new directions of the country.
• Enhancing knowledge and applied skills in the field of entrepreneurship through supporting field training.


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Received: 27-March-2023, Manuscript No. AEJ-23-13656; Editor assigned: 30-March-2023, PreQC No. AEJ-23-13656 (PQ); Reviewed: 13-April- 2023, QC No. AEJ-23-13656; Revised: 02-May-2023, Manuscript No. AEJ-23-13656 (R); Published: 30-May-2023

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